Guiding Questions by sofiaie

VIEWS: 61 PAGES: 119

									Differentiated Instruction


        Facilitated by:
       Crystal England
    www.crystalengland.com
If you want to feel safe and secure, continue to do what
you have always done.


If you want to grow, go to the cutting edge of our
profession.

Just know that when you do, there will be a temporary
loss of sanity.

So know when you don’t quite know what you are doing
You are probably growing!
                        --Madeline Hunter
                      Bracketing

You need:
A small piece of paper
A pen
    Directions –
    On your piece of paper, write down anything that might get in the
    way of you being fully available for learning. You won’t need to share
    with anyone.
    Fold the paper and put it in a pocket or a purse.
         Guiding Questions

   What is differentiation?
   Why is it important?
   How is it accomplished?
   Where does collaboration fit in?
   How does one assess the success of efforts
    to differentiate?
                  Guiding Question
         What is differentiation?

To differentiate instruction is to recognize students’
varying background knowledge, readiness,
language, preferences in learning, interests, and to
react responsively. Differentiated instruction is a
process to approach teaching and learning for
students of differing abilities in the same class.
The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize
each student’s growth and individual success by
meeting each student where he or she is, and
assisting in the learning process.
                 Guiding Question
           What is differentiation?

Vgotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development



 what is                               what is
 known                                 not
                LEARNING…with the      known
                guidance and
                encouragement of a
                knowledgeable person
                        Guiding Question
     Why is differentiation important?

   Enables teachers to open up learning opportunities for all students by
    offering varied learning experiences. RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION
   Allows teachers to put evidence-based best practices into a meaningful
    context for learning.
   Helps teachers to understand and use assessment as a critical tool to
    drive instruction.
   Adds new instructional strategies to teachers' "toolboxes" —
    introducing or reinforcing techniques to help teachers focus on
    essentials of curriculum.
   Gives administrators, teachers, and students an instructional
    management system to more efficiently meet the demands of high
    stakes testing.
If a student scoring at the 50th percentile spends two
years within each situation below…what are the
chances of moving beyond the 50th percentile?


   In an average school with an average teacher
   In the least effective school with a least effective
    teacher
   In the most effective school with the least effective
    teacher
   In the least effective school with the most effective
    teacher
   In the most effective school with the most effective
    teacher
   In the most effective school with an average teacher
              Guiding Question
How is differentiation accomplished?


Evidence-Based Interventions: Interventions
that have been documented to be effective in
research trials and that meet the criteria of one of
more professional groups or organizations that
provide formal designation. The evidence base is
typically on a continuum varying on dimensions
of type of methodology (e.g., randomized trials)
and type of study (e.g., effectiveness, efficacy),
among other characteristics.
              Guiding Question
How is differentiation accomplished?


Evidence-Based Practice: Refers to a body of
scientific knowledge defined with reference to
research methods and designs about a range of
service practices (e.g., diagnosis, assessment,
intervention). The practice is referenced to the
research quality and validity brought to bear on
these issues (Hoagwood & Johnston, 2003).
                Guiding Question
How is differentiation accomplished?


Evidence-Based Practice: Professional judgments and
practices are guided by two principles:

•Practice is guided by prior empirical knowledge that
certain actions performed will generate effective
outcomes;

•Student is evaluated to determine the extent to which the
predicted results occur as a result of the practitioner’s
actions (Cournoyer & Powers, 2003).
                 Guiding Question
  How is differentiation accomplished?


Progress monitoring is an on-going, systematic
approach to gathering academic and behavioral data.
Using a variety of data collection methods, student
performance can be examined frequently, over time,
to evaluate response to intervention, thereby allowing
data-based decision-making regarding
instruction and learning outcomes.
                  Guiding Question
        Where does collaboration fit in?

   Tenets of a Flexible Delivery System
    • based on mutual goals (SIP)
    • depending on shared responsibility for
      participation and decision making (PST)
    • consisting of individuals who share resources
      (RtI)
    • consisting of individuals who share
      accountability for outcomes (PSAE/ACT/ISAT)
                            Guiding Question
           Where does collaboration fit in?

    Flexible and Dynamic Grouping…
      Group size and composition are adjusted to
       accommodate and reflect student progress and
       instructional objectives
Carol Tomlinson (1999) describes differentiated instruction as a set of behaviors
that enable a teacher to: (a) take students from where they are, (b) engage
students in instruction through different learning modalities, (c) prompt
students to compete more with their own past performances than with
others, (d) provide specific ways for each student to learn, (e) use classroom
time flexibly, and (f) act as a diagnostician, prescribing the best possible
instruction for each student.
       Guiding Assumptions



   All students can
    learn what is
    important for
    them to learn.
Guiding Assumptions


             Differentiation is
              for all students
              and must
              become the rule
              rather than the
              exception.
                       Guiding Assumptions



                                 Teachers make
                                 the difference.




http://www.completeteacher.com
Evidence Based Practices Supporting
      Differentiated Instruction


                     Brain Compatible
                      Learning
                     Multiple
                      Intelligences
                     Bloom’s
                      Taxonomy
                     Cooperative
                      Learning
                Just the Facts

   The average adult human brain weighs three pounds and uses
    20% of the body's oxygen.
   A study showed that when mothers frequently spoke to their
    infants, their children learned about 300 more words by age two
    than did children whose mothers rarely spoke to them.
   Measures of brain activity show that during the second half of a
    child's first year, the prefrontal cortex, the seat of forethought
    and logic, forms synapses at such a rate that it consumes twice
    as much energy as an adult brain. That furious pace continues
    for the child's first decade of life.
                  Another view




                                         http://posit.ousd.k12.ca.us/institute.htm


Caleb Cheung: Brain Research and Learning Project Posit
             Cerebrum

Receives, categorizes, and interprets
  information. Involved in rational decisions
  and activation of behavioral responses.

Right – processes information as a whole, in
  random order, and spatially (creative),
  controls movement on the left side

Left – processes information in parts,
  sequences, and language (logical),
  controls movement on the right side
             Limbic System

   Hypothalamus – Asks “What is happening inside?”
    Monitors regulatory system, automatic functions,
    emotions, “flight, fight or freeze”.
   Thalamus – Asks ―What is happening outside?‖ Relays all
    incoming sensory information.
   Amygdala – Brain’s 911 system, reacts to incoming
    survival and emotional information. Encodes
    emotional messages to memories for long term
    storage.
   Hippocampus – Plays a principle role in learning and
    memory. Checks new information with stored
    experiences. Creates new meaning, converts short term
    to long term memory.
               Just the Facts

   A child's ability to learn can increase or decrease by 25 percent
    or more, depending on whether he or she grows up in a
    stimulating environment.
   Reading aloud to children helps stimulate brain development,
    yet only 50% of infants and toddlers are routinely read to by their
    parents.
   During the first month of life, the number of connections or
    synapses, dramatically increases from 50 trillion to 1 quadrillion.
    If an infant's body grew at a comparable rate, his weight would
    increase from 8.5 pounds at birth to 170 pounds at one month
    old.
               Just the Facts

   Your cerebral cortex is about as thick as a tongue depressor. It
    grows thicker as you learn and use it.
   The brain feels like a ripe avocado and looks pink because of
    the blood flowing through it.
   Your brain generates 25 watts of power while you’re
    awake…enough to illuminate a light bulb.
   Unfolded, your brain is the size of a newspaper.

These facts…and more…from www.brainconnection.com
                      What were they
                        thinking?
"The brain's center of reasoning
  and problem solving is among
  the last to mature, a new study
  graphically reveals. The decade-
  long magnetic resonance
  imaging (MRI) study of normal
  brain development, from ages 4
  to 21... shows that such 'higher-
  order' brain centers, such as the
  prefrontal cortex, don't fully
  develop until young adulthood."
  So, when your teenager does
  something stupid, and you say
  "What were you thinking???!", we
  now know.... he/she wasn't!!”
From the National Institute of Mental Health website
   http://www.nimh.nih.gov
            Digital Natives

   Parallel processing and
    multitasking
   Graphics BEFORE text
   Instant gratification
   Frequent
    rewards/feedback
   Hormones in 1000X the
    concentration
    experienced before
Digital Natives

           5,000 hours reading
           10,000 hours playing
            video games
           20,000 hours watching
            television….
           At their age, current 40
            year old adults had
            spent 12,000 hours
            reading
Stretching Adolescence

Fill in the blanks…

Puberty begins at age ____ and
 adulthood is reached at age____.
     Three Minute Move!

   Find a partner
   Decide whose birthday comes
    first (January – December)
   The one whose birthday comes
    last holds the invisible ball
   Catch, basketball, tennis,
    baseball, racquetball, soccer….
           Our Brains...

 Are   meaning
    driven
   Meaning is
    MORE
    IMPORTANT
    than information
A woman without her man is
        nothing
A woman without her man is
        nothing.
A woman; without her man
      is nothing.
A woman without? Her man is
         nothing.
Read this to yourself...
In addition to seeking
     meaning…

               Our brain uses
               patterns to justify
               meaning
              Patterns drive our
               understanding
              Intelligence is the
               ability to construct
               useful patterns
The Brain...

         Is the world’s greatest
          pattern recognition
          machine
         Bases nearly all its
          internal programming
          on association
         understands that
          saying a single word
          can reinforce an idea
    What else do we know?

   In the report Champions
    of Change, seven
    national studies
    regarding the impact of
    movement in
    classrooms...... all show
    increased student
    achievement due to the
    movement. (Fiske,
    1999)
What else do we know?

             Having students stand up,
              walk, jump, and clap as
              they review, understand,
              or master material will
              strengthen their
              procedural memories.
              (Sprenger, 1999)
             Standing appears to
              provide a 5-15% greater
              blood and oxygen to the
              brain, thereby creating
              more arousal of attention.
              (Jensen, 1995)
      What else do we know?

   Like movement, music provides a whole brain massage. Use
    it to increase your students' activity level, calm them down,
    or to facilitate their effectiveness while they are working.
    When students enter you room, change activities, or leave
           use fun music that has 80-90
    the room -

    beats per minute. Use background
    music, 60 beats per minute (the average
    heartbeat), no lyrics, while they are
    working. To calm students, use music that
    has 40-50 beats per minute.
Learning is like falling in
        love….
                 Attraction –
                  spark
                 Dating
                 Exclusive dating
                 Engagement
                 Marriage
                 Mature
                  Relationship
    Summary of Strategies

   Water
   Movement
   Engagement
   Emotional State
   Memory
   Repetition
   Music
   Rewards
          The Importance of
                Water
   If your body needs water,
    your brain starts to shut
    down.
   We have an electrical
    systems in our body. Water
    helps our cells talk to each
    other.
   If our brain was a computer,
    we would plug it in to get
    electricity… for the electricity
    to work in our brain, we need
    water.
   The more water you drink,
    the more energy you have.
Strategies You Can Use!

   Find a new seat
   Inside to outside
   Large group to small group
   Find three people who….
   Exchange some high fives
   Put your pencil in the air
   Thumbs up
   Imagine…
       High Impact Review!

   Find two people who know what
    the amygdala does…Make them
    prove it!
   Give a “high five” to anyone who
    can tell you a benefit of drinking
    water.
   Form a group of five or six and
    wait for the next instruction!
            Websites

www.beginwiththebrain.com
www.sciencedaily.com
www.brainplace.com
www.jensenlearning.com
www.brainconnection.com
www.ninds.nih.gov
www.eurakalert.org
www.dana.org
www.ajcn.org
www.upsidedownorganization.org
                   Books

   Secrets of the Teenage Brain by Feinstein
   How the Brain Learns by Sousa
   Why Do They Act That Way? by Walsh
   The Childhood Roots of Adult Happiness
    by Hallowell
   Different Brains, Different Learners by
    Jensen
   The Primal Teen by Strauch
   The Adolescent Brain by Sylvester
     What Is An Intelligence?


"An intelligence is the ability to solve
problems, or to create products, that are
valued within one or more cultural
settings."
               --Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind
     Verbal Linguistic Intelligence

   Reading and writing

   Public speaking,
    debate, and
    impromptu speaking
    games

   Word, spelling, and
    vocabulary games
    Logical Mathematical Intelligence


   Categorizing, sorting, selecting, analyzing,
    and organizing
   Problem solving
   Reasoning and strategy games
Visual Spatial Intelligence

                  Imagination and
                   pretending
                  Painting, drawing,
                   and sculpting
                  Graphic
                   representations
                   such as maps,
                   symbols,
                   flowcharts, and
                   blueprints
    Body Kinesthetic Intelligence

   Dramatization such as role-playing, mime,
    and charades
   Physical movement, sports, and dance
    activities
   Hands-on activities
Musical Intelligence

             Environmental
              sounds
             Recognizing and
              creating sounds
              and patterns
             Songs and rhythms
      Interpersonal Intelligence


   Cooperative learning
   Listening, communicating, and gathering
    input from others
   Leadership activities
       Intrapersonal Intelligence


   Independent, quiet,
    self-reflective
    activities
   Visualization
   Writing
    autobiographies,
    journals, and diaries
       Naturalistic Intelligence


   Enjoy/Understand
    nature
   Good at
    categorizing and
    collecting
   Prefers outdoors
                     Short Write!

In the next four minutes, write about one or more of the
following:
Which intelligences do I tap into most often in my classroom?
If there are intelligences I avoid, why do I do so?
When do I incorporate intelligences? During lecture? Group
work? Assignments? Small group instruction?
Do I know which intelligences are predominant in my
environment? If so, what do I do about it? If not, what might I
do about it?
Cooperative Learning

   Positive Interdependence
   Does the success of one benefit others?

   Increase Active Engagement
   Is the activity structured so that everyone MUST contribute?

   Equal Participation
   Is the expected participation equal among all members?

   Simultaneous Interaction
   What percentage are engaged at once?
  Cooperative Learning


 Positive Interdependence
 Individual Accountability

 Group Processing

 Social Skills

 FACE to face promotive
  interaction
Y – Chart…on active/effective listening
               What it FEELS like
             (could be any of these)
                     Comfortable
                       Relaxed
                       Focused
                       Intense


    What it SOUNDS         What it LOOKS like
           like
                             Heads nodding
     Only one voice
                            Good eye contact
    Yes, mmm, uh huh
                             Interested facial
       reinforcers
                               expressions
     Polite language
                             Show of interest
      Quiet voices
  Group size - 4 and no more…!

The ideal group size is 2 for participation…
3 is unbalanced (but could be effective if
decisions are needed as voting is easier!)
4 may help generate more ideas and
provide bigger opportunities for role
development turn taking etc.
More than 5 will lead to social loafing…
      Bloom’s Taxonomy Jigsaw

In cooperative groups:
Based upon strengths….choose…
    a note taker
    speaker (s)
    fact-checker
    a time keeper (12 minutes for this activity)
    a product: drawing, song, outline, …something else….

GOAL: Each person will share an aspect of Bloom’s taxonomy. As a
  group, create a representation that shows understanding of the
  hierarchy.
There will be a quiz!
           Tomlinson’s Guiding
               Principles

   The Teacher Focuses on the Essentials
    (Endurance, Leverage, Readiness)

   The Teacher Modifies Content,
    Process, and Products
   Assessment and Instruction are
    Inseparable
   The Teacher Balances Group and
    Individual Norms
        Tomlinson’s Guiding
            Principles

   All Students Participate in Respectful
    Work
   Teachers and Students Collaborate in
    Learning
   The Teacher Attends to Student
    Differences
   The Teacher and Students Work
    Together Flexibly
The Teacher Focuses on the
        Essentials


              What are
               the big
               rocks?
    The Teacher Focuses on the
            Essentials

   Clarify the terminal objective(s).
    • By the end of the unit, what is it possible for
      students to know?
   Determine the essential objective(s).
    • By the end of the unit, what must the students
      know to continue with academic success?
   Sequence the instructional objectives.
   Determine access points for instructional
    objectives.
                   Power Standards

   Does the standard have
    ENDURANCE?

    • Will the knowledge and skills to
      which this standard relates be
      used by students for several
      years after they use that
      standard at this grade level?



Example: Proficiency in addition and
  subtraction facts will be important for a
  lifetime.
                                    From: Leaders Guide to Standards by Doug Reeves
                     Power Standards

   Does the standard have
    LEVERAGE?

    • Will the knowledge and skills in
      this standard help students in
      other academic areas?



Example: The ability to interpret graphs,
  tables, and charts will help students in
  math, science, and history/social
  science.
             Power Standards

   Does the standard provide READINESS
    FOR THE NEXT LEVEL OF INSTRUCTION?

    • Do teachers in the next higher grade regard this standard as
      a necessary entry point for a student to enter that grade with
      success and confidence?




Example: Understanding of multiplication and division processes is
  necessary to develop proficiency in adding & subtracting unlike
  fractions and in reducing answers to lowest terms.
 Respectful, Collaborative, Flexible Classrooms
 That Attend To Student Differences


 “We must delight in each other; make other's
 conditions our own; rejoice together, mourn
 together, labor and suffer together, always
 having before our eyes our commission and
 community in the work, as members of the
 same body.”

Guess the year in which John Winthrop proclaimed the
above!
           Patterns drive our understanding….and our
         understanding contributes to the stories that we
                 first embrace…and then share.




Watch your thoughts; they become words.
Watch your words; they become actions.
Watch your actions; they become habits.
Watch your habits: they become character.
Watch your character; it becomes your destiny.
~attributed to Frank Outlaw
Respectful, Collaborative, Flexible Classrooms
That Attend To Student Differences




“Attitudes and perceptions color
our every experience. They are the
filter through which all learning
occurs.”
                    Robert Marzano, Dimensions of Learning
Respectful, Collaborative, Flexible Classrooms
That Attend To Student Differences



                        TRUST
                        RESPECT
                        RESPONSIBILITY
                        FAIRNESS
                        CARING
                        CITZENSHIP
    Respectful, Collaborative, Flexible Classrooms
    That Attend To Student Differences


What a Learning Inventory May Indicate...



   Immediate environment: sound, light, temperature, and seating
    design.


   Emotionality: motivation, persistence, responsibility/conformity and
    need for internal or external structure.
     Respectful, Collaborative, Flexible Classrooms
     That Attend To Student Differences



   Sociological factors: learning alone, with a partner, as part of a small
    group or team, or a combination of environments

   Physiological factors: auditory, visual, tactile and/or kinesthetic
    perceptual preferences; food or liquid intake, energy levels, mobility
    needs.

   A global thinker? Analytic? Impulsive? Reflective?




                                                          www.learningstyles.net
Respectful, Collaborative, Flexible Classrooms
That Attend To Student Differences


                        "If there is anything we
                         wish to change in the
                         child, we should first
                         examine it and see
                         whether it is not
                         something that could
                         better be changed in
                         ourselves."
                                Carl Jung
        Respectful, Collaborative, Flexible Classrooms
        That Attend To Student Differences


   All students feel valued and safe.                      Contributions of some students
                                                             disregarded or demeaned.
   Students treated with dignity
                                                            Teacher uses sarcasm and put-
   Teacher friendly and open.
                                                             downs and allows students to use
   Teacher uses humor but not at                            them, too.
    student expense.
                                                            Teacher engages in less than adult
   Teacher never forgets his/her role                       interaction.
    as ―the adult.‖
                                                            Teacher may show favoritism.
   Teacher may employ stern or
                                                            Teacher inappropriately friendly
    businesslike demeanor.
                                                             with students; attempts to be a pal.
   Teacher consistent in
                                                            Only some students feel free to
    communicating ―care‖ for students.
                                                             take risks; others are
   Students feel free to take
    intellectual risks.                                      intimidated.
    Adapted from Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching, Charlotte Danielson
        Building Community

   Come Together
    • Alien, Tiger, Cow
   Laugh Together
    • Bippity Bippity Bop!
   Work Together
    • Alphabet Dialogue
   Focus Together
    • Zen Clap
   Celebrate Together
    • Yellow Pages
        Content, process, and product can be
                  differentiated by:


   Readiness:
    a student’s entry point relative to a particular
    understanding or skill

   Interest:
    a student’s affinity, curiosity, or passion for a particular
    topic or skill

   Learning Profile:
    a student’s ability to learn and may be shaped by
    intelligence preferences, gender, culture, or learning
    styles
  The Teacher Modifies Content

                                                                Key Curriculum Concepts...
                                                                • Larger learning goals remain the
                                                                  same. (Big Rocks)
                                                                • Goals are not achieved at the
                                                                  same time or at the same pace.
                                                                • Scaffolding
                                                                • Group investigations/Flexible
                                                                  grouping
                                                                • Varied time/questions/texts
                                                                • Curriculum/Instructional Ladders
What the student should…                                        • Compacting
 Know                                                          • K-W-L charts
                                                                • Literature circles
 Understand
                                                                • Webquests
 Be Able To Do



    Adapted from How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms by Carol Ann Tomlinson
            Content…continued




   Several elements and materials are used to support
    instructional content. These include acts, concepts,
    generalizations or principles, attitudes, and skills. The
    variation seen in a differentiated classroom is most
    frequently the manner in which students gain access to
    important learning. Access to the content is seen as key.
        Content…continued


   Align tasks and objectives to learning goals. Designers of
    differentiated instruction determine as essential the alignment of
    tasks with instructional goals and objectives. Goals are most
    frequently assessed by many high-stakes tests at the state level
    and frequently administered standardized measures. Objectives
    are frequently written in incremental steps resulting in a
    continuum of skills-building tasks. An objectives-driven menu
    makes it easier to find the next instructional step for learners
    entering at varying levels.
      Content…continued

   Instruction is concept-focused and principle-
    driven. The instructional concepts should be
    broad based and not focused on minute
    details or unlimited facts. Teachers must
    focus on the concepts, principles and skills
    that students should learn. The content of
    instruction should address the same concepts
    with all students but be adjusted by degree
    of complexity for the diversity of learners
    in the classroom.
                       Scaffolding

   Provide clear directions
   Clarify the purpose for instruction by asking essential questions
   Keep students on task
   Provide clear expectations for quality
   Point students to worthy sources for help and information
   Reduce uncertainty, surprise and disappointment to maximize
    learning efficiency
   Deliver efficiency by requiring hard work, but not wasted work


               Note: teacher first….then class…then group…then individual
                        Scaffolding

       Shared goals based upon active diagnosis of student
        needs and understandings
       Provide tailored assistance
       Begin with the end in mind…with an eye on the goal
       Control for frustration and risk taking
       Give feedback regularly



Resource: www.cec.sped.org 2002 article by Martha Larkin Using Scaffolded
Instruction to Optimize Learning
               RAFT
         Writing Organizer

R - Role of the writer: Who are you?
A - Audience: To whom is this written?
F – Format: What kind of form will it
take?
T – Topic plus a strong verb
For example…

           Curriculum Ladders

      Use commas to separate adverbial
       introductory clauses in a complex sentence
      Use commas between two main clauses
      Use commas in a direct quotation
      Use commas in a personal greeting
      Use commas in a series
      Use commas in the date
           Scaffolding/RAFT…

   There ought to be a law…           Someday my prince will
   From this list (or brainstorm       come…
    your own, detail how you           How could you use the
    would use a scaffolding             American and Egyptian
    technique to get students to        Cinderella stories to develop
    produce a convincing initial        comparison/contrast skills?
    argument for/against one of        Think about plot, geography,
    the topics on the list:             role of all characters…etc.
   Seatbelts on buses                 Detail the steps that students
   School uniforms                     would take to create a
   Year round school                   product that shows an ability
   Banning books                       to compare/contrast one or
                                        more aspects of the story.
   Participation in war
         CURRICULUM
         COMPACTING

•Teacher assesses and documents what the
student already knows.
•Teacher indicates what the student does not
know about the topic or skill and plans how
they will learn them.
•Teacher plans meaningful and challenging
use of the time a student can ―buy‖ because
they already know much about the topic skills.
         Cubing/Think Dots

   Cubing/Think Dots are instructional
    strategies that ask students to consider
    a concept from a variety of different
    perspectives. For example, the cubes
    are six-sided figures that have a
    different activity on each side of the
    cube. A student rolls the cube and does
    the activity that comes up. Think Dots
    is similar – offering six choices for
    response.
           Cubing/Think Dots

   Cubing/Think Dots provide a way for students to
    explore one important topic or idea but to accomplish
    tasks at their readiness levels, in their preferred
    learning styles, and/or in areas of personal interest.
    All students are working on activities dictated by their
    materials; the activities are differentiated for
    individual students or groups of students. One
    activity might group gifted learners for more
    challenging, higher-level activities; another activity
    might group gifted and non-gifted students alike
    according to their interests. Groups are very
    flexible.
    LEARNING CONTRACTS

• Use standards – what, how, why to be
  taught
• Identifies work conditions

• Establishes criteria for successful
  completion of quality work
• Includes signatures of teacher and
  student
And now…presenting….
           Cubing/Think Dots
1.   How would you explain multiple intelligences (MI) to
     your students? (knowledge)
2.   In thinking about your current class, how would you
     summarize their learning profiles wrt MI?
     (comprehension)
3.   How would you apply what you know about your group’s
     MI to a lesson/unit that you will soon teach?
     (application)
4.   Think about your last unit. What analysis can you draw
     based upon what you know about your group’s MI?
     (analysis)
5.   How can you use what you know about your group’s MI
     to form cooperative learning groups? (synthesis)
6.   Discuss and assess the value of accounting for
     individual learning profiles/MI needs as you plan for
     instruction. (evaluation)
  The Teacher Modifies Process

                                 Sense Making Activities...
                                 • Explores the same concept or
                                   content.
                                 • Methods or discovery process
                                   varies based on readiness,
                                   interests or learning profiles.
                                 • Tiered assignments
Activities Designed to Help...   • Learning centers
 Make sense                     • Graphic organizers
 Take Ownership                 • Multiple intelligences
 Make meaningful                • Adjusting Questions
   connections                   • Flexible Grouping
         Process…continued

   Flexible grouping is consistently used. Strategies for
    flexible grouping are essential. Learners are
    expected to interact and work together as they
    develop knowledge of new content. Teachers may
    conduct whole-class introductory discussions of
    content big ideas followed by small group or pair
    work. Student groups may be coached from within or
    by the teacher to complete assigned tasks. Grouping
    of students is not fixed. Based on the content,
    project, and on-going evaluations, grouping and
    regrouping must be a dynamic process as one of
    the foundations of differentiated instruction.
                         Follow-up!


   For a good article on flexible grouping,
    visit….
                        www.learningpt.org


       Differentiation through Flexible Grouping
       By Dr. Michael Ford, 2005
      Process…continued

   Anchoring Activities
  Many things can wait; the child cannot.
    Now is the time his bones are being
 formed and his mind is being developed.
To him, we cannot say tomorrow; his name
                  is today!
                 Gabriel Mistal
One premise in a differentiated classroom:
             Differentiation Credo…




― In this class we are never finished---
Learning is a process that never ends”
What Is an Anchor Activity?

 It is curriculum-based.
 It has instructional clarity.
 It is differentiated to meet the needs
  of each student.
 It is engaging.
    Some Anchor Activities


               •Read
  •School Library Media Center
       •Learning Packets
            •Journaling
    •Learning/Interest Centers
        •Listening Centers
•Research Questions or Projects
 •Commercial Kits and Materials
      Planning for Anchor Activities

Subject/Content Area:

Name and description of anchor activity:

How will activity be introduced to students?

How will the activity be managed and monitored?


    Points                                Percentage of Final Grade
    Rubric                                Portfolio Check
    Checklist                             Teacher/Student conference
    Random Check                          Peer Review
    On Task Behaviors                     Other__________________
                   Think – Pair - Share



                                    Brainstorm good times to use
What are the benefits in using an   anchor activities. Think about
anchor activity?                    transition times.


What might be the concerns or       Brainstorm how you will overcome
problems to using an anchor         the concerns to using anchor
activity?                           activities.
        Process…continued

   Classroom management benefits
    students and teachers. Teachers must
    consider organization and instructional
    delivery strategies to effectively operate
    a classroom using differentiated
    instruction.
For example…

           The CHAMP Strategy

      Conversation – what level?
      Help – how do you get help?
    Activity – how much activity is appropriate?
    Materials – What materials are needed?

    Participation – Following along? Answering
       aloud? Taking notes?
   Process…continued

Sense Making Activities...
• Explores the same concept or
  content.
• Methods or discovery process varies
  based on readiness, interests or
  learning profiles.
For example…

                     Think Tac Toe
       Make a list of           Categorize 10            Make a list of foods to
                                                         add or take away from
       foods you like to        foods using the          your diet to satisfy the
       eat                      food pyramid             food pyramid




       Create a                 Classify items you       Compare and
       restaurant name          would put on a           contrast two foods
       and logo                 menu by category         from the same food
                                                         group on a Venn


       Write a one page         Investigate the origin   Make a food from
       report on a food that    of a food and share      the food pyramid
       you just tried for the   how it is used in its    for the class to try.
       first time.              culture.
For example…

                                Menus

 List of assignments, activities, or projects a student will work on during a
 set amount of time (ie. one class period, one week, one unit). Students
 may choose the order which they complete the work.

 Menu Format:
 ―Main Course‖ Items – those assignments that the student is
 required to complete
 ―Side Dish‖ Items – Students choose 2-3 assignments from a
 list of options
 ―Dessert‖ Items – Optional items that students may choose to
 do for additional enrichment or practice
Tiered Assignments - Description

   In a heterogeneous classroom, a
    teacher uses varied levels of activities
    to ensure that students explore ideas at
    a level that builds on their prior
    knowledge and prompts continued
    growth. Student groups use varied
    approaches to the exploration of
    essential ideas.
    Tiered Assignments - Rationale

   Blends assessment and instruction
   Allows students to begin learning from where
    they are
   Allows students to work with appropriately
    challenging tasks
   Allows for reinforcement or extension of
    concepts and principles based on student
    readiness
   Allows modification of working conditions
    based on learning style
         Tiered Assignments -
              Guidelines

   Be sure the task is focused on a key concept
    or generalization essential to the study
   Use a variety of resource materials at
    differing levels of complexity and associated
    with different learning modes
   Adjust the task by complexity, abstractness,
    number of steps, concreteness, and
    independence to ensure appropriate
    challenge
   Be certain there are clear criteria for quality
    and success
   The Teacher Modifies Product

                      Assessment...
                      • Formative and Summative
                        are modified to meet needs
                      • Authentic Assessment
                      • Independent Studies
                      • Graduated Rubrics (found
                        under scaffolding in your
                        packets)

How the Student ...
 Demonstrates and

 Extends learning
                Product…continued

   Vary expectations and requirements for student responses. Items to which
    students respond may be differentiated for students to demonstrate or
    express their knowledge and understanding. A well-designed student
    product allows varied means of expression, alternative procedures, and
    provides varying degrees of difficulty, types of evaluation, and scoring.



Fair is not always equal!
Fair is getting what you need…and it is up to adults
to help determine those needs…
Think “rockefeller”
        Product…continued

   Initial and on-going assessment of student
    readiness and growth are essential.
    Meaningful pre-assessment naturally leads to
    functional and successful differentiation.
    Assessments may be formal or informal,
    including interviews, surveys, performance
    assessments, and more formal evaluation
    procedures.
       Wake Up Your Brain!

   What are you doing?
   What is this?
                    Assessment

   Traditional Assessment             Authentic Assessment
   Generally relies on forced-        Promotes integration of
    choice, written measures            various written and
                                        performance measures
   Relies on proxy measures of
                                       Relies on direct measures of
    student learning to represent
                                        target skills
    target skills
                                       Encourages divergent
   Encourages memorization of          thinking in generating
    correct answers
                                        possible answers
   Goal is to measure
    acquisition of past                Goal is to enhance
    knowledge                           development of meaningful
                                        skills
            Mini Quiz

 In which type of assessment does
  Assessment drive curriculum?
 Which type of assessment promotes
  an emphasis on HOW instead of
  WHAT?
 Which type of assessment promotes
  cooperation instead of competition?
Too many kids struggle and fail needlessly simply because the
way in which they learn is incompatible with the way they’re
being taught. Schools are filled with kids who give up on
themselves, are convinced they’re "losers", and conclude they’re
just dumb. It’s tragic. It’s also painful—painful for the student,
teacher and parent who may be unaware that the "wiring" of that
child’s brain simply is not in synch with the demands and
expectations of the situations at hand.

Mel Levine, Founder and Co-Chair, All Kinds of Minds
         The 3T Rule

            You don't have to be a "person

Things      of influence" to be influential. In
            fact, the most influential people
            in my life are probably not even
            aware of the things they've

Take        taught me. ~Scott Adams


                Power lasts for ten years -
                influence for more than a
Time            hundred.
                ~Korean Proverb

								
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