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					World Calendars
 Jewish/Hebrew Calendar
•Based on three astronomical phenomena
   •Rotation of Earth about its axis (about a day)
   •Revolution of the moon about the Earth (a month)
   •Revolution of the Earth about the sun (a year)

•Months are either 29 or 30 days, corresponding to the
29 ½ day lunar cycle
•Years are either 12 or 13 months, corresponding to the
12.4 month solar cycle
•First lunar month begins when the first sliver of moon
becomes visible after the dark of the moon
How do we fix the calendar “drift”?

   Because a 12 month calendar does not
    align with a 12.4 month solar cycle an extra
    month must be added to the year every few
   Adar I (the extra month) is added in the 3rd,
    6th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and 19th years of the
   Current cycle began in Jewish year 5758
    (year that began on October 2, 1997)
   In addition to this drift it must be assured
    that Yom Kippur not fall adjacent to
   Month                  Number of days

   Nisan (March–April)*   30
   Iyar (April–May)       29
   Sivan (May–June)       30
   Tammuz (June–July)     29
   Av (July–Aug.)         30
   Elul (Aug.–Sept.)      29
   Tishri (Sept.–Oct.)    30
   Heshvan (Oct.–Nov.)    29 in some years 30
   Kislev (Nov.–Dec.)     29 in some years 30
   Tevet (Dec.–Jan.)      29
   Shevat (Jan.–Feb.)     30
   Adar (Feb.–March)      29 in some years30
   Adar Sheni             29 (intercalary month
                           in leap year only)
         Before fixed calendar
   Before Hillel II established a fixed calendar
    based on mathematical and astronomical
    calculation eyewitnesses testified to having
    seen the new crescent moon and the main
    Jewish court decided if an extra month was
    to be added
   To notify other villages of the start of a new
    month signal fires were lit on the
   This process was stopped when false fires
    began to be lit and a shaliach was sent
    instead but was not able to reach all
    communities outside of Israel in one day
    which led to some communities celebrating
    scriptural festivals for two days rather than
Fun Facts about Jewish Calendar!

   Date of Jewish holidays do not change
    from year to year on the Jewish calendar
    but they do shift on the Gregorian calendar
   12 month lunar calendar loses about 11
    days every year
   13 month lunar calendar gains about 19
    days every year
   A year with 13 months is referred to as
    Shanah Me’uberet which is literally a
    pregnant year
      The Roman Calendar
   A lunar calendar
   First was invented by Romulus
   Calendar contained 10 months
    with a total of 304 Days
Calendar Months According to

   Martius (31days)       Sextilis (30 days)
   Aprilis (30 days)      September (30 days)
   Maius (31 days)        October (31 days)
   Iunius (30 days)       November (30 days)
   Quintilis(31days)      December (30 days)
     Calendar Reform

   By Numa Pompilius
   He changed the calendar to
    355 days
   He also reduced the months
    with 30 days to only have 29
Reformed Calendar Months

   Martius (31)        September (29)
   Aprilis (29)        October (31)
   Maius (31)          November (29)
   Iunius (29)         December (29)
   Quintilis (31)      Januarius (29)
   Sextilis (29)       Februarius (28)
    Special Days in the Months

   Kalends~ Was the 1st day of
    every month
   Ides~ Occurred on the 15th day
    of every month that consisted of
    31 days and the 13th day of all
    the other months
   Nones~ Always occurred 9 days
    before the Ides, on either the 5th
    or 7th of the month
The Other Days in the Month

   These dates were calculated by
    counting backwards inclusively
    from the previous “special” days

   Example: 2 September is
    considered 4 days before 5
   Kal. Sept.=Kalends of September =
    1 September
   a.d. IV Non. Sept.=4 days before
    the Nones of September =2
   Non. Sept. =Nones of September
    =5 September
   a.d.VIII Id. Sept.=8 days before the
    Ides of September = 6 September
• Kal. = Kalends          *Non.= Nones
• a.d. = Day Before       *Id. = Ides

• What day is a.d. III Non. Sept.?
  – 3 days before the Nones of September= 3
• What day is a.d. VIII Id. Sept.?
  – 8 days before the Ides of September=6
           Roman Days

   Each day was divided into 24
   They went from sunrise to
   The length of the Roman hour
    varied according to the
    season they were in
               Hours in the Day
       Summer Solstice ~             Winter Solstice ~
             June 21                     December 21
   The amount of daylight        The daylight is much
    is considerably longer         shorter than that of the
    than that of the night         night
   The 12 hours for              The 12 daylight hours
    daylight were 1 hour and       were only 44 minutes
    16 minutes long                long
          Hours of the Day

   Only 2 days during the whole
    year when the Roman day
    contained hours of exactly 60
     Vernal Equinox~ March 21
     Autumnal Equinox~ September 21
          Days of the Week
   First the Romans used the ancient
    Market Week
   In AD 321 used the astrological
    week that the Egyptians used
      Contained 7 days

      Belief: Each day was ruled by a
       specific God after whom the sun,
       moon, and planets were named
         The Astrological Week
   Roman Day                   Modern Day
   dies Saturni                Saturday
        (the day of saturn)
   dies Solis                  Sunday
        (Sun day)
   dies Lunae                  Monday
        (Moon day)
   dies Martis                 Tuesday
        (the day of Mars)
   dies Mercuris               Wednesday
        (the day of Mercury)
   dies Iovis                  Thursday
        (the day of Jupiter)
   dies Veneris                Friday
        (the day of Venus)
The Origination of the Muslim
•The Muslim Calendar also known as the Hirja Calendar
originated in July 16, 622 CE. This is the estimated date of
Muhammad’s emigration to Yathrib (Mecca).
•When Muhammad and his followers fled to Mecca, Isalm
became an independent force from the old religion.
•At this time there were many different calendar systems used
throughout the Muslim countries. Once Muhammad had fled it
was decided to make one unified system.
       The Muslim Calendar

   Known as the Hijra Calendar, the
    Muslim Calendar is a purely lunar
   It contains 12 months that are based
    on the motion of the moon.
   There are 354 days in the Hirja
    Calendar, which makes their year 11
    days shorter then the Western
    Calendar system.
         Months of the Muslim
   There are 12 months in the Muslim Calendar.
   Each month has either 29 or 30 days. There is no
    discernible order.
   The first day of each month was decided upon by
    the sighting of the lunar crescent shortly after
   If the moon was not observed on the 29th day then
    the day that began as sunset was the 30th.
   If the lunar crescent was visible then the day that
    began at sunset would be the 1st day of the nest
   This such practice is still followed in a few parts of
    the world, like Pakistan and Jordan. However, in
    most Muslim countries astronomical rules are
    Names of the Muslim Months
     Muharram ul Haram (or shortened to Muharram)
      ‫مح ّم‬
     Safar ‫صفر‬
     Rabi`-ul-Awwal (Rabi' I) ‫ربيع األول‬
     Rabi`-ul-Akhir (or Rabi` al-THaany) (Rabi' II) ‫ربيع‬
      ‫اآلخر أو ربيع الثاوي‬
     Jumaada-ul-Awwal (Jumaada I) ‫جمادى األول‬
     Jumaada-ul-Akhir (or Jumaada al-THaany)
      (Jumaada II) ‫جمادى اآلخر أو جمادى الثاوي‬
     Rajab ‫رجب‬
     Sha'aban ‫شعبان‬
     Ramadan ‫رمضان‬
     Shawwal ‫ش ّال‬   ‫و‬
     Zil Khad ‫( رو القعذة‬or The al-Qi`dah)
     Zil Hijjah ‫( رو الحجت‬or The al-Hijjah)
         Days of the Week

   The Islamic week is derived
    from the Jewish week.
   The days of the week coincide
    with the Sunday through
    Saturday planetary week.
   The days begin at sunset
    compared to the Christian and
    planetary weekdays begin at the
    following midnight.
    Names of the Days of the
                   ‫س‬
    yaum as-sabt ‫( يوم ال ّبْج‬sabbath day) (Urdu, ‫)ہفخہ‬
   yaum al-ahad ‫( يوم األحذ‬first day) (Urdu, ‫)احوار‬
   yaum al-ithnayn ‫( يوم اإلثىيه‬second day) (Urdu, ‫)پير‬
                               ‫ث‬
    yaum ath-thalatha' ‫( يوم ال َّاثاء‬third day) (Urdu, ‫)مىگل‬
                           ‫أل‬
    yaum al-arba`a' ‫( يوم ا َرْبعاء‬fourth day) (Urdu, ‫)بذھ‬
                          ‫خ‬
    yaum al-khamis ‫( يوم ال َمِيس‬fifth day) (Urdu, ‫)جمعراث‬
                  ‫جع‬
    yaum al-jum`a ‫( يوم ال ُمْ َت‬gathering day) (Urdu,
               Important Dates
   1 Muharram (Islamic New Year)
   10 Muharram (Day of Ashurah, commemorates the
    deliverance of Moses and his people from Pharaoh[2]; it
    is also the anniversary of martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali), a
    tragic event to most Muslims, but especially important to
   27 Rajab (Isra and Miraj)
   15 Shabaan (Shab-e-Br'aat)
   1 Ramadan (first day of fasting)
   27 Ramadan (Nuzul Al-Qur'an) (17 Ramadan in Malaysia)
   Last 10 days of Ramadhan which include Laylat al-Qadr :
    commemorates the night when all who repent are granted
   1 Shawwal (Eid ul-Fitr)
   8-10 The al-Hijjah (the Hajj to Makkah)
   10 The al-Hijjah (Eid ul-Adha).
   Multiply the Muslim year number by 0.97,
    then add 622 to get the Gregorian year
   Example: Muslim year 1228 x .97 =
    1191.16 + 622 = 1813.16, so the Muslim
    year of 1228 corresponds to 1813.
   To convert from Gregorian year to Muslim
    year, subtract 622 from the Gregorian year
    and then multiply that result by 1.031
   Example: Gregorian year 1954-622 = 1332
    x 1.031 = 1373.29, so the year 1954
    corresponds to the Muslim year 1374.
    Interesting Facts About the
         Muslim Calendar
   Muslim Calendar is still used in most countries
    around the Gulf, especially Saudi Arabia.
   Some Muslim countries use the Gregorian Calendar
    for civil purposes and the Muslim Calendar only for
    observance of religious holidays.
   In the ninth year after the Hirja, the intercalary
    month (leap month) was prohibited. They believed
    that since Allah only created 12 months when he
    created the heavens and the earth that it would be
    unholy to add any more.
   It has been predicted that the Muslim Calendar will
    coincide with the Gregorian Calendar in the year of
    20874. This prediction shows that the first day of the
    5th months will fall on the same day.
The Aztec Calendar

   and the Aztec Calendar Stone
The Aztec Calendar

   Aztec Calendar Stone
     3ft thick, 12ft diameter, weighs 24
       metric ton.
     Graphic representation of the
       Mexica Cosmos.
     Also known as the Stone of the
      Fifth Sun
     Still a mystery
            The Aztec Calendar
   Tonatuih-
       Surrounded by four glyphs that
        represent the end of the prior
        solar eras or destruction of world.
        1.   Giants ruled the world- eaten by
        2.   God of the wind sent powerful
        3.   Some say fiery rain/ others say
             volcanic eruption
        4.   Massive Flooding
            Symbols are represented by ollin.
            Predicted date of destruction for the
             Fifth Sun during this 4-ollin cycle.
The Aztec Calendar

   Tonatuih cont.
     Dots along the rim possibly
      represent patterned stars or
     Outer rim shows 2 fire serpents
      meeting face to face.
     Tails conjoined at top with symbol
      ritual date 13- Reed.
           Considered to represent creation,
            possibly corresponding to 1011 A. D.
The Aztec Calendar

   Civil Calendar
     18 months, 20 days plus
     Nemotemi which is the 5 days at
      the end of the solar year to equal
      365 days.
The Aztec Calendar

   Second Sacred Calendar
     Each 24 hour cycle was designed
      by one of the 20 day names plus
      the numbers 1-13.
     The 20 day names are encircled
      around the sun stones center.
     Probably adopted from the Mayan
The Aztec Calendar

   Both calendars were combined to
    make a formula.
   No one date would repeat for a
    period of 18,980 days.
   Last day of solar cycle and sacred
    cycle coincided every 52 years.
       Celebrated every 52 years with a 12 day
        festival which brought the Mexicas into
        nearly perfect synchronization with the
        true cycles of the earth and sun.
Activity for the Aztec Calendar

   Website
The Chinese Calendar

   Dates back thousands of years
   Still in use today
   Consists of 12 months, every
    few years a 13th month is added
    for a leap year
The Chinese Calendar and Moons

   Based on the moon (a lunar
   One year is 12 full moon cycles
   The first of the month is the first
    day of a new moon
The Chinese Calendar Years
   In China, the years are equal to our
    current year (ie. 2006) plus 2698.
   2006 + 2698 = 4704 is the current
    Chinese year.

   In Taiwan, the years are equal to
    the current year minus 1911 (The
    year they separated from China)
   2006 + 1911 = 95 is the current
    Taiwanese year.
Chinese Zodiac
   There are 12 animals starting with
    Rat that represent the years
   Believed that our zodiac signs
    (Cancer, Aquarius, Ect.) are based
    off of these
   Each animal has characteristics for
    the year.
   Chinese instead of asking how old
    someone is, will ask what their
    animal sign is
   2006 is the year of the dog
Chinese Zodiac
          Chinese New Year
   January 29, 2006 was the first day of the
    Chinese new year
   The Chinese New Year is between
   The Chinese New Year starts the second
    new moon after the winter solstice
   The Chinese New Year ends on the full
    moon 15 days later
   The Seventh Day of the New Year was
    called "everybody’s birthday" as
    everyone was considered one year older
    as of that date. (In traditional China,
    individual birthdays were not considered as
    important as the New Year’s date.
    Everyone added a year to his age at New
    Year’s time rather than at his birthday.)
 Calendars out of this World

Imagine living on another planet. What
 would the basis for your calendar be?
          How much sun?         How different are           How long is the year?      How long is the day?
          Average distance      summer and winter?          Revolution                 Rotation
          from                                                       period                     period
                  Sun                     Obliquity         (length of year in Earth   (length of day in Earth
Planet    (in AU)               (tilt of axis in degrees)   time)                      time)

Mercury   0.387                 0                           87.97 days                 58.65 days

Venus     0.723                 178                         224.7 days                 243.0 days (retrograde)

Earth     1                     23.4                        365.26 days                23.93 hours
Mars      1.524                 25                          686.98 days                1.026 days

Jupiter   5.203                 3.08                        11.86 years                9.8 hours

Saturn    9.539                 26.7                        29.46 years                10.2 hours

Uranus    19.18                 97.9                        84 years                   17.9 hours

Neptune   30.06                 29.6                        164.8 years                19.1 hours

Pluto     39.53                 122.5                       247.7 years                6.39 days

Note: Revolution periods are sidereal periods
Proposed Calendar for Mars

   Calendar will indicate when to expect
    a season change.
   Generic units of Martian time would
    be the same as Earth. (Month, week,
    and day)
   Days are also divided into hours,
    minutes, and seconds.
   The names for the days of the week
    are named with these heavenly
    objects in mind: Earth, Saturn,
    Venus, Phobos, Deimos, Jupiter,
    and Sun.
   Mars’ day is very close in length to
    Earth’s day.
   The seven day week is very close in
    length to that of Earth’s.
   The beginning and extent of the short
    periods is not the same because the two
    planet’s natural days are not
   One year on Mars is almost double the
    length of one on Earth. So 24 months
    have been assigned to the Martian
   The months are named in to honor
    individuals who either participated in
    early space exploration or contributed to
    mankind’s understanding of science.
    They are sequenced alphabetically to
    help with recall of order.
   Our calendar can be broken down
    into halves and quarters. The
    Martian calendar can be broken
    down this way but can also be
    broken down into eighths.
   An eighth of the Martian calendar is
    very close to the elapsed time to a
    quarter of an Earth year.
   Most Martian calendar years have
    669 days but others have 668.
   Each new calendar year begins on
    the day of the vernal equinox.
How many days in a Martian month?

   1st Quarter       2nd Quarter        3rd Quarter        4th Quarter

 Month   Number     Month   Number     Month   Number     Month   Number
Number   of Days   Number   of Days   Number   of Days   Number   of Days

   1        28       7        28        13       28        19       28

   2        28       8        28        14       28        20       28

   3        28       9        28        15       28        21       28

   4        28       10       28        16       28        22       28

   5        28       11       28        17       28        23       28

   6        27       12       27        18       27        24       28
 If we were to start a human colony on Mars, how
 would you design our calendar?
Mars Facts:
1. Mars has a rotation rate such that one day or
(Martian day) equals 24.6 hours or 24 hours,
37 minutes.
2. Mars orbits the Sun in 687 Earth days or 670
Martian sols.
3. Mars tilts towards the Sun at an angle of 25
degrees. Earth has a similar tilt of 23.5
degrees. This tilt causes seasons on both
4. Mars has two moons. Phobos travels around
planet twice in one sol. Deimos travels around
Mars once in one sol.
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