DANGERS OF SMOKING FOR HEALTH Behavior Clean and Healthy Life, which became the basic needs of public health degrees, one of its aspects is "not a family member who smokes". While BCHL should be my duty, and the health worker for disseminating. Every time inhaling cigarette smoke, whether intentionally or not, is also smoked more than 4000 kinds of toxins! Therefore, smoking the same as the toxins enter this into the mouth cavity and lungs of course. Smoking damage the health, the fact is we can not deny. Many diseases have proven to be bad consequences of smoking, either directly or indirectly. Smoking not only harm the smoker, but also for those around him. At present the number of smokers, especially adolescent smokers continue to grow, particularly in developing countries. This situation is a challenge for efforts to improve community health status. Even the world health organization (WHO) has warned that in the decade 2020-2030 the tobacco will kill 10 million people per year, 70% of them occur in developing countries. Through resolution 1983, the World Health Organization (WHO) has set May 31 as World Tobacco Free Day every year. Dangers of smoking to health body has been researched and proven by many people. Effects of any adverse effects of smoking are clear. Many studies have shown that smoking increases the risk of various diseases. Such as heart disease and blood vessel disorders, lung cancer, mouth cancer, larynx cancer, cancer osefagus, bronchitis, high blood pressure, impotence, and pregnancy disorders and defects in the fetus. Recent research also shows the danger of secondhand-smoke, the smoke inhaled by people for non-smokers around smokers, or commonly referred to as passive smokers. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Cigarettes must not be separated from raw materials of manufacture, namely tobacco. In Indonesia, cloves and tobacco plus other ingredients are mixed to make clove cigarettes. Besides clove, tobacco can also be used as-rolled cigarettes, white cigarettes, cigars, tobacco pipes, and smokeless tobacco (Chewing tobacco). Gas component of cigarette smoke is carbon monoxide, ammonia, acid hidrosianat, nitrogen oxides, and formaldehyde. Particles of tar, indol, nicotine, karbarzol, and cresol. Substances are toxic, irritating, and cause cancer (carcinogens). NICOTINE Substances most frequently discussed and researched people, the nerve poison the body, increase blood pressure, cause constriction of peripheral blood vessels, and cause addiction and dependence on the wearer. Levels of 4-6 mg of nicotine inhaled by adults every day can make a person addicted. In the United States, white cigarettes on the market has a level of 8-10 mg of nicotine per stem, while in Indonesia, 17 mg of nicotine yield per stem. LEAD (PB) Of lead produced by a cigarette as much as 0.5 ug. A pack of cigarettes (20 sticks content) which sucked up in one day will generate 10 ug. While the danger threshold of lead into the body is 20 ug per day. It is conceivable, when a heavy smoker inhale an average of 2 packs of cigarettes per day, how many of these harmful substances into the body! GAS CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) Carbon monoxide has a strong tendency to bind with hemoglobin in blood cells red. Supposedly, this hemoglobin binds oxygen vital to respiration of body cells, but because the CO gas is more powerful than oxygen, the CO gas is captured place "in the" hemoglobin. Be, hemoglobin linked with CO gas. CO gas levels in the blood of nonsmokers is less than 1 percent, while in the blood of smokers reached 4 to 15 percent. Many times over! TAR Tar is a collection of thousands of chemicals in the solid component of cigarette smoke, and are carcinogens. At the time of cigarettes smoked, the tar into the mouth cavity as a solid vapor. After a cold, will become solid and form a brown sludge on the surface of the teeth, respiratory tract, and lungs. This precipitation varies between 3-40 mg per cigarette, while the levels of tar in cigarettes ranged from 24 to 45 mg. LUNG IMPACT Smoking can cause changes in the structure and function of airways and lung tissue. In large airways, mucous cells enlarge (hypertrophy) and increased mucus glands many (hyperplasia). In the small airways, mild inflammation due to increased cell constriction and mucus buildup. In lung tissue, an increase in the number of inflammatory cells and damage to the alveoli. As a result of changes in airway anatomy, the smokers will arise changes in lung function with all sorts of clinical symptoms. This became the main basis of the occurrence of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (PPOM). It says smoking is the cause of PPOM, including pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. The relationship between smoking and lung cancer have been investigated in the last decade 4-5. Found a close relationship between cigarette smoking, particularly cigarettes, with the incidence of lung cancer. There is even expressly stated that the cigarettes as the main cause of lung cancer. Cigarette smoke particles, such as benzopiren, dibenzopiren, and uretan, known as a carcinogen. Tar is also associated with risk of cancer. Compared with non-smokers, the possibility arises of lung cancer in smokers reach 10-30 times more often. IMPACT OF HEART Many studies have shown the existence of the relationship of smoking with coronary heart disease (CHD). Of 11 million deaths per year in industrialized countries, the WHO reports that more than half (6 million) due to disturbance of blood circulation, in which 2.5 million were coronary heart disease and stroke is 1.5 million. MOH survey in 1986 and 1992, have increased deaths from heart disease of 9.7 per cent (ranked third) to 16 percent (first rank). Smoking is a major factor in causing cardiovascular disease is. Not only cause of coronary heart disease, smoking is bad for the brain blood vessels and peripheral. The exhaled smoke of smokers smoke can be divided into primary (main stream smoke) and smoke the side (side stream smoke). The main smoke is tobacco smoke is inhaled directly by smokers, whereas the addition of smoke is tobacco smoke spread into the atmosphere, which would be inhaled by another person or passive smokers. 4000 species have been found chemicals in cigarettes, with 40 species of them are carcinogenic (can cause cancer), in which toxic substances are more available in addition to smoke, such as carbon monoxide (CO) 5 times more common in addition to smoke than The main smoke, benzopiren 3 times, and ammonia 50 times. These materials can last for several hours in a room after smoking stops. Generally the focus of research directed at nicotine and CO roles. Both these materials, in addition to increased oxygen demand, also disrupt the oxygen supply to the heart muscle (myocardial) infarction job detriment. Nicotine interfere with the sympathetic nervous system due to increased myocardial oxygen demand. Besides smoking causes addiction, nicotine also stimulates the release of adrenaline, increased frequency of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac oxygen demand, and cause heart rhythm disturbances. Nicotine also affect the nerves, brain, and many other body parts. Nicotine activates platelets by platelet adhesion due to the emergence of (clotting) into the blood vessel wall. Desaturasi cause carbon monoxide hemoglobin, reducing the oxygen supply directly to the entire body, including tissue infarction. CO replaces the oxygen in hemoglobin, disrupt the release of oxygen, and accelerate atherosclerosis (Calcification / thickening of the walls of blood vessels). Thus, reducing CO physical exercise capacity, increased blood viscosity, which makes blood clotting. Nicotine, CO, and other substances in cigarette smoke damage the endothelial proven (in the blood vessel wall), and facilitate the emergence of blood clotting. In addition, cigarette smoke affects the fat profile. Compared with non-smokers, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride blood smokers is higher, whereas HDL cholesterol is lower. CORONARY HEART DISEASE Smoking is proven to be the biggest risk factor for sudden death. The risk of coronary heart disease increased 2-4 times in smokers compared with nonsmokers. This risk increases with age and the number of cigarettes smoked. Research shows that smoking risk factors work synergistically with other factors, such as hypertension, levels of fat or high blood sugar, the outbreak of CHD. Please note that the risk of death from coronary heart disease decreases by 50 percent in the first year after smoking was stopped. As a result of clotting (thrombosis) and Calcification (atherosclerotic) vessel wall, smoking will certainly damage the peripheral blood vessels. PPDP involving arteries and veins in the leg or arm is often found in young adult heavy smoker, often will end up with amputation. DISEASE (STROKE) Brain blood vessel blockage emergent or stroke associated with smoking a lot. Risk of stroke and death risk higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers. In a study conducted in the United States and the UK, acquired the habit of smoking increases the likelihood of the emergence of AIDS in HIV. In the smoker group, AIDS emerged in an average of 8.17 months, whereas in non-smokers group arose after 14.5 months. Immune decline in smokers initiated more easily affected by AIDS so that quitting smoking is very important in defensive measure against AIDS. Now more and more investigated and reported the ill effects of smoking on pregnant women, impotence, decreased immune individuals, including people with viral hepatitis, gastrointestinal cancer, and others. From the point of health economics, the impact of diseases caused by smoking will certainly increase costs, both for individuals, families, companies, even countries. Diseases caused by smoking affects the supply of labor, particularly skilled labor or executive power, with the sudden death or disability arising out clearly caused large losses for the company. Decrease in labor productivity raises the company's earnings decline, also the economic burden that is not less for individuals and families. Expenditures for health care cost increases, for families, companies, and government. SMOKING HABITS It should attempt to stop smoking is the duty and responsibility of all levels of society. Information and counseling, particularly among the younger generation, can also be associated with the dangers of narcotics control efforts, the school health efforts, and public health education in general. Model figures of society, including officials, religious leaders, teachers, health workers, artists, and sportsmen, they should be an example by not smoking. Also need opportunities restrictions on smoking in public places, schools, public transportation, and workplaces; regulation and control of cigarette promotional ads; put health warnings on cigarette packs and cigarette advertisements. Climate not smoking should be created. This must be carried out simultaneously by us all, who wants the achievement of the Indonesian nation state and a healthy and prosperous. GATES DRUGS As a result of the most serious chronic use of nicotine is addictive. Once a person becomes a smoker, would be difficult to end the habit both physically and psychologically. Smoking becomes a compulsive habit, starting with the ceremonial lighting a cigarette and puffing is done repeatedly. Because of the nature adiktifnya (makes a person become addicted to) cigarettes in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) are grouped into Nicotine Related Disorders. While WHO rank as a form of addiction. Pharmacological and behavioral processes that determine tobacco addiction are similar to processes in addictive drugs, like heroin and cocaine. Nicotine affects the character of the brain with dopamine the same processes as those drugs. In order addictive nature of psychoactive substances, nicotine is more addictive than heroin, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine and marijuana. According to Flemming, Glyn and Ershler initial levels of smoking is to be injecting drugs (drug abuse). Tried smoking significantly opened up opportunities using illegal drugs in the future. Based on known epidemiological data approximately 20% of smokers had a risk eight times the drug injecting, and risk eleven times to be heavy drinkers than those who do not smoke. Special attention on this issue is associated with the increasing number of teenage smokers. Tackling the problem of teenage smoking is expected to prevent the problems that will arise in the future regarding these habits, one of which is the prevention of drug abuse. According to Teddy Hidayat, Soul Medicine Specialist, Youth at high risk are teenagers who have immediate pemuasaan nature, less able to delay the desire, feeling empty and easily bored, prone to anxiety, anxiety, and depression. Understanding of smoking habits and trends of the nature of one's personality will help efforts to stop these harmful habits. For the prevention of smoking in children and adolescents. Parents and teachers held a big role to supervise, provide the correct information and the most important thing is not to be examples of individual behavior that smoking addiction. MENTAL HEALTH BOTHER Smoking is closely related to disability and decreased quality of life. In a study in Germany since the year 1997-1999 which involved 4181 respondents, concluded that the respondents have the nicotine dependence has a quality of life worse, and nearly 50% of respondents had smoked at least one type of psychiatric disorder. Also note also that mental patients more likely to be smokers, ie 50% of patients in mental disorders, 70% of patients who maniakal outpatient treatment and 90% of patients who seek treatment skizrofen road. Based on research from CASA (Columbian University `s National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse), adolescent smokers have twice the risk of experiencing symptoms of depression than adolescents who did not smoke. Active smokers were more likely having a panic attack than those who did not smoke Many studies show that smoking and depression is an interdependent relationship. Depression causes people to smoke and smokers usually have symptoms of depression and anxiety (anxiety). Most depressed people claimed to have smoked in his life. History of depression was associated with the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms (withdrawal) of nicotine when a person decides to quit smoking. As many as 75% suffering from depression who tried to quit smoking experience drug withdrawal symptoms. This is certainly related to the increasing number of business failures to stop smoking and relapse in depressed patients. In addition, substance nicotine withdrawal symptoms similar to the symptoms of depression. However, it was reported that the withdrawal symptoms experienced by depressed patients are more physical symptoms such as reduced concentration, sleep disturbance, fatigue and weight gain). Nicotine as a drug Smoking psychiatric disorder as a form of therapy for psychiatric disorders is still a controversial debate. Psychiatric disorders can cause a person to smoke and smoking can cause mental disorders, although their number is small, approximately 70% of smokers do not have symptoms of mental disorder. In general, smoking can lead to increased concentration, suppress hunger, suppress anxiety, and depression. In some studies nicotine is proven effective for the treatment of depression. Basically nicotine provides a promising opportunity to use as a psychoactive drug. But nicotine terapheutic index has a very narrow, so the range of appropriate doses for therapeutic and toxic doses is very narrow. So think about some form of nicotine is not in pure form but in analog form. However, the framework of nicotine as a drug delivery is not in the habit of smoking. Like morphine is used as strong analgesics (pain barrier), your gift should be under the supervision of a doctor. Severity, current nicotine can be obtained freely and easily in a cigarette, it needs to watch out for smoking does not necessarily become a justification for the treatment of symptoms of psychiatric disorders. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The study of smoking and reproductive conducted throughout the 2 decades that concluded that smoking can cause damage to the reproductive system of a person starting from puberty to maturity In research conducted Dr. Sinead Jones, director of The British Medical Association's Tobacco Control Resource Center, found that women who smoke have a relatively small chance to get offspring. he will have 2 times the risk of going infertile (not fertile) and having the risk of DNA damage in sperm cells. While the results of research on pregnant women increased incidence of miscarriage. The study said that from 3000 to 5000 miscarriages per year incidence in the UK, closely linked to smoking. 120,000 men in England aged between 30 to 50 years of experience impotence due to smoking. Even worse, cigarettes implications for cervical cancer in 1200 cases annually. WOMEN SMOKING, EARLY MENOPAUSE Women who smoke are likely to begin to enter menopause before age 45 years and also make them face the risk of osteoporosis and heart attacks, researchers reported on Norway. "Among many as 2123 women aged 59 to 60 years, those who currently smoked, 59% more likely to experience premature menopause compared with women who did not smoke, "said Dr. Thea F. Mikkelsen of the University of Oslo and colleagues. For the heaviest smokers, the risk of early menopause nearly doubled. However, women who formerly smoked, but stopped at least 10 years before menopause, it is essentially less likely to stop menstruating compared with smokers before the age of 45 years. There is evidence that smoking later in life makes a woman more likely to experience premature menopause, while smokers who quit before middle age may not be affected, Mikkelsen and his team said in the journal Free, BMC Public Health. They investigated the relationship further and determine whether exposure to secondhand smoke may also affect the time of menopause. The researchers found that nearly 10% of women enter menopause before the age of 45 years. STOP SMOKING Several reasons to stop smoking 1. Impotence Smoking reduces the blood flow needed to achieve a state of erection. Because it can affect cigarette tersebutlah penile erection power. 2. Smoking wrinkled face can reduce the flow of oxygen and necessary nutrients your skin cells with the road narrows blood vessels around the face. So will cause wrinkles. 3. Stained teeth and smelly breath. Particles from cigarette smoke can give yellow to brown spots on your teeth, and this will also trap odor-producing bacteria in your mouth. Abnormalities of the gums and teeth are also more common in smokers. 4. You and about a smell. Cigarette has an unpleasant smell and stick to everything, from your skin and hair to clothing and items around you. And this smell is not appetizing things couples and friends. 5. Brittle bones Numerous studies have found an association between smoking with osteoporosis in men and women. A case study observing hip fractures in elderly women, and concluded that one of the 8 cases had fractures caused by bone loss caused by smoking. 6. Depression Some scientists consider cigarettes contain substances that can cause an increase in mood. Substance is what usually implies diminished when someone suffering from depression. That is also the reason why people who are stressed or depressed tend to seek 'escape' to the cigarette. 7. A bad role model for children. Every day, 3000 children dliperkirakan in the U.S. who become addicted to smoking cigarettes. If they keep smoking, 1,000 of them will surely die from diseases related to smoking. 8. Fire if you're careless, when smoking clan who throw cigarette butts are still burning in any place can cause a fire. 9. Poor blood circulation of red blood cells have been designed by nature to carry oxygen throughout the body. In smokers, the oxygen molecules is replaced by a component of cigarette smoke, preventing the transport of oxygen is important for cell life. 10. Impressed stupid If smokers defend their dependence, there is one truth that they could not deny: Like the slogan says, smoking is a killer. so, if there is continued the habit, of course it will look stupid. THREE MAIN PAGE Seeing the dangers of cigarettes that can be generated, it is among us need to work together to do three main things: Communication and information about the dangers of smoking, both for the smokers and passive smokers immediately. Provide special places for people who smoke so that the non-smokers not exposed to negative impacts. Do not be reluctant to call it a smoker, if you feel disturbed. STOP SMOKING STRATEGY Here are strategies you can use to quit smoking: 1. Plan the Plan at any time stop you will stop smoking for good. Timing may be the next few days or 2 weeks. In the days leading up smoking, you reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. 2. Drugs drugs help reduce the symptoms of quitting smoking until the worst effects elapsed. You have the option of either drug on prescription drugs and over-the-counter (without prescription). Discuss these options with your doctor. 3. Help yourself and keep the plan you desire to stop smoking, find information about smoking and diseases caused by various credible sources like the American Cancer Society, American Lung Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the local sites such as Indonesia Cancer Foundation, the Foundation the heart of Indonesia, the National Committee on Smoking Control Problems. Help yourself with the information that convinced you to stay away from cigarettes after quitting smoking. 4. Whether you are a support group meets online or a support group. Seek support from people who are also trying to quit smoking. 5. Counseling Counseling is a face-to-face meeting with a trusted physician, psychologist, nurse or counselor. This forum will discuss what things are blocking you to stop smoking and ways to overcome them. 6. Cold turkey is a strategy to stop smoking immediately. If you choose cold turkey then you will experience symptoms of tobacco withdrawal symptoms, like all people who quit smoking as impatient (restlessness), increased appetite, irritability. It is recommended that you seek help when you quit smoking, whether it be support or treatment. 7. Sports Sports will help you cope with stress and the increased weight after you quit smoking. 8. Invite a Friend / Family You Have a friend or family member who did not smoke for providing their time if you are having a difficult time. 9. Alternative therapy methods Some smokers try hypnosis or acupuncture to help them quit smoking, though not many proven successful. However, if the method is to make you stop smoking, is the method suited to you. To quit smoking, you need a personal approach. What works for others does not necessarily work on your WHAT SHOULD YOU DO? If you are a smoker and plan to have children, stop smoking now! (The experts recommend that you stop smoking at least one month before conception). Consult a physician or other health personnel to help eliminate your smoking habit. Lots of techniques are offered, find the most appropriate thing to do. Here are 7 ways to stop smoking that we recommend: 1. Clean and discard. Clean and remove all the cigarettes you have. 2. Make notes and warnings. Write a note like "you're not a smoker" and stick to the places you often visit - on the bed, the table and so on. 3. Do it again and again. Stay quit smoking on the day that you choose to do so. Do not do this intermittently. 4. Concentrate on the job every day to divert the desire to smoke. 5. Positive thinking. Think of yourself as a non-smoker. If there is an offer smoking from friends, tell your friend that the firm "I do not smoke". 6. Ask for support from family, close friends and peers to help you remove this smoking habit. 7. Fight the urge to smoke: Divert attention when you want to smoke. Say to yourself "Later!" and do other positive things. Interesting breath. Pull the breath for five seconds and release slowly. Drink plenty of water. Avoid beverages containing caffeine such as coffee, tea or cola. Busy yourself with activities. This is important so that you do not always think to smoke. Activities that can be done such as gardening, reading books and so on. Doing exercise at least three times a week for 20 minutes each session. Washing his hands or shower when you want to smoke. Chew something like chewing gum, etc.. Pray you may be given the power and passion remains to stop smoking At first quit smoking requires a very hard struggle. Do not be surprised if there are signs such as irritability, difficult to control feelings, lack of concentration, anxiety, insomnia, cough, decreased pulse rate, and increased appetite. This phase is called phase withdrawal. Will go away after three to four weeks. From various sources.
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