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					                                         Guidelines
                                     for United Nations
                                  Environment Programme
                                          Websites

                                        Revision D, 10 April 2006
                                        UNEP-DCPI / Internet Unit




This document is largely based on proprietary information of the United Nations „Technical guidelines for United
Nations Internet Publishing‟ (22 July 2003). It was adapted for the use of the UNEP website by DCPI/Internet
Unit.
Information contained in this document is to be used solely for the purpose submitted, and no part of this
document or its contents shall be reproduced, published, or disclosed to a third party without the express
permission of the United Nations Environment Programme. The guidelines are also available online:
http://www.unep.org/policy/web.doc/.




   Date Modified: 11 April 2006                     Page 1 of 27                           Web Guidelines UNEP
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.     PURPOSE..................................................................................................................................................... 3

2.     GOALS AND TARGET AUDIENCES ........................................................................................................... 3

3.     RESPONSIBILITIES ..................................................................................................................................... 4

4.     GENERAL GUIDELINES .............................................................................................................................. 4
     4.1        GENERAL W EB PAGE ELEMENTS .......................................................................................... 5
     4.2        ESSENTIAL W EB PAGE ELEMENTS ........................................................................................ 7
     4.3        COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER ............................................................................................... 9
5.     SPECIFIC GUIDELINES............................................................................................................................... 9
     5.1        DIVISIONAL OFFICES ............................................................................................................ 9
     5.2        REGIONAL OFFICES ........................................................................................................... 10
     5.3        OUT POSTED OFFICES ....................................................................................................... 10
6.     CONTENT GUIDELINES ............................................................................................................................ 11

7.     INSTITUTIONAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING UNEP WEBSITES ......................................................... 12

8.     MULTILINGUALISM ................................................................................................................................... 13

9.     TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES ....................................................................................... 13
     9.1        W EBSITE MAINTENANCE..................................................................................................... 14
     9.2        W EBSITE VERSION CONTROL ............................................................................................. 14
10.         ANNEXES ............................................................................................................................................... 15
     10.1       ANNEX A: GUIDELINES FOR W EB STATISTICS..................................................................... 15
     10.2       ANNEX B: RESPONSIBILITIES AND SERVICES OF THE DCPI INTERNET UNIT .......................... 17
     10.3       ANNEX C: TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................... 18
     10.4       ANNEX D: W EBSITE PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION ........................................................... 19
     10.5       ANNEX E: DCPI INTERNET UNIT ........................................................................................ 20
     10.6       ANNEX F: UNEP W EBSITES MOST CONCERNED BY GUIDELINES......................................... 21
     10.7       ANNEX G: DOMAIN NAMES................................................................................................ 23




     Date Modified: 11 April 2006                                           Page 2 of 27                                             Web Guidelines UNEP
 1.    PURPOSE
       The purpose of the „Guidelines for United Nations Environment Programme
       Websites‟ - which are based on the „Technical guidelines for United Nations Internet
       Publishing‟ (Version: 22 July 2003) - is to provide a framework for the creation and
       maintenance of United Nations Environment Programme websites. To ensure a
       high degree of usability, performance, consistency, and design, website developers
       should follow the guidelines, taking into account all aspects of design, content,
       infrastructure, and maintenance. In order to ensure the UNEP corporate identity is
       consistently projected, no website shall be launched without prior approval by the
       DCPI Internet Unit, to confirm it adheres and conforms to the guidelines.
       The guidelines should not be viewed as static set of rules and regulations, as they
       will be updated periodically to reflect the evolution and growth of the United Nations
       Environment Programme websites, the underlying technology, and the Internet
       itself.
       Please send comments to: Head Internet Unit, UNEP - DCPI.
       The World Wide Web Consortium W3C (www.w3.org) is considered the
       international body for setting web standards. W3C develops interoperable
       technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the web to its
       full potential. All UNEP websites should adhere to the W3C recommendations.


  2. GOALS AND TARGET AUDIENCES
       The goals of the UNEP websites are to:
           distribute and disseminate substantive environmental information;
           offer a global perspective on the environment;
           raise awareness and educate users on organizational information such as UNEP
            objectives, structure, environmental issues, activities, and efforts.
           provide the medium to maintain and enhance the organization‟s visibility and
            promote its ideals.


       The www.unep.org website has a global audience, which includes, but is not limited
       to:
            Government officials, policy makers, and intergovernmental agencies;
            Scientists, academics, experts, and students;
            Non-governmental organizations and civil society representatives;
            Private sector institutions and businesspersons;
            Journalists and media;
            Children and youth.
Date Modified: 11 April 2006               Page 3 of 27                     Web Guidelines UNEP
            The regional and out posted offices, divisions and units have specialized primary
            audience(s), which must be taken into account to accommodate their specific
            needs.


3.          RESPONSIBILITIES
            The United Nations Environment Programme website is the result of the
            collaboration of several groups. The Division of Communications and Public
            Information (DCPI) - more specifically its Internet Unit - is responsible for UNEP‟s
            corporate web services, including the corporate design, information / data
            management, and UNEP headquarters technical support.
            This lead function of the DCPI Internet Unit involves guiding the organization in the
            development, management, and maintenance of the UNEP Headquarters site(s)
            and providing the framework and guidelines to the entire organization on how the
            web effort will be managed to ensure coherence, uniformity, and consistency. The
            divisional, regional, and out posted offices all fall directly under this umbrella (see:
            Annex F: UNEP Websites Most Concerned by Guidelines).
            Content input on UNEP websites is to be completed using a flexible system. The
            DCPI Internet Unit has the lead in the presentation and management of the
            corporate site www.unep.org and the divisions based in Nairobi. Input by the
            divisional, regional, and out posted offices is done through a focal point appointed
            by them. In several cases, the sub site is managed by a UN Volunteer based within
            DCPI premises.
            DTIE maintains a separate mechanism in light of its out posted location, but
            adheres to the same guidelines. Some regional and out posted offices also maintain
            common but distinct arrangements.


     4.     GENERAL GUIDELINES
            The appearance of United Nations Environment Programme websites should be
            easily recognizable and user-friendly. Though differing in content and focus,
            websites must ensure continuity with a consistent “look and feel” in the presentation
            and format of information. Users should be able to immediately identify the website
            as part of the UNEP family. Content should be presented under a United Nations
            Environment Programme umbrella striving to minimize divisional and regional
            boundaries.
            United Nations Environment Programme websites must allow easy accessibility for
            users at locations with limited Internet connectivity. Content providing parties need
            to make sure that all new pages are developed, to the extent possible, in conformity
            with acceptable standards pertaining to access by persons with disabilities.



     Date Modified: 11 April 2006               Page 4 of 27                      Web Guidelines UNEP
            For issues on browser compatibility, page formats, images, audio and video,
            navigation elements, text version, etc. it is recommend that reference is made to the
            World Wide Web Consortium W3C.

4.1         General Web Page Elements
      (a) Page presentation should be uncomplicated, with judicious use of graphics, yet
          attractive.
      (b) The navigation should be clear and used in a consistent manner. The information
          on the site should be structured in such a way that users find what they are looking
          for in the most efficient way.
      (c) All pages should be consistent in style. Uniformity in page shape, background, type,
          font, and sizing is required. This can be achieved by creating templates and style
          sheets throughout the site.
      (d) The chosen font and size should work properly in any browser used (Arial/Times
          New Roman/Verdana for PC; Times/Helvetica for MacIntosh).
      (e) Documents should be organized so they may be read without style sheets. For
          example, when an HTML document is rendered without associated style sheets, it
          must still be possible to read the document.
      (f)   Foreground and background color combinations should provide sufficient contrast
            when viewed by someone having color deficits or when viewed on a black and white
            screen. Plain-color backgrounds should be used.
      (g) All information conveyed with color should also be available without color.
      (h) Simplicity is favored over complex elements that may not work (or take long to load)
          on slower connections and older browsers. Elaborate presentations should offer an
          easily accessible text only version to users with slow Internet connections and older
          browsers. Large navigational images on top level pages are discouraged, as users
          who cannot load the image will not be able to access the site.
      (i)   Pages should still be usable when scripts, applets, or other programmatic objects
            are turned off or not supported. If this is not possible, equivalent information should
            be provided on an alternative accessible page.
      (j)   It is recommended that UNEP web pages should be less than 55KB in size (20KB is
            preferred), including graphics (web pages should load in 2 – 3 seconds on average
            56K connections). If this is not possible, alternate pages should be created for
            slower connections and older browsers.
      (k) The homepage and all sub site homepages should fit the screen (screen size 640 x
          480)1. All pages should be designed with stretch layouts that will adapt to screen
          size without losing appeal and usability.
      (l)   All pages should appear centered on the screen.

1
  The 640 X 480 screen size should be amended to reflect recent technological advances. This point will be further
discussed with all webmasters and focal points and amended in the Guidelines when consensus is reached.
    Date Modified: 11 April 2006                    Page 5 of 27                           Web Guidelines UNEP
 (m) All images should have an image title for browsers that display text only or have
     images turned off (img tag attribute “alt”).
 (n) Images should not exceed the following sizes:
           Highlights – W 70 X H 50 (4 KB)
           In focus – W 110 X H 70 (10 KB)
           Photo gallery – W 350 X H 260
 (o) Links to .pdf files should have notations of file sizes. Size of .pdf file should not
     exceed 512 KB. Files larger than 512 KB should be split by chapter or topic into
     smaller manageable files. If this is not possible, they should be hosted on a
     separate FTP site.
 (p) All UNEP publications sent for printing should be sent to the DCPI Internet Unit for
     web publishing at the same time, in acceptable .pdf format, as per the “UNEP
     Publishing Policy and Guidelines”.
 (q) Maps, graphics, and drawings should be in .gif for images with highly restricted
     colour ranges, .jpg or .png for images with extensive colour ranges, or .pdf format.
     These should all have appropriate alternative texts. They should include the
     following elements:
           a) Copyright
           b) Scale bar
           c) North arrow
           d) Country boundary disclaimer
           e) Legend
       In addition maps should be checked for colour contrast with reference to the
       common forms of colour blindness.
       Reproduction quality maps should be provided as a link with an indication of
       document size and file size, for example A2 - 3.4 MB.
       Static maps on websites should be provided as thumbnails, maximum 150 x 150
       pixel size. Linked to these can be higher resolution versions up to 200x1500 pixels.
       Interactive maps should be a maximum of 1000 x 800 pixels and ideally around 400
       x 350 pixels.
       To allow overlays the maps should have transparent backgrounds.
 (r)   All file names should be descriptive of the content and must not contain spaces or
       special characters.
 (s) Usability testing is highly recommended. The designs and navigation pages should
     be “user-tested” using various focus groups (at least three), to get comments and
     feedback about a site design, its style, its functionality, and management before its
     launching. Testing should be conducted on at least three different browser
     platforms.
Date Modified: 11 April 2006                Page 6 of 27                   Web Guidelines UNEP
             2
       (t)    A search engine should be accessible from all web pages (Google or UNEP
             based). The Search box should be incorporated into the UNEP banner. It should
             be located on the right, either in the central part of the banner – if no image is
             present, or in the bottom bar of the banner (see Image 1 and Image 2).
       (u) Links from United Nations Environment Programme websites to external websites
           should open in a new window.
       (v) Scripts must be developed to ensure that equivalents for dynamic content are
           updated when the dynamic content changes.
       (w) Metadata to add semantic information to pages and sites should be provided. Sites
           should be registered with various search engines. This requires the metadata to be
           included for indexing and searching. Information should be tagged with controlled
           vocabulary metadata to enable powerful searching and browsing.
       (x) Mouseovers are not recommended since they are not supported by all browsers.
       (y) Horizontal scrolling and frames are not recommended.
       (z) Information about the general layout of a site should be provided (e.g., a site map or
           table of contents).


4.2          Essential Web Page Elements
       (a) The banner at the top of each page should be made up of 3 elements (each one
           should be a separate include file):
                     At the top, a horizontal navigation bar that incorporates the main menu of
                      www.unep.org (see for example: http://www.unep.org/NewsCentre).
                     In the middle, a central horizontal bar, with the United Nations Environment
                      Programme emblem on the left side, in the allowed colours (black, white,
                      cyan) and in good resolution. The logo should be followed by the text “United
                      Nations Environment Programme”. The current motto “Environment for
                      Development” should be below it. The official logo should be downloaded
                      from: www.unep.org/webresources/logo. The logo should be clickable and
                      lead to www.unep.org, as all sub sites should incorporate a link back to
                      UNEP‟s homepage. The right side should be used for the search box or an
                      image, if so desired (see Image 1).
                     At the bottom, as the final element, the banner should include the name of the
                      division, unit, regional, or out posted office. It should also include the search
                      box on the right side, if it was not included in the middle portion due to the
                      existence of an image (see Image 2). Please see exceptions to this guideline
                      in the “Specific Guidelines” Chapter 5.




2
    This item will be further discussed with all focal points and webmasters.
      Date Modified: 11 April 2006                         Page 7 of 27              Web Guidelines UNEP
 (b) The text in the banner should use Arial (Helvetica or sans serif) font. The font size
     should be:
              18 pixels for the title “United Nations Environment Programme”;
              16 pixels for the name of the regional, divisional, or out posted office;
              11 pixels for the menu of the navigation bars (top, left, and bottom navigation).
      The size can be reduced to make a sentence fit on one line.
 (c) To facilitate navigation there should be a breadcrumb immediately below the banner,
     on the left side, on all pages except the home page. The breadcrumb trail shows the
     user‟s location on the website relative to its hierarchical structure.
 (d) Every page should have a short and clear introduction.
 (e) The right hand side of the initial page for the site may include a space for any
     important event, feature, publication, or activity to be brought into focus or highlighted
     by the divisional, regional, or out posted office. These should be included under the
     headings:
                In Focus
                Highlights
      and could be text, icons, or images that link to other pages.
 (f) Each site should have a left aligned vertical menu that will include as the first item:
                Home – A link back to the initial page of the site for all pages but the
                 homepage.
                About…
       The menu should then incorporate all navigational buttons for the particular website
       and end with (as necessary):
                Publications
                Related Links
                Contact Us.
 (g) The footer at the bottom of the homepage should include the Privacy Policy, Terms
     and Conditions, (copyright and link to the main disclaimer page at:
     http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=289&ArticleID
     =3447#disclaimerr) and a Site Index or Site Map.
 (h) Every UNEP website must clearly identify the United Nations Environment
     Programme office responsible for the site and provide generic contact information.
 (i) UNEP staff members e-mail addresses should not be shown. Instead a feedback
     form should be used that does not disclose the underlying e-mail address, preventing
     staff members from receiving undesired spam e-mails.
 (j) Key information, including icons for alternate language versions, should be
     immediately visible without scrolling down.
Date Modified: 11 April 2006                   Page 8 of 27                      Web Guidelines UNEP
      (k) All text pages should have a printable version, regardless of all superfluous design
          elements including tables, colours, fonts, sizes, style sheets, etc.
      (l) Hypertext should be used to split up large amounts of information
      (m)Almost all text should be left aligned (left justified).
      (n) All CAPS should be avoided for text.
      (o) Underlining should be reserved for hyperlinked text only.
      (p) Fonts large enough to read should be used. To ensure consistency in font size,
          colors, and types throughout the site, style sheets should be used (taking 4(e) into
          consideration).
      (q) Websites should strive to be multilingual.
      (r) Icons for alternate language versions of web pages should be visible immediately
          when the page loads, without scrolling down, and should be arranged in English
          alphabetical order, i.e. Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish, using
          the appropriate language for each.


4.3         Copyright and Disclaimer
           UNEP content providers are encouraged to include a link to copyright notice and/or
           disclaimers, available at http://www.un.org/copyright.htm.
           It is advised to include the following disclaimer for external links on the website:
           “This site may contain links and references to third-party websites. The linked sites
           are not under the control of the United Nations Environment Programme, and the
           United Nations Environment Programme is not responsible for the content of any
           linked site or any link contained in a linked site. The United Nations Environment
           Programme provides these links only as a convenience, and the inclusion of a link or
           reference does not imply the endorsement of the linked site by the United Nations
           Environment Programme.”


5.          SPECIFIC GUIDELINES
           UNEP divisional, regional, and out posted offices have individual needs over and
           above those identified for UNEP headquarters websites. Some specific guidelines
           apply to these offices.


5.1         Divisional Offices
      a) The divisional homepage should include a short write up about the Division‟s
         activities.
      b) The divisional homepage should contain a link to the UNEP home page
         www.unep.org.
     Date Modified: 11 April 2006               Page 9 of 27                      Web Guidelines UNEP
      c) The divisional homepage could include a map with geographic locations of the
         offices. For example see the DRC website at: http://www.unep.org/DRC/.


5.2       Regional Offices
      a) The regional office homepage should include a short write up about the Regional
         activities.
      b) The regional office homepage should contain a link to the UNEP home page
         www.unep.org.
      c) The regional office homepage should include a map of the region. This map should
         be obtained from UNEP headquarters.
      d) The regional office website should contain country profiles for countries served by the
         region.
      e) The regional office web pages could use the bottom horizontal menu of the banner
         for their own regional menu items to be propagated through the website (see Image 1
         and Image 2), although this is discouraged because of limited space for expansion.




                                               Image 1




                                               Image 2




5.3       Out Posted Offices
      a) The out posted and liaison offices homepage should include a short write up about
         their activities.
      b) The out posted and liaison offices homepage should contain a link to the UNEP
         home page www.unep.org.


  Date Modified: 11 April 2006               Page 10 of 27                   Web Guidelines UNEP
      c) The out posted and liaison offices homepage could include a map illustrating the
         geographic location of out posted and liaison offices.


6.          CONTENT GUIDELINES
           All UNEP divisional, regional, and out posted offices are responsible for developing
           and editing content for their home pages and sub pages in conformity with
           organizational mandates, secretariat policies, and departmental strategies in
           compliance with the guidelines.
           The process for content development and management for UNEP websites should
           comprise of the following steps:


            1. Analysis & Research
                     Needs Analysis:
                           o Identify the purpose for which the client needs to develop a website
                             (dissemination of information / archiving / reference / interaction).
                           o Identify the target audience, user profiles, and needs.
                     Content Analysis:
                           o Review and evaluate the information and resources already available
                             either on line or submitted for web use.
                           o Identify information gaps, the means of filling these gaps according to
                             the identified needs and, later, according to the agreed structure.
                     Research:
                           o Identify areas of information that need to be supplemented with further
                             research, to fill information gaps.
                           o Identify whether research should be undertaken by the client or the
                             content developer.


            2. Development of site architecture (structure & navigation)
                     Based on the analysis and research, develop the site architecture,
                      comprising the main structure and navigation.
                     Identify the structural levels at which the information will be presented; each
                      level may expand into logical and cohesive sub-levels.
                     Navigation should draw on cohesive relationships between units of
                      information in an intuitive and logical manner.
                     Collapsible context-sensitive menus should be used as the main navigational
                      tool.

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                     Throughout the process of content development, the question of: “What is
                      UNEP doing in this specific area?” should remain in focus.


            3. Assembly, editing, writing, presentation of material
                     The above processes should be carried out with a view to allow for user-
                      friendly and web-oriented presentation of information through: scanability,
                      consistency, cohesion, succinctness, coherence, and conciseness.
                     Clear and simple language appropriate for the site's content should be used.
                     Content intended for media other than the web, should be edited or rewritten
                      for web publishing. The unabridged versions of data should be made
                      available for download in separate files, in .pdf format.
                     Metadata information should be included in the document. Documents
                      should be tagged to allow for better internal and external searchability.
                     For the purpose of scanability, the use of short paragraphs, subheadings,
                      and bulleted lists should be considered.
                     The “UNEP Publishing Policy and Guidelines” should be followed when
                      preparing text for publishing, hard copy or electronic.


            4. Maintenance
                     It is the responsibility of the focal points to keep the site updated through an
                      agreement with the DCPI Internet Unit.
                     Content should be monitored and updated by divisional, regional, and out
                      posted offices focal points on a regular basis.
                     DCPI Internet Unit reserves the right to remove any outdated or obsolete
                      content and websites from www.unep.org.


7.          INSTITUTIONAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING UNEP WEBSITES
            UNEP divisional, regional, and out posted offices should inform and consult DCPI
            Internet Unit as follows:
      (a) at the planning stage, before a new site is created;
      (b) before a current site is substantially re-designed;
      (c) before major enhancements are introduced to an existing site;
      (d) prior to the deployment of all websites, at both headquarters and away.


           The DCPI Internet Unit requests prior consultation for the following reasons:

     Date Modified: 11 April 2006                  Page 12 of 27                     Web Guidelines UNEP
      (a) to be able to plan and make available appropriate server and network resources that
          may include, but are not limited to, firewall protocol amendments, DNS configuration
          changes, and server-side programming environment modifications;
      (b) to assess the impact of new website technologies and / or the impact of significant
          website size increases on the UNEP website infrastructure, including possible
          adverse effects on users;
      (c) to ensure the coordination of websites, the continuity of presentation, the consistency
          of content, and the conformity with UNEP standards;
      (d) to update the DCPI Internet Unit established United Nations Environment
          Programme website common pages for major UNEP issues, events and official
          observances. The purpose of these pages is to centralize, consolidate, and
          streamline access to related UNEP resources that originate from a number of UNEP
          offices, programmes, funds, and / or agencies. All content creating offices should
          inform the DCPI Internet Unit of any material made available to be included in these
          pages.
           No website should be published online prior to the review and approval of the DCPI
           Internet Unit.


8.          MULTILINGUALISM
           Each of the language versions of UNEP websites must be maintained in a dedicated
           corresponding directory e.g. www.unep.org/french, www.unep.org/spanish, using the
           ISO 639 Language Codes.


9.          TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES
           To facilitate optimum United Nations Environment Programme website management,
           web focal points are encouraged to be in close contact with the DCPI Internet Unit to
           assure organization wide website consistency. The following standard practices will
           help to assure coherent website wide posting of information:
      (a) Focal points and webmasters should prepare and submit their site maps to the DCPI
          Internet Unit along with the names and contact information of focal points for each
          branch of the site.
      (b) Adequate web usage statistics are vital for site management. Examples of usage
          statistics are elements such as the number of pages successfully accessed, the
          number of hits, the number of visits, and the countries where access requests
          originated.
      (c) Testing new pages should be done on a staging server, whenever possible.
      (d) Web pages under construction will not be included on the site.
      (e) Web pages that are updated on a regular basis; that feature links to recurring events,
          or links to recurring major UNEP reports, should be maintained under a fixed URL
          with links, if desired, to archived earlier versions.
     Date Modified: 11 April 2006             Page 13 of 27                   Web Guidelines UNEP
      (f) Focal points and webmasters should monitor and update websites / webpages on a
          regular basis.


9.1       Website Maintenance
      (a) Current materials should be regularly safeguarded with frequent scheduled offline
          back-ups. The index pages should especially have one backup in each directory in
          case of accidental overwrites. All uploaded pages should be carefully checked
          immediately following upload. The production web server must not be used for
          backups. If additional backups are required, these should be done on other storage
          media.
      (b) Links should be monitored on a weekly basis. Broken links must be removed from
          the site or amended. Link verification tools should be used on a regular basis.
      (c) Superseded items must be removed from the server immediately. If desired, they
          can be archived offline. Note: search engines will access and provide access to
          superseded items that remain on the server. Site maps facilitate cleaning of files
          posted on the server, by ensuring there is no duplication of files.


9.2       Website Version Control
      (a) UNEP HQ will provide a staging web server where focal points and webmasters may
          test and verify web content before it is migrated to the production website.
          Procedures will be put into place, managed by DCPI, which will ensure link integrity
          and overall content synopsis.




  Date Modified: 11 April 2006               Page 14 of 27                   Web Guidelines UNEP
10.      ANNEXES

10.1     ANNEX A: Guidelines for Web Statistics
         The UNEP Programme Coordination and Management Unit (PCMU) has been
         mandated to evaluate the DCPI Internet Unit performance. Indicators used to
         complete this task are the number of page views, visits, and hits.

         The DCPI Internet Unit prepares monthly and annual statistics for dissemination to
         all of UNEP. However, the DCPI Internet Unit only has access to statistics
         pertaining to the sites hosted on its servers. Therefore, all divisional, regional, and
         out posted offices, that manage sites hosted on other servers, are required to send
         statistics to the DCPI Internet Unit for compilation and dissemination. The statistics
         should be sent on a monthly basis for consistency in reporting.

         Statistics should include page views, visits, and hits, as these are the preferred
         traffic measures. The report should be in Excel spreadsheet format. Traffic reports
         should include traffic from all sources except spiders operated by UNEP offices.
         Traffic from UNEP staff will be counted, as will traffic from search engine spiders.

         In most analysis software a count of “hits” commonly refers to a count of all files that
         are viewed including all embedded image files that may make up a page. “Page
         views” usually refers to a count of accesses to a page as a whole without including
         image files in the counts. Reports citing usage statistics should indicate whether
         “hits” or “page views” are being reported. “Visits” refer to a user accessing any
         number of pages in a website during a session that does not exceed a 20 minute
         period of inactivity.

         Other metrics such as “page views per visit”, “time spent per visit”, “bandwidth” and
         “geographic” reports should be used for internal evaluation.

         The “page views per visit” report shows the average number of pages viewed by
         people per web site visit, during the selected report period. This report helps to spot
         changes in the overall level of interest in the website. For example, this report can
         be used on a weekly or monthly basis to observe whether changes to the website's
         navigational structure or content are translating into different average amounts of
         pages viewed during visits. An increase in the average indicates that people are
         venturing deeper into the website. Whether this is desirable, or not, depends on the
         purpose of the website.

         The “time spent per visit” report shows the average amount of time each website
         user spent during a visit in the selected report period. This report helps to gauge the
         level of interest in the website content. For example, a decline in the average
         duration of a visit to a content site, such as a news site, may indicate that its content
         is not useful or compelling. The site may need to be updated more often, or with
         better material, in order to retain users‟ interest.

  Date Modified: 11 April 2006               Page 15 of 27                     Web Guidelines UNEP
       The “bandwidth” report shows the total number of bytes sent to users visiting the
       website during the selected report period. The web server responds to requests by
       sending files - such as images, scripts, pages, and CGIs - to the user‟s IP address.
       Bandwidth is calculated by adding the total size of all files transferred by the web
       server during the selected report period. This report can help assess present and
       future bandwidth needs.

       “Geographic” reports show the geographic distribution of users accessing the
       website.




Date Modified: 11 April 2006             Page 16 of 27                    Web Guidelines UNEP
10.2     ANNEX B: Responsibilities and Services of the DCPI Internet Unit
         The Division of Communications and Public Information of United Nations
         Environment Programme, through the Internet Unit, serves as the focal point for
         Internet content management of the United Nations Environment Programme
         websites.
         The DCPI Internet Unit provides the following services:
   (a) Designs and administers UNEP websites, and ensures quality control.
   (b) Promotes a consistent United Nations Environment Programme identity through the
       creation of appropriate templates, style sheets, and navigation elements.
   (c) Provides guidance on new sub sites, or sub site proposals, with consultation on
       design, layout, content, and software to ensure their conformity with United Nations
       Environment Programme standards and web page suitability for adaptation to other
       languages.
   (d) Provides guidance to UNEP divisional, regional, and out posted offices on their
       responsibilities for website multilingualism and multilingual adaptations. On a case-
       by-case basis, designs and develops multilingual compliant websites for authoring
       departments, based on cost reimbursable arrangements.
   (h) Promotes the efficient use of United Nations Environment Programme server
       resources; monitors site maintenance; ensures the deletion of obsolete or redundant
       files; removes faulty or extraneous code.
   (i) Provides guidance on website content and management issues, including advisory
       services on these issues, such as updating of obsolete information and tracking
       down broken links.
   (j) Advises on using website statistics for website analysis and management.
   (k) Advises on the suitability and the capabilities of computer programs and applications
       for website content generation and management.
   (l) Compiles and maintains a list of United Nations Environment Programme Internet
       focal points and informs them about new United Nations Environment Programme
       website developments, policies, and procedures.
   (m) Approves any requested variances to the www.unep.org corporate identity for any
       new domain name (see Annex G: Domain Names).




  Date Modified: 11 April 2006             Page 17 of 27                   Web Guidelines UNEP
10.3     ANNEX C: Technical Infrastructure
         The DCPI Internet Unit manages the Internet infrastructure of the United Nations
         Environment Programme and in collaboration with UNON/ITS provides Internet
         access to the United Nations Environment Programme website for offices at
         headquarters and away.
         The DCPI Internet Unit provides the following services:
   (a) Serves as focal point for the technical aspects of Internet site operations at United
       Nations Environmental Programme headquarters.
   (b) Advises on the technologies used in the infrastructure of the United Nations
       Environment Programme website.


       Website Infrastructure Technology at United Nations Environment Programme
       Headquarters


             Windows 2000 and 2003 servers
             IIS 5.0 and 6.0
             Site Server 3.0 Commerce Edition (In the process of being upgraded)
             SUN JRE/JDK 1.3.1
             Digichat (Chat Software) 3.5
             Language support deployed: - ASP 3.0; ASP.Net; Net Framework;
              ActiveState Perl; PHP 4.2; Macromedia ColdFusion 4.5
            SQL server 2000 database
           Notes: A variety of secure methods have been and continue to be
           implemented for uploading and maintaining information/content.
           The infrastructure above is currently being updated at UNEP HQ



   (c) Operates all the web servers at UNEP headquarters, and is responsible for the
       installation, configuration, administration, and maintenance of the site hosting
       environment; operating system and application software; and additions or removals
       of services as appropriate.
   (d) Maintains helpdesk technical support services, such as, providing information on
       web computer applications and offers in-house solutions for programming needs;
       setup of new web services as appropriate; troubleshoots programming and web
       authoring bugs; and performs other website development activities.




  Date Modified: 11 April 2006             Page 18 of 27                     Web Guidelines UNEP
10.4     ANNEX D: Website Planning and Organization
         Website development and deployment involves a step-by-step process to ensure
         output goals are met and resources are handled well. Below is a planning
         framework strategy that serves as an outline of all the phases involved in the site
         construction life cycle.


         The website design phases are:
                  Phase 1: Defining the Project
         Defining the requirements, gathering information, defining target groups, identifying
         back end programming needs, determining overall goals, setting the budget,
         selecting and assigning the project team, assembling project plan.
                  Phase 2: Developing Site Structure
         Developing the site structure, drawing the site map, addressing content, editing
         existing content, outlining content, creating content delivery plan, addressing
         navigation, naming and labeling.
                  Phase 3: Visual Conceptual Design and Testing
         Developing concepts, presenting design, gathering feedback, creating graphic
         templates, style sheets, and a design guide.
                  Phase 4: Production and Quality Assurance
         Building of the site, checking the quality, prioritizing and fixing bugs, final check.
                  Phase 5: Launch and Maintenance
         Delivering and handing over the final product, launching, assessing maintenance
         team, developing maintenance plan.




  Date Modified: 11 April 2006                Page 19 of 27                     Web Guidelines UNEP
10.5     ANNEX E: DCPI Internet Unit


         The DCPI Internet Unit is composed of the Head, Internet Unit who is responsible
         for coordinating the functions within the Unit to ensure that internationally
         recognized standards are met. The Head oversees the functions of the three
         Sections: Design, Content Management, and Technical Support.


         The Design Section is responsible for all web design functions carried out on
         www.unep.org by the DCPI Internet Unit. This includes designing the home page
         and transitional pages; creating templates as necessary to enable and facilitate the
         maintenance of consistency, coherence, and uniformity in the image of the
         organization on the web; and providing broad electronic guidelines for use in
         designing pages on UNEP‟s network of sites.


         The Content Management Section is responsible for providing advisory services on
         the implementation of content management strategies; assessing current content
         management methodologies with the aim of implementing current technologies to
         satisfy the needs of the organization; developing both the physical and logical
         navigation and browsing structures; implementing and deploying a content
         management strategy; and in the case where there are limited resources assisting
         in updating and posting new content.


         The Technical Support Section is responsible for installing, configuring, and
         maintaining the servers; liaising with service providers (UNON, telecommunication
         carriers, etc.); ensuring that communication links are available to provide
         connections to the Internet; adding and upgrading services as required (i.e.
         multimedia, chat, etc.).


         In addition the DCPI Internet Unit will train, during handover, both technical and
         non-technical staff in the use and management of their site(s) and systems.




  Date Modified: 11 April 2006              Page 20 of 27                    Web Guidelines UNEP
10.6     ANNEX F: UNEP Websites Most Concerned by Guidelines


         UNEP Divisions

         Division of Communications and Public Information
         Division of Early Warning and Assessment
         Division of Environmental Conventions
         Division of Environmental Policy Implementation
         Division of Global Environment Facility Coordination
         Division of Policy Development and Law
         Division of Regional Cooperation
         Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics



         UNEP Regional Offices
         Regional Office for Africa
         Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
         Regional Office for Europe
         Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean
         Regional Office for North America
         Regional Office for West Asia



         UNEP Liaison Offices
         European Union Liaison Office / Brussels
         UN Liaison Office / New York
         Arab League Liaison Office / Cairo
         UNEP China Office
         UNEP Brazil Office
         UNEP Moscow Office

  Date Modified: 11 April 2006               Page 21 of 27      Web Guidelines UNEP
       UNEP Addis Ababa Office



       UNEP Out Posted Offices
       Post Conflict Branch – Geneva, Switzerland
       Mediterranean Action Plan (UNEP / MAP) – Athens, Greece
       Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from
       Land-based Activities (GPA) – The Hague, Netherlands
       Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) – Kalmar, Sweden
       UNEP System-wide Earthwatch Coordination Office – Geneva, Switzerland
       UNEP Programmes and Secretariats – Geneva, Switzerland




Date Modified: 11 April 2006            Page 22 of 27                  Web Guidelines UNEP
10.7     ANNEX G: Domain Names


        General Guidelines

        Users should be able to identify all websites as part of the UNEP family. Content
        should be presented under a United Nations Environment Programme umbrella,
        striving to minimize divisional and regional boundaries.
        The Internet Unit recommends applying this policy for the creation of domain names,
        or URLs, using the following standard:

                     All sub sites should use the format of www.unep.org/sitename.
                     Subsites should avoid the use of subdomains, for example
                      www.mydomain.unep.org)

        Divisional and Regional offices should therefore have the following URLs:

        DCPI                     http://www.unep.org/dcpi
        DEC                      http://www.unep.org/dec
        DEPI                     http://www.unep.org/depi
        DEWA                     http://www.unep.org/dewa
        DGEF                     http://www.unep.org/dgef
        DPDL                     http://www.unep.org/dpdl
        DRC                      http://www.unep.org/drc
        DTIE                     http://www.unep.fr/dtie

        ROA                      http://www.unep.org/roa
        ROAP                     http://www.unep.th/.roap
        ROE                      http://www.unep.ch/roe
        ROLAC                    http://www.pnuma.mx/rolac
        RONA                     http://www.unep.us/rona
        ROWA                     http://www.unep.bh/rowa


        Specific Guidelines - URL Naming Convention

        Website addresses, or URLs, should meet the following standards:

                    They should be as logical and understandable as possible, and clearly identify
                     the site as part of the UNEP family, even to users who are not familiar with
                     UNEP, (for example Chemicals not chem).
                    They should be as short as possible, not exceeding 16 characters, letters and
                     / or numbers (for example DTIE not divisiontechnologyindustryeconomics).
                    They should not repeat UNEP (since UNEP should already be in the first part
                     of the URL).
  Date Modified: 11 April 2006                    Page 23 of 27                  Web Guidelines UNEP
               They should only contain letters, numbers, the underscore, and the dash
                characters (no illegal characters should be allowed).
               Exceptions should be made only if the requested name is unwieldy or
                nonsensical.

      URL Creation and Conflicts

      All requests for new domains or URLs will go through the Internet Unit for approval,
      coordination, and creation. Technical issues will be resolved by the Internet Unit.
      The Internet Unit will work with the Director of DCPI to resolve any issues, gray
      areas, or other non-technical conflicts. If two different groups or offices request the
      same name, the issue will be resolved by the Director of DCPI.

      Policy on Custom Aliases

      A custom alias is a virtual URL address that points to a page on the real site, and
      takes the format of "www.unep.org/customalias". Custom aliases help users reach
      the content more easily and in fewer steps. Because they are shorter and clearer
      than the true URL, they can also be used to help market the websites. Only official
      entities are eligible to have custom aliases.

      All custom aliases will be redirect aliases - they will automatically redirect the user to
      the real site. URL rewriting will be used for websites that are not hosted on the
      www.unep.org server. This technique should only be used in special circumstances,
      since it is resource and time consuming for both administrators and developers.
      Custom aliases have performance implications, and should only be used when there
      is need to facilitate or promote access to the site. The need to create a custom alias
      will be determined by the Internet Unit.

      Subdirectories

      URLs should reflect the logical thematic web site organization, not UNEP‟s
      organizational structure.
      If a particular subsite is perceived by the users as a separate entity, or if it is regularly
      accessed directly, the subsite should have its own virtual directory; it should not be a
      subdirectory to its parent site. For example, even though the OzoneAction and
      Chemicals are both part of DTIE, they should have their own virtual directories
      www.unep.org/ozoneaction and www.unep.org/chemicals - they should not be
      subdirectories of DTIE www.unep.org/dtie/ozoneaction and www.unep.org/dtie/chemicals.




Date Modified: 11 April 2006                Page 24 of 27                      Web Guidelines UNEP
       Websites in alphabetical order:


       Please note websites that do not conform to the guidelines are in Italics and should
       be renamed.


       UNEP Sites
       1.          arctic.unep.net
       2.          climatechange.unep.net
       3.          coral.unep.ch
       4.          earthwatch.unep.net
       5.          Europe.unep.net
       6.          freshwater.unep.net
       7.          geodata.grid.unep.ch/
       8.          heavy-metals.gpa.unep.org (GPA CHM)
       9.          marine-litter.gpa.unep.org/
       10.         mountains.unep.net
       11.         oils.gpa.unep.org (GPA CHM node)
       12.         pops.gpa.unep.org (GPA CHM)
       13.         postconflict.unep.ch
       14.         socioeconomic.unep.net/
       15.         stapgef.unep.org
       16.         svr1-pek.unep.net/ (UNEP.Net China)
       17.         swera.unep.net
       18.         www.agrifood-forum.net
       19.         www.cep.unep.org/ (Caribbean Environment Programme)
       20.         www.chem.unep.ch
       21.         www.eapap.unep.org (Currently down)
       22.         www.emlearning.net (IETC EnTA – not working correctly)
       23.         www.environment-directory.org alias www.env-dir.org (same site, 2 URLs)
       24.         www.financingcp.org
       25.         www.globalreporting.org
       26.         www.gpa.unep.org
       27.         www.grid.unep.ch
       28.         www.icteap.org (ICTEAP Regional Workshop for Asia-Pacific Region)
       29.         www.lac.unep.net/
       30.         www.na.unep.net (UNEP.net North America/Sioux Falls)
       31.         www.ourplanet.com
       32.         www.roap.unep.org (UNEP, ROAP)
       33.         www.rolac.unep.mx alias www.pnuma.org (UNEP, Mexico)
       34.         www.rona.unep.org (UNEP, New York)
       35.         www.rrcap.unep.org/
       36.         www.unep.cz
       37.         www.unep.net
       38.         www.unep.or.kr
Date Modified: 11 April 2006                Page 25 of 27                 Web Guidelines UNEP
       39.         www.unep.org (UNEP HQ)
       40.         www.unep.org.bh (UNEP, ROWA)
       41.         www.unep.org.jp (UNEP, Japan)
       42.         www.unep-aewa.org (African-Eurasian Migratory Water Bird Agreement)
       43.         www.unepapac.org/ (Youth Advisory Council Asia Pacific)
       44.         www.unep.org/dams
       45.         www.unepfi.net
       46.         www.unepmap.gr/ (aka unepmap.org) (Mediterranean Action Plan)
       47.         www.uneptie.org (aka http://www.unepie.org/)
       48.         www.unep-wcmc.org
       49.         www.waterday2003.org/
       50.         www.water-saffire.net/


       UNEP Major Partners

       1.          gpanews.unep.org (to be phased out?)
       2.          grid.ecoinfo.ru/webint_eng/start.htm (GRID Moscow)
       3.          grid2.cr.usgs.gov/ (GRID Sioux Falls)
       4.          www.areed.org/
       5.          www.basel.int
       6.          www.biodiv.org (Biodiversity)
       7.          www.b-reed.org/ (UNEP, UNF)
       8.          www.cciw.ca/gems/intro.html (GEMS Water)
       9.          www.cites.org
       10.         www.earthprint.com
       11.         www.eco-hindsight.org/www.eco-insight.org (UNEP/GEF/UNDP/IWLearn)
       12.         www.ecolex.org
       13.         www.environmenthouse.ch
       14.         www.estis.net
       15.         www.eurobats.org
       16.         www.financingcp.org
       17.         www.gefonline.org
       18.         www.g-forse.com/
       19.         www.giwa.net
       20.         www.global500.org/
       21.         www.greener-driving.net
       22.         www.grida.no (GRID-Arendal)
       23.         www.gridc.canterbury.ac.nz/ (GRID NZ)
       24.         www.gridtb.org/
       25.         www.gridw.pl/ (GRID Warsaw)
       26.         www.halontrader.org
       27.         www.ipcc.ch
       28.         www.iwlearn.org/ (GEF, UNEP, World Bank, UNDP)
       29.         www.mineralresourcesforum.org
       30.         www.pic.int
Date Modified: 11 April 2006               Page 26 of 27                Web Guidelines UNEP
       31.         www.povertymap.net
       32.         www.rac-spa.org.tn/ (Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas)
       33.         www.sanicon.net/
       34.         www.strategyguide.org (PEBLDS – CBD)
       35.         www.toinitiative.org (DTIE Tour Operators Initiative)
       36.         www.uccee.org/ (UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment)
       37.         www.unepscs.org (UNEP GEF Project on Reversing Environmental
                   Degradation Trends in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand)
       38.         www.unep-unctad.org (UNEP-UNCTAD)
       39.         www.unmfs.org/
       40.         www.urban-emerald.net
       41.         www.youthxchange.net (UNEP/UNESCO)
       42.         www-cger.nies.go.jp/grid-e/index.html (GRID - Japan)




Date Modified: 11 April 2006                 Page 27 of 27                   Web Guidelines UNEP

				
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