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DANGERS OF SMOKING FOR HEALTH by fandyhiro

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									                     DANGERS OF SMOKING FOR HEALTH


Behavior Clean and Healthy Life, which became the basic needs of public health degrees,
one of its aspects is "not a family member who smokes". While BCHL should be my duty,
and the health worker for disseminating.


Every time inhaling cigarette smoke, whether intentionally or not, is also smoked more
than 4000 kinds of toxins! Therefore, smoking the same as the toxins enter this into the
mouth cavity and lungs of course. Smoking damage the health, the fact is we can not
deny. Many diseases have proven to be bad consequences of smoking, either directly or
indirectly. Smoking not only harm the smoker, but also for those around him.


At present the number of smokers, especially adolescent smokers continue to grow,
particularly in developing countries. This situation is a challenge for efforts to improve
community health status. Even the world health organization (WHO) has warned that in
the decade 2020-2030 the tobacco will kill 10 million people per year, 70% of them occur
in developing countries.


Through resolution 1983, the World Health Organization (WHO) has set May 31 as
World Tobacco Free Day every year.


Dangers of smoking to health body has been researched and proven by many people.
Effects of any adverse effects of smoking are clear. Many studies have shown that
smoking increases the risk of various diseases. Such as heart disease and blood vessel
disorders, lung cancer, mouth cancer, larynx cancer, cancer osefagus, bronchitis, high
blood pressure, impotence, and pregnancy disorders and defects in the fetus.


Recent research also shows the danger of secondhand-smoke, the smoke inhaled by
people for non-smokers around smokers, or commonly referred to as passive smokers.
CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES
Cigarettes must not be separated from raw materials of manufacture, namely tobacco. In
Indonesia, cloves and tobacco plus other ingredients are mixed to make clove cigarettes.
Besides clove, tobacco can also be used as-rolled cigarettes, white cigarettes, cigars,
tobacco pipes, and smokeless tobacco (Chewing tobacco).


Gas component of cigarette smoke is carbon monoxide, ammonia, acid hidrosianat,
nitrogen oxides, and formaldehyde. Particles of tar, indol, nicotine, karbarzol, and cresol.
Substances are toxic, irritating, and cause cancer (carcinogens).


NICOTINE
Substances most frequently discussed and researched people, the nerve poison the body,
increase blood pressure, cause constriction of peripheral blood vessels, and cause
addiction and dependence on the wearer. Levels of 4-6 mg of nicotine inhaled by adults
every day can make a person addicted. In the United States, white cigarettes on the
market has a level of 8-10 mg of nicotine per stem, while in Indonesia, 17 mg of nicotine
yield per stem.


LEAD (PB)
Of lead produced by a cigarette as much as 0.5 ug. A pack of cigarettes (20 sticks content)
which sucked up in one day will generate 10 ug. While the danger threshold of lead into
the body is 20 ug per day. It is conceivable, when a heavy smoker inhale an average of 2
packs of cigarettes per day, how many of these harmful substances into the body!


GAS CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)
Carbon monoxide has a strong tendency to bind with hemoglobin in blood cells red.
Supposedly, this hemoglobin binds oxygen vital to respiration of body cells, but because
the CO gas is more powerful than oxygen, the CO gas is captured place "in the"
hemoglobin. Be, hemoglobin linked with CO gas. CO gas levels in the blood of
nonsmokers is less than 1 percent, while in the blood of smokers reached 4 to 15 percent.
Many times over!
TAR
Tar is a collection of thousands of chemicals in the solid component of cigarette smoke,
and are carcinogens. At the time of cigarettes smoked, the tar into the mouth cavity as a
solid vapor. After a cold, will become solid and form a brown sludge on the surface of
the teeth, respiratory tract, and lungs. This precipitation varies between 3-40 mg per
cigarette, while the levels of tar in cigarettes ranged from 24 to 45 mg.


LUNG IMPACT
Smoking can cause changes in the structure and function of airways and lung tissue. In
large airways, mucous cells enlarge (hypertrophy) and increased mucus glands many
(hyperplasia). In the small airways, mild inflammation due to increased cell constriction
and mucus buildup. In lung tissue, an increase in the number of inflammatory cells and
damage to the alveoli.


As a result of changes in airway anatomy, the smokers will arise changes in lung function
with all sorts of clinical symptoms. This became the main basis of the occurrence of
chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (PPOM). It says smoking is the cause of PPOM,
including pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma.


The relationship between smoking and lung cancer have been investigated in the last
decade 4-5. Found a close relationship between cigarette smoking, particularly cigarettes,
with the incidence of lung cancer. There is even expressly stated that the cigarettes as the
main cause of lung cancer.


Cigarette smoke particles, such as benzopiren, dibenzopiren, and uretan, known as a
carcinogen. Tar is also associated with risk of cancer. Compared with non-smokers, the
possibility arises of lung cancer in smokers reach 10-30 times more often.
IMPACT OF HEART
Many studies have shown the existence of the relationship of smoking with coronary
heart disease (CHD). Of 11 million deaths per year in industrialized countries, the WHO
reports that more than half (6 million) due to disturbance of blood circulation, in which
2.5 million were coronary heart disease and stroke is 1.5 million. MOH survey in 1986
and 1992, have increased deaths from heart disease of 9.7 per cent (ranked third) to 16
percent (first rank).


Smoking is a major factor in causing cardiovascular disease is. Not only cause of
coronary heart disease, smoking is bad for the brain blood vessels and peripheral.


The exhaled smoke of smokers smoke can be divided into primary (main stream smoke)
and smoke the side (side stream smoke). The main smoke is tobacco smoke is inhaled
directly by smokers, whereas the addition of smoke is tobacco smoke spread into the
atmosphere, which would be inhaled by another person or passive smokers.


4000 species have been found chemicals in cigarettes, with 40 species of them are
carcinogenic (can cause cancer), in which toxic substances are more available in addition
to smoke, such as carbon monoxide (CO) 5 times more common in addition to smoke
than The main smoke, benzopiren 3 times, and ammonia 50 times. These materials can
last for several hours in a room after smoking stops.


Generally the focus of research directed at nicotine and CO roles. Both these materials, in
addition to increased oxygen demand, also disrupt the oxygen supply to the heart muscle
(myocardial) infarction job detriment.


Nicotine interfere with the sympathetic nervous system due to increased myocardial
oxygen demand. Besides smoking causes addiction, nicotine also stimulates the release of
adrenaline, increased frequency of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac oxygen demand,
and cause heart rhythm disturbances. Nicotine also affect the nerves, brain, and many
other body parts. Nicotine activates platelets by platelet adhesion due to the emergence of
(clotting) into the blood vessel wall.


Desaturasi cause carbon monoxide hemoglobin, reducing the oxygen supply directly to
the entire body, including tissue infarction. CO replaces the oxygen in hemoglobin,
disrupt the release of oxygen, and accelerate atherosclerosis (Calcification / thickening of
the walls of blood vessels). Thus, reducing CO physical exercise capacity, increased
blood viscosity, which makes blood clotting.


Nicotine, CO, and other substances in cigarette smoke damage the endothelial proven (in
the blood vessel wall), and facilitate the emergence of blood clotting. In addition,
cigarette smoke affects the fat profile. Compared with non-smokers, total cholesterol,
LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride blood smokers is higher, whereas HDL cholesterol is
lower.


CORONARY HEART DISEASE
Smoking is proven to be the biggest risk factor for sudden death. The risk of coronary
heart disease increased 2-4 times in smokers compared with nonsmokers. This risk
increases with age and the number of cigarettes smoked. Research shows that smoking
risk factors work synergistically with other factors, such as hypertension, levels of fat or
high blood sugar, the outbreak of CHD.


Please note that the risk of death from coronary heart disease decreases by 50 percent in
the first year after smoking was stopped. As a result of clotting (thrombosis) and
Calcification (atherosclerotic) vessel wall, smoking will certainly damage the peripheral
blood vessels.


PPDP involving arteries and veins in the leg or arm is often found in young adult heavy
smoker, often will end up with amputation.
DISEASE (STROKE)
Brain blood vessel blockage emergent or stroke associated with smoking a lot. Risk of
stroke and death risk higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers.


In a study conducted in the United States and the UK, acquired the habit of smoking
increases the likelihood of the emergence of AIDS in HIV. In the smoker group, AIDS
emerged in an average of 8.17 months, whereas in non-smokers group arose after 14.5
months. Immune decline in smokers initiated more easily affected by AIDS so that
quitting smoking is very important in defensive measure against AIDS.


Now more and more investigated and reported the ill effects of smoking on pregnant
women, impotence, decreased immune individuals, including people with viral hepatitis,
gastrointestinal cancer, and others. From the point of health economics, the impact of
diseases caused by smoking will certainly increase costs, both for individuals, families,
companies, even countries.


Diseases caused by smoking affects the supply of labor, particularly skilled labor or
executive power, with the sudden death or disability arising out clearly caused large
losses for the company. Decrease in labor productivity raises the company's earnings
decline, also the economic burden that is not less for individuals and families.
Expenditures for health care cost increases, for families, companies, and government.


SMOKING HABITS
It should attempt to stop smoking is the duty and responsibility of all levels of society.
Information and counseling, particularly among the younger generation, can also be
associated with the dangers of narcotics control efforts, the school health efforts, and
public health education in general.


Model figures of society, including officials, religious leaders, teachers, health workers,
artists, and sportsmen, they should be an example by not smoking. Also need
opportunities restrictions on smoking in public places, schools, public transportation, and
workplaces; regulation and control of cigarette promotional ads; put health warnings on
cigarette packs and cigarette advertisements.


Climate not smoking should be created. This must be carried out simultaneously by us all,
who wants the achievement of the Indonesian nation state and a healthy and prosperous.


GATES DRUGS
As a result of the most serious chronic use of nicotine is addictive. Once a person
becomes a smoker, would be difficult to end the habit both physically and
psychologically. Smoking becomes a compulsive habit, starting with the ceremonial
lighting a cigarette and puffing is done repeatedly.


Because of the nature adiktifnya (makes a person become addicted to) cigarettes in
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) are grouped into
Nicotine Related Disorders. While WHO rank as a form of addiction. Pharmacological
and behavioral processes that determine tobacco addiction are similar to processes in
addictive drugs, like heroin and cocaine.


Nicotine affects the character of the brain with dopamine the same processes as those
drugs. In order addictive nature of psychoactive substances, nicotine is more addictive
than heroin, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine and marijuana. According to Flemming, Glyn and
Ershler initial levels of smoking is to be injecting drugs (drug abuse). Tried smoking
significantly opened up opportunities using illegal drugs in the future.


Based on known epidemiological data approximately 20% of smokers had a risk eight
times the drug injecting, and risk eleven times to be heavy drinkers than those who do not
smoke. Special attention on this issue is associated with the increasing number of teenage
smokers.


Tackling the problem of teenage smoking is expected to prevent the problems that will
arise in the future regarding these habits, one of which is the prevention of drug abuse.
According to Teddy Hidayat, Soul Medicine Specialist, Youth at high risk are teenagers
who have immediate pemuasaan nature, less able to delay the desire, feeling empty and
easily bored, prone to anxiety, anxiety, and depression.


Understanding of smoking habits and trends of the nature of one's personality will help
efforts to stop these harmful habits. For the prevention of smoking in children and
adolescents. Parents and teachers held a big role to supervise, provide the correct
information and the most important thing is not to be examples of individual behavior
that smoking addiction.


MENTAL HEALTH BOTHER
Smoking is closely related to disability and decreased quality of life. In a study in
Germany since the year 1997-1999 which involved 4181 respondents, concluded that the
respondents have the nicotine dependence has a quality of life worse, and nearly 50% of
respondents had smoked at least one type of psychiatric disorder. Also note also that
mental patients more likely to be smokers, ie 50% of patients in mental disorders, 70% of
patients who maniakal outpatient treatment and 90% of patients who seek treatment
skizrofen road.


Based on research from CASA (Columbian University `s National Center on Addiction
and Substance Abuse), adolescent smokers have twice the risk of experiencing symptoms
of depression than adolescents who did not smoke. Active smokers were more likely
having a panic attack than those who did not smoke Many studies show that smoking and
depression is an interdependent relationship. Depression causes people to smoke and
smokers usually have symptoms of depression and anxiety (anxiety).


Most depressed people claimed to have smoked in his life. History of depression was
associated with the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms (withdrawal) of
nicotine when a person decides to quit smoking. As many as 75% suffering from
depression who tried to quit smoking experience drug withdrawal symptoms. This is
certainly related to the increasing number of business failures to stop smoking and
relapse in depressed patients.


In addition, substance nicotine withdrawal symptoms similar to the symptoms of
depression. However, it was reported that the withdrawal symptoms experienced by
depressed patients are more physical symptoms such as reduced concentration, sleep
disturbance, fatigue and weight gain).


Nicotine as a drug Smoking psychiatric disorder as a form of therapy for psychiatric
disorders is still a controversial debate. Psychiatric disorders can cause a person to smoke
and smoking can cause mental disorders, although their number is small, approximately
70% of smokers do not have symptoms of mental disorder.


In general, smoking can lead to increased concentration, suppress hunger, suppress
anxiety, and depression. In some studies nicotine is proven effective for the treatment of
depression. Basically nicotine provides a promising opportunity to use as a psychoactive
drug. But nicotine terapheutic index has a very narrow, so the range of appropriate doses
for therapeutic and toxic doses is very narrow.


So think about some form of nicotine is not in pure form but in analog form. However,
the framework of nicotine as a drug delivery is not in the habit of smoking. Like
morphine is used as strong analgesics (pain barrier), your gift should be under the
supervision of a doctor. Severity, current nicotine can be obtained freely and easily in a
cigarette, it needs to watch out for smoking does not necessarily become a justification
for the treatment of symptoms of psychiatric disorders.


REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The study of smoking and reproductive conducted throughout the 2 decades that
concluded that smoking can cause damage to the reproductive system of a person starting
from puberty to maturity
In research conducted Dr. Sinead Jones, director of The British Medical Association's
Tobacco Control Resource Center, found that women who smoke have a relatively small
chance to get offspring.


he will have 2 times the risk of going infertile (not fertile) and having the risk of DNA
damage in sperm cells. While the results of research on pregnant women increased
incidence of miscarriage. The study said that from 3000 to 5000 miscarriages per year
incidence in the UK, closely linked to smoking.


120,000 men in England aged between 30 to 50 years of experience impotence due to
smoking. Even worse, cigarettes implications for cervical cancer in 1200 cases annually.


WOMEN SMOKING, EARLY MENOPAUSE
Women who smoke are likely to begin to enter menopause before age 45 years and also
make them face the risk of osteoporosis and heart attacks, researchers reported on
Norway.


"Among many as 2123 women aged 59 to 60 years, those who currently smoked, 59%
more likely to experience premature menopause compared with women who did not
smoke, "said Dr. Thea F. Mikkelsen of the University of Oslo and colleagues.


For the heaviest smokers, the risk of early menopause nearly doubled. However, women
who formerly smoked, but stopped at least 10 years before menopause, it is essentially
less likely to stop menstruating compared with smokers before the age of 45 years.


There is evidence that smoking later in life makes a woman more likely to experience
premature menopause, while smokers who quit before middle age may not be affected,
Mikkelsen and his team said in the journal Free, BMC Public Health.
They investigated the relationship further and determine whether exposure to secondhand
smoke may also affect the time of menopause. The researchers found that nearly 10% of
women enter menopause before the age of 45 years.


STOP SMOKING
Several reasons to stop smoking
1.   Impotence Smoking reduces the blood flow needed to achieve a state of erection.
     Because it can affect cigarette tersebutlah penile erection power.
2.   Smoking wrinkled face can reduce the flow of oxygen and necessary nutrients your
     skin cells with the road narrows blood vessels around the face. So will cause
     wrinkles.
3.   Stained teeth and smelly breath. Particles from cigarette smoke can give yellow to
     brown spots on your teeth, and this will also trap odor-producing bacteria in your
     mouth. Abnormalities of the gums and teeth are also more common in smokers.
4.   You and about a smell. Cigarette has an unpleasant smell and stick to everything,
     from your skin and hair to clothing and items around you. And this smell is not
     appetizing things couples and friends.
5.   Brittle bones Numerous studies have found an association between smoking with
     osteoporosis in men and women. A case study observing hip fractures in elderly
     women, and concluded that one of the 8 cases had fractures caused by bone loss
     caused by smoking.
6.   Depression Some scientists consider cigarettes contain substances that can cause an
     increase in mood. Substance is what usually implies diminished when someone
     suffering from depression. That is also the reason why people who are stressed or
     depressed tend to seek 'escape' to the cigarette.
7.   A bad role model for children. Every day, 3000 children dliperkirakan in the U.S.
     who become addicted to smoking cigarettes. If they keep smoking, 1,000 of them
     will surely die from diseases related to smoking.
8.   Fire if you're careless, when smoking clan who throw cigarette butts are still burning
     in any place can cause a fire.
9.    Poor blood circulation of red blood cells have been designed by nature to carry
      oxygen throughout the body. In smokers, the oxygen molecules is replaced by a
      component of cigarette smoke, preventing the transport of oxygen is important for
      cell life.
10. Impressed stupid If smokers defend their dependence, there is one truth that they
      could not deny: Like the slogan says, smoking is a killer. so, if there is continued the
      habit, of course it will look stupid.


THREE MAIN PAGE
Seeing the dangers of cigarettes that can be generated, it is among us need to work
together to do three main things:
 Communication and information about the dangers of smoking, both for the smokers
     and passive smokers immediately.
 Provide special places for people who smoke so that the non-smokers not exposed to
     negative impacts.
 Do not be reluctant to call it a smoker, if you feel disturbed.


STOP SMOKING STRATEGY
Here are strategies you can use to quit smoking:
1. Plan the Plan at any time stop you will stop smoking for good. Timing may be the next
     few days or 2 weeks. In the days leading up smoking, you reduce the number of
     cigarettes smoked per day.
2. Drugs drugs help reduce the symptoms of quitting smoking until the worst effects
     elapsed. You have the option of either drug on prescription drugs and over-the-counter
     (without prescription). Discuss these options with your doctor.
3. Help yourself and keep the plan you desire to stop smoking, find information about
     smoking and diseases caused by various credible sources like the American Cancer
     Society, American Lung Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
     or the local sites such as Indonesia Cancer Foundation, the Foundation the heart of
     Indonesia, the National Committee on Smoking Control Problems. Help yourself with
     the information that convinced you to stay away from cigarettes after quitting smoking.
4. Whether you are a support group meets online or a support group. Seek support from
   people who are also trying to quit smoking.
5. Counseling Counseling is a face-to-face meeting with a trusted physician, psychologist,
   nurse or counselor. This forum will discuss what things are blocking you to stop
   smoking and ways to overcome them.
6. Cold turkey is a strategy to stop smoking immediately. If you choose cold turkey then
   you will experience symptoms of tobacco withdrawal symptoms, like all people who
   quit smoking as impatient (restlessness), increased appetite, irritability. It is
   recommended that you seek help when you quit smoking, whether it be support or
   treatment.
7. Sports Sports will help you cope with stress and the increased weight after you quit
   smoking.
8. Invite a Friend / Family You Have a friend or family member who did not smoke for
   providing their time if you are having a difficult time.
9. Alternative therapy methods Some smokers try hypnosis or acupuncture to help them
   quit smoking, though not many proven successful. However, if the method is to make
   you stop smoking, is the method suited to you.
To quit smoking, you need a personal approach. What works for others does not
necessarily work on your


WHAT SHOULD YOU DO?
If you are a smoker and plan to have children, stop smoking now! (The experts
recommend that you stop smoking at least one month before conception). Consult a
physician or other health personnel to help eliminate your smoking habit. Lots of
techniques are offered, find the most appropriate thing to do.


Here are 7 ways to stop smoking that we recommend:
1. Clean and discard. Clean and remove all the cigarettes you have.
2. Make notes and warnings. Write a note like "you're not a smoker" and stick to the
   places you often visit - on the bed, the table and so on.
3. Do it again and again. Stay quit smoking on the day that you choose to do so. Do not
   do this intermittently.
4. Concentrate on the job every day to divert the desire to smoke.
5. Positive thinking. Think of yourself as a non-smoker. If there is an offer smoking from
   friends, tell your friend that the firm "I do not smoke".
6. Ask for support from family, close friends and peers to help you remove this smoking
   habit.
7. Fight the urge to smoke:
    Divert attention when you want to smoke. Say to yourself "Later!" and do other
      positive things.
    Interesting breath. Pull the breath for five seconds and release slowly.
    Drink plenty of water. Avoid beverages containing caffeine such as coffee, tea or
      cola.
    Busy yourself with activities. This is important so that you do not always think to
      smoke. Activities that can be done such as gardening, reading books and so on.
    Doing exercise at least three times a week for 20 minutes each session.
    Washing his hands or shower when you want to smoke.
    Chew something like chewing gum, etc..
    Pray you may be given the power and passion remains to stop smoking


At first quit smoking requires a very hard struggle. Do not be surprised if there are signs
such as irritability, difficult to control feelings, lack of concentration, anxiety, insomnia,
cough, decreased pulse rate, and increased appetite. This phase is called phase
withdrawal. Will go away after three to four weeks.


From various sources.

								
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