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					                                                      Tables
Tables are made up of columns and rows with information
placed inside table cells. Tables may be used in one of two
ways. Data tables display relationships between types of
information. Layout tables position information on the page or
define the general layout of a page, such as in newspaper
columns. JAWS 4.5 and higher provides commands that allow
you to move around within tables and get detailed information
about the contents of table cells and the relationships within the
information.
When moving through a table with standard reading
commands, JAWS moves through the cells in order from left to
right. JAWS behaves as if each cell begins on a new line. This
is referred to as "linearizing" the table - presenting the
information in logical order from start to finish. This
presentation can make it difficult to understand the
relationships shown in data tables. A sighted individual can
scan a table, focusing on a row or column, and easily view the
relationships in the information. JAWS provides you commands
that allow you to move around in tables by column or row and
obtain this same type of information about the relationships in
the information.
Layout tables do not display relationships between information
but are used to position information on the page. A layout table
may display text in columns, or it may be used to display
advertising on a portion of the page and the text of an article on
another. JAWS interprets tables with only one row or column as
layout tables and ignores them by default.
HTML allows authors of web pages to provide additional
information about tables, such as a summary of the data in the
table. When you move to a table, JAWS announces the
number of columns and rows, and reads the summary, if a
summary is available.
HTML also allows authors of web pages to associate table data
cells with other cells that serve as headers for columns and
rows. Table headers provide information about the data
contained in each column and row. If table headers are used,
JAWS reads them as you move through the table using table
navigation commands such as CTRL+ALT+RIGHT ARROW.
When you move to a cell in a new column, JAWS reads the
header for that column but does not read the row header.
When you move to a cell in a new row, JAWS reads the row
header but not the column header.
The two tables below show some of the commands available
for reading and moving within tables. In the table of navigation
commands, no table headers are included. JAWS, by default,
assumes the first cell of each row and column contains a
header.




Tables with JAWS
                                                                   2
Last revised 10/22/04
Table with no table headers
   <table style="width: 100%;">
   <tr valign="top">
   <td>
   <table summary="A Table of JAWS Navigation Commands">

   <tr valign="top">
   <td>
   <p>Description</p>
   </td>
   <td>
   <p>Command</p>
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <td>
   <p>Say Current Cell</p>
   </td>
   <td>
   <p><b>ALT+CTRL+NUM PAD 5</b></p>
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <td>
   <p>Cell to Right</p>
   </td>
   <td>
   <p><b>ALT+CTRL+RIGHT ARROW</b></p>
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <td>
   <p>Cell to Left</p>
   </td>
   <td>
   <p><b>ALT+CTRL+LEFT ARROW</b></p>
   </td>
   </tr>
Tables with JAWS
                                                           3
Last revised 10/22/04
   <tr valign="top">
   <td>
   <p>Cell Below</p>
   </td>
   <td>
   <p><b>ALT+CTRL+DOWN ARROW</b></p>
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <td>
   <p>Cell Above</p>
   </td>
   <td>
   <p><b>ALT+CTRL+UP ARROW</b></p>
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <td>
   <p>First Cell</p>
   </td>
   <td>
   <p><b>ALT+CTRL+HOME</b></p>
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <td>
   <p>Last Cell</p>
   </td>
   <td>
   <p><b>ALT+CTRL+END</b></p>
   </td>
   </tr>

   </table>




Tables with JAWS
                                       4
Last revised 10/22/04
Illustration:
Description     Command
Say Current Cell ALT+CTRL+NUM PAD 5
Cell to Right   ALT+CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Cell to Left    ALT+CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Cell Below      ALT+CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Cell Above      ALT+CTRL+UP ARROW
First Cell      ALT+CTRL+HOME
Last Cell       ALT+CTRL+END




 Moving Between Tables
Press T to move to the next table or SHIFT+T to move to the
prior table. JAWS moves to the first cell of the table and reads
the table summary, if available, and the cell contents.


Nested Tables
Tables may be included within table cells, creating nested
tables. If you open the Adjust JAWS Verbosity dialog,
INSERT+V, and set Table Detection to all tables, JAWS
announces the nesting level of these tables.


A complex table with associative
information
HTML provides attributes so web page authors can design
tables that associate all information needed to understand the
Tables with JAWS
                                                                   5
Last revised 10/22/04
table with a screen reader. JAWS supports the attributes that
can make even very complex tables accessible and easy to
use.
The following table shows fictitious sales contacts in the West
and Midwest. This table demonstrates that HTML can be used
to specify what information is read by a screen reader, and that
JAWS gives you access to this information. As you move
through the table using table navigation commands, JAWS
reads the row and column headers normally. For some of the
row headers, JAWS also accesses additional information that
categorizes the headers. Press ALT+CTRL+NUM PAD 5 to
hear all header information for the current cell, and hear how
this categorization of headers makes the information easier to
use.




Tables with JAWS
                                                                6
Last revised 10/22/04
   <table border = "1" table summary="Listing of sales contacts by state.">
   <tr valign="top">
   <th></th>
   <th id="c1" axis="Who:">Company</th>
   <th id="c2" axis="Where:">Address</th>
   <th id="c3" axis="Where:">City</th>
   <th id="c4" axis="Where:">State</th>
   <th id="c5" axis="To contact us:">PhoneNumber</th>
   <th id="c7" axis="To contact us:">Fax</th>
   <th id="c9" axis="What:">Products</th>
   </tr>
   <tr valign="top">
   <th id="s1" rowspan="4" axis="Region:">
   West
   </th>
   <th id="r1" headers="c1 s1">
   Screen Readers Unlimited
   </th>
   <td headers="c2 r1">
   52 Third Ave.
   </td>
   <td headers="c3 r1">
   Los Angeles
   </td>
   <td headers="c4 r1">
   CA
   </td>
   <td headers="c5 r1">
   555-555-1234
   </td>
   <td headers="c7 r1">
   949-555-0101
   </td>
   <td headers="c9 r1">
   Screen Readers
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <th id="r2" headers="c1 s1">
   Access Now
   </th>
   <td headers="c2 r2">
   115 Webb Street
   </td>
   <td headers="c3 r2">
Tables with JAWS
                                                                              7
Last revised 10/22/04
   Seattle
   </td>
   <td headers="c4 r2">
   WA
   </td>
   <td headers="c5 r2">
   206-555-7777
   </td>
   <td headers="c7 r2">
   206-555-7778
   </td>
   <td headers="c9 r2">
   Software; Braille Displays; Embossers; Notetakers
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <th id="r3" headers="c1 s1">
   Webb Access Group
   </th>
   <td headers="c2 r3">
   100 Main Street
   </td>
   <td headers="c3 r3">
   Phoenix
   </td>
   <td headers="c4 r3">
   AZ
   </td>
   <td headers="c5 r3">
   602-555-3131
   </td>
   <td headers="c7 r3">
   602-555-3132
   </td>
   <td headers="c9 r3">
   Software; Web Accessibility Consulting
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <th id="r4" headers="c1 s1">
   Accessible World
   </th>
   <td headers="c2 r4">
   5 N. 7th Street
Tables with JAWS
                                                       8
Last revised 10/22/04
   </td>
   <td headers="c3 r4">
   San Francisco
   </td>
   <td headers="c4 r4">
   CA
   </td>
   <td headers="c5 r4">
   1-800-555-2190
   </td>
   <td headers="c7 r4">
   &nbsp;
   </td>
   <td headers="c9 r4">
   Software; Braille Displays; Embossers; Notetakers
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <th id="s2" headers="c0" rowspan="3" axis="Region:">
   Midwest
   </th>
   <th id="r5" headers="c1 s2">
   Special Computers, Inc.
   </th>
   <td headers="c2 r5">
   121 4th Street, Suite I
   </td>
   <td headers="c3 r5">
   Chicago
   </td>
   <td headers="c4 r5">
   IL
   </td>
   <td headers="c5 r5">
   800-555-1478
   </td>
   <td headers="c7 r5">
   708-555-2221
   </td>
   <td headers="c9 r5">
   Software; Braille Displays; Embossers; Notetakers
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
Tables with JAWS
                                                          9
Last revised 10/22/04
   <th id="r6" headers="c1 s2">
   IndyPendence Day Computing
   </th>
   <td headers="c2 r6">
   2110 Freedom Dr.
   </td>
   <td headers="c3 r6">
   Indianapolis
   </td>
   <td headers="c4 r6">
   IN
   </td>
   <td headers="c5 r6">
   1-800-555-1332
   </td>
   <td headers="c7 r6">
   317-555-6261
   </td>
   <td headers="c9 r6">
   Software; Braille Displays; Embossers; Notetakers
   </td>
   </tr>

   <tr valign="top">
   <th id="r7" headers="c1 s2">
   Touch the World, Inc.
   </th>
   <td headers="c2 r7">
   82 S. Broadway
   </td>
   <td headers="c3 r7">
   Cincinnati
   </td>
   <td headers="c4 r7">
   OH
   </td>
   <td headers="c5 r7">
   1-800-555-3691
   </td>
   <td headers="c7 r7">
   513-555-2221
   </td>
   <td headers="c9 r7">
   Software; Braille Displays; Embossers; Notetakers
   </td>
   </tr>
Tables with JAWS
                                                       10
Last revised 10/22/04
   </table>

Illustration:
              Company     Address       City     State PhoneNumber Fax     Products
 West          Screen     52 Third   Los         CA   555-555-1234 949- Screen
              Readers     Ave.       Angeles                       555- Readers
              Unlimited                                            0101
          Access Now 115             Seattle     WA   206-555-7777 206- Software;
                     Webb                                          555- Braille
                     Street                                        7778 Displays;
                                                                        Embossers;
                                                                        Notetakers
          Webb Access 100 Main Phoenix           AZ   602-555-3131 602- Software;
            Group     Street                                       555- Web
                                                                   3132 Accessibility
                                                                        Consulting
           Accessible     5 N. 7th   San         CA   1-800-555-         Software;
             World        Street     Francisco        2190               Braille
                                                                         Displays;
                                                                         Embossers;
                                                                         Notetakers
Midwest     Special   121 4th        Chicago     IL   800-555-1478 708- Software;
           Computers, Street,                                      555- Braille
              Inc.    Suite I                                      2221 Displays;
                                                                        Embossers;
                                                                        Notetakers
          IndyPendence 2110    Indianapolis IN        1-800-555-    317- Software;
               Day     Freedom                        1332          555- Braille
            Computing Dr.                                           6261 Displays;
                                                                         Embossers;
                                                                         Notetakers
           Touch the      82 S.    Cincinnati    OH   1-800-555-    513- Software;
           World, Inc.    Broadway                    3691          555- Braille
                                                                    2221 Displays;
                                                                         Embossers;
                                                                         Notetakers




Tables with JAWS
                                                                            11
Last revised 10/22/04
 Step 1: Create a table with 3 columns and 4 rows as follows.
Be sure to include a <summary> as well. Then practice reading
                     the table with JAWS.

Row 1: Department Name, Employee Name, Extension
Row 2: Shipping, John Smith, 432
Row 3: Receiving, Lee Dickens, 123
Row 4: Accounting, Sharon Jones, 225

  Step 2: Assign <axis> (“department”) and <header> tags to
  column 1 so that whenever someone is navigating up and
  down column 2, they hear the axis in addition to the actual
                      department name.



    Step 3: Assign header tags to column 2 and 3 so that
whenever someone is navigating up and down column 3, they
hear the contents of column 2 as the header instead of column
                1, which would be the default.



 Step 4: Add headings, level 2, to the two <legend> tags. Also,
  add a <caption> to the table and make it a level 2 heading.
   Practice navigating by heading within your practice page.




Tables with JAWS
                                                             12
Last revised 10/22/04

				
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