workstation-imaging by liaoxiuli

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									Workstation Imaging
          for
   Student Networks
         using
  Novell Zenworks 3.2
   Novell Netware 6.0

   Monash University
        2003
Presentation Overview
This presentation is divided into three major parts
   1. Network Deployment Methodology
   – Current network environment at Monash
   – Broadcast, Multicast and Snooping
   2. Workstation Disk Image Management
   – Contents of Disk Images
   – NDS containers and objects
   – Zenworks scripting
   3. Future Developments
Part1: Network Deployment
• Current Network Environment at
  Monash
  – What has changed
  – What is changing
• Broadcast and Multicast
  – Multicast Snooping
  – Delployment Basics
  – Typical Lab
Changed Network Environment
• Netware 4 and IPX on the way out

• Netware 6 and IP only networking

• Novell Zenworks 3.2 sp1 with
  –   Zenworks Image Deployment with scripting
  –   Remote Boot PXE option
  –   Wake On LAN
  –   Remote Control options
  –   Workstation Inventory Database
Opportunities
• IPX could only broadcast disk images
  – Everybody suffered
• IP allows multicast
  – Network not configured to differentiate
    between broadcast and multicast
  – All mass deployment tools have multicast
• Integration of workstation management
  tools through Zenworks
  – deployment, remote control, inventory, etc.
Network Enhancements
  Micros and NIS have been testing two
  new services to enhance delivery of
  disk images.
 – Multicast Snooping
   To prevent the multicast of a disk image to
   deluge all ports on a subnet in the same
   way a broadcast does
 – Proxy-DHCP via IP Helper Address
   To forward requests for remote boot
   information
Why Multicast Snooping?
   • Multicast is designed for routed networks
      – Workstations join a multicast group dynamically managed by
        the router
      – The router only forwards the multicast traffic to the subnets
        where there are workstations that joined the group
      – All workstations on a subnet see the multicast as broadcast
        traffic

   • Ethernet switches normally ignore
     multicasts
      – Ethernet switches associate an address with a port
      – Deliver traffic addressed to a workstation only on the port it
        is connected to
      – Broadcasts and Multicast are delivered to all ports because
        the switch does not know which workstations really need it
Multicast Snooping On

• The ethernet switch monitors which stations have
  joined a multicast group

• Multicasts for the group are only sent to the
  switch ports where a workstation has joined

• Ports where no workstation joined are not
  deluged with the multicast traffic

• Users on the same switch port will still get all the
  traffic
Multicast Snooping at Monash
• Currently there is not a great deal of
  experience at Monash with multicast
  snooping (expect refinements).
• Multicast sessions across multiple ports
  occasionally drop out.
• No reduction in core network bandwidth
  usage.
• Certainly prevents multicast sessions from
  flooding adjacent ports.
• Best used within a single port of 10 shared 10
  ways (hub attached to a switch port)
Typical Lab Setup
• Typical lab has 3 strings of
  workstations attached to hubs
• Each hub less than ten workstations
• Unicast to one workstation on each of
  the switch ports
• Multicast from each of the unicast
  receivers to all of the workstations on
  the same port
• No multicast across switch ports
 Unicast from Server to Masters

 Image Server




Script from the server deletes all partitions except Zenworks,
downloads Linux, creates NTFS partition for windows (XP
or 2K), then downloads syspreped windows files.
   Multicast from Masters to Clients

  Image Server




Script from server initiates multicast session from fully prepared
workstations to the remainder on the same switch port. At
completion each station reboots and the syspreped windows
images do a self install.
Part 2: Workstation Images

•   Image Delivery Steps
•   Image Structure on Workstation Disk
•   Imaging Operations
•   Workstation Registration
•   NDS Containers and Objects
Image Delivery Steps
Install Zen Imaging Partition
   – Boot from CD or floppies and select install option
     (this wipes all other disk partitions and data)
Server based rules select image script
   –   IP Addresses (as entered in Addhost)
   –   Zenproxy configuration
   –   Disk Size
   –   Must match the motherboard
Script can contain many commands
   –   Repartition remainder of disk
   –   Download Linux and/or Windows image(s)
   –   Make local copy
   –   Join a multicast session
Workstation Disk Image Structure
 Workstation Disk
                       Partition Layout
                    P0: Zenworks Imaging
                       50Mb small, 4Gb large (can hold
                          compressed images)

                    P1: Linux Monolithic (optional)
                       3Gb self contained image

                    P2: Windows NTFS
                       4Gb minimum size, to remainder of disk
                       Starts before cylinder 1024
                       Use P1 if no Linux
Zenworks Imaging Partition
  Zen
            Install Zenworks Imaging Partition
  CD
             Choose size of partition based on the size of the
                disk. Either 50Mb or 4Gb Zen partition.
            To hold a compressed image of Windows or
                Linux about 1-2Gb is required. Smallest
                Zenworks partition to hold images will be
                about 4Gb. Since smallest Linux is 3Gb
                and Windows is 4Gb, the smallest disk to
                hold local images is 11Gb. Anything
                smaller than that must be refreshed from
                the server and will have a 50Mb Zen
                partition.
            Configuration on disk specifies a Zenproxy
                server from which the workstation will
                extract its imaging instructions.
Standard Imaging Operations
             Initial Workstation OS Delivery via
                 the Network
             Delivers disk image to workstation from the
                  imaging server(s). (40 – 60 minutes)
             This operation delivers desired combination of
                  disk partitions according to the imaging
                  script which must be compatible with the
                  hardware.
             LINUX12.ZMG encompasses known purchases
             WIN2K-06.ZMG base image that suits most P3s
             Addon Images for CompaQ, Intel, MicroPro,
                 HP VL400, etc.
Standard Imaging Operations


             Local Save of Windows Image
             Compresses disk partition image of Windows
                and stores it on the Zenworks partition as a
                file. (10 to 15 minutes)
             This operation makes it possible to save the
                  completely setup and installed operating
                  system and local applications ready for
                  quick restoration if corruption occurs. (see
                  next slide)
Standard Imaging Operations


             Local Restore of Windows Image
             Decompresses disk partition image of Windows
                 on the Zenworks partition and writes it to
                 the NTFS partition. (10 to 15 minutes)
             This operation makes it possible to restore the
                  previously completed setup and installed
                  operating system with all local applications
                  ready for use.
Standard Imaging Operations


             Multicast Master
             Delivers whole disk image of multiple
                  partitions to other identical workstations.
             This operation sends out current combination
                  of disk partitions to workstations set up
                  by their scripts to be multicast clients
                  with the same session name.
             Master:
Workstation Registration
First run of Linux does a self configure
  – If workstation is in Addhost
  – Updates delivered by configuration server


First run of Windows runs Setup
  – Loads and configures device drivers
  – Establishes IP address and DNS name
  – Registers workstation object in NDS
NDS Containers and Objects
   • NDS Tree has containers for each distinct
     management group
   • Container names conform to well known
     abbreviations use in DNS
   • ConsoleOne is the tool for managing
     workstation images and image scripts
NDS Containers and Objects
     • Within each Faculty/Division there is a
       set of standard objects and containers
     • Two containers for specific imaging
       objects and operations
        – Imaging scripts are held in the image
          container
        – Workstations, Workstation Groups and
          Policies are held in the workstation container
     • Two roles with different rights
        – Image-managers
        – Workstation-managers
     • Directory Map object to denote location
       of image files.
Image Objects
Scripts to carry out operations
Managed by Image-Managers Role
Sample Scripts
  –   Create Partitions
  –   Download Dual Boot Linux/Windows
  –   Local Save
  –   Local Restore
Workstation Objects
• Workstations and Workstation Groups
  and managed by Workstation-Manager
  role.
  – Login as Local Administrator
  – Profile not deleted on logout
  – Associate applications to workstation groups
• Workstation Policies are managed by
  the Policy-Manager role.
  – Assign printers
  – Set Client Configuration
 Part 3 Future Developments

Not all services are currently implemented

   – Remote Boot PXE
   – Workstation Inventory
   – Removal of Netware Client
Remote Boot PXE
• PXE stands for Preboot eXecution
  Environment
• PXE is the IP version of remote boot
• Works across routers
   – Requires Proxy-DHCP and TFTP servers
   – Monash trial implementation used router IP Helper
     address (expect improvements before production)
• Can allow all Zenworks imaging operations
   – Without Zenworks partition on the workstation
   – Requires rules (IP address, Disk size) to select
     image if workstation not in NDS.
Workstation Inventory

Plans drawn up
No implementation schedule
Netware Client Removal



This feature coming with Zenworks 4
Further Information
• Help within ConsoleOne
• Novell Website access
Workstation Management

            for
     Student Networks
           using
     Novell Zenworks

     Monash University
          2003

								
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