training needs assessment by alendar

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									Data for Decision Making- NGO

Training Needs Assessment

Public Health Management Institute
Praveen Kumar R, Lincoln P Choudhury and Preetha Menon K
Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 3
Rationale ................................................................................................................................................. 3
Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 4
Methodology........................................................................................................................................... 4
       Sampling: ....................................................................................................................................... 4
       Tool:................................................................................................................................................ 4
       Data collection: ............................................................................................................................. 5
       Data analysis: ............................................................................................................................... 5
Results ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
       Target group.................................................................................................................................. 6
       Competencies ............................................................................................................................... 6
       Curriculum ..................................................................................................................................... 7
       Training preference .................................................................................................................... 10
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 10
   Next steps ......................................................................................................................................... 12
Annexure ............................................................................................................................................... 12
Introduction
PHMI is a training institute involved in building capacities of health professionals working in
the field of HIV/AIDS. Public Health Field leader Fellowship is a program targeted on
national level and state level managers. Similarly, it is proposing to start DDM-Data for
Decision Making fellowship. This is targeted on the district level managers and data handlers
in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The aim is to promote evidence based management and
equip the workforce with skills to analyse and collect data for effective decision making.
These skills can be applied in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of
programs.

District level intervention was initiated seeing the lack of such training for district level
professionals. With CDC funding, DDM was initiated by PHMI and is currently in curriculum
development stage.

As the primary example of evidence based management, PHMI aims to develop its
curriculum and training plans based on data. This is made possible by an extensive baseline
survey [ Needs assessment] of the capabilities of professionals in using the skills for
evidence based management.


Rationale
The rationale to conduct a needs assessment for the target audience is to identify their
competency levels, training needs and preferences. This will help fine tune the course to the
needs and level of competency of the target audience. This can increase the effectiveness of
the training program. Training preferences is noted to adjust the teaching methods
accordingly. This is aimed to increase the learning efficiency of the target audience and
improve the outcome of the training activity.
Objectives
1. To assess the level of competencies of district level project managers in various skills
    needed for evidence based management.
2. To assess the expected outcome in terms of the level of competencies that they need to
    develop.
3. To identity the training preferences of the group.
4. To develop training curriculum for DDM training fellowship.
5. To develop a strategy for curriculum development based on training needs data.




Methodology
Sampling:
The target audience were district level project managers working in the field of HIV/AIDS.
Snowballing technique was followed. Inclusion criteria are that the respondent must be
working at district level in NGOs working in the field of HIV/AIDS. They must be involved in
program management.

Tool:
The skills and competencies needed for evidence based management were identified from
similar fellowships held in other parts of the world. The job description of this group was also
considered in fine tuning the skill list. This formes a part of task analysis for the post
considered in needs assessment. Final review by field level managers was also used to
refine the skill sets.
The skill sets and training preference questions were asked in closed ended questions. The
response scale for the different levels of competencies was designed after several
discussions and literature search. The lowest level of competency is having no clue or idea
about the subject. This is given score 1. The next level of understanding is in having a rough
idea, but not having done the task. This is given score 2. Score 3 is given to a higher
competency level where the respondent is able to do the task and also help others. This was
put also with the intention of identifying mentors for specific tasks. The highest level of
competency in this tool is the ability to train others in the task. This is given the maximum
score of 4. The tool was piloted among staff of similar job description within the organisation
and its sister concern.
Tool for line managers was the same list of skills but modified to the level of outcome, and
hence the same scale was used with modification in the grammar. Using the same tool was
mandatory for analysis.



Data collection:
The tool was a self administered questionnaire. The respondents were given time to fill up
the questionnaire. At the same time, the line managers were also interviewed and the tool
was administered. Both an open ended as well as closed ended tool was used. Personal
visits to the different NGOs were also supplemented by sending the tool by mail to district
elvel managers who were not accessible. This was with the support of line managers at state
head office. Two reminders were also sent by mail to these respondents. Those who did not
respond were not pursued further. A response rate of 100% in personal visits and 48%
through email was obtained.



Data analysis:
Data analysis and use of data for curriculum development was done after brainstorming
sessions with the team as well as experts in data management. The responses were
recorded in MS Excel. Frequencies of responses were taken. The median value for the level
of competencies of the respondents as well as the line managers was calculated.


Some subject area/skills whose level of competency among the respondents were equal to
what the line managers were expecting. They were eliminated from the curriculum. The gap
between the competency expectation of the line managers and the perceived competency
level of the respondents were calculated. Credit hours were assigned to the skills based the
gap. The skills where the gap was more was given more credit. The higher credit skills were
invested with more time for capacity building. This is a tentative time allotment. Further
refinement will occur after discussion meetings with subject experts to accommodate the
feasibility in terms of developing skills.


Training preferences in terms of venue as well as medium of communication were
accommodated into the curriculum. The learning methodology was also used to take
frequencies of options. A list of impressive resource persons was made from the feedback
provided by the respondents. Though the information is not complete, but gives scope to
expand the resource person database at PHMI.




Results


Target group
The target group has an age range of 23 to 42 years with 31 being the average age of the
group. With a relatively lower women representation of women (19%) comparing to the male
(81%), the group has varied education al background. The group has postgraduates with
social work or sociology (65%).26% of the respondents completed their MPhil or PhD, with
an average of 1.6 years in service, this group has undergone training (average 2.82in the
last one year) on various subject. Among the group members majority are (77%)
project/programme officers remaining ( 23%) people were M&E officers.

Competencies
The scale for measuring competency ranged from no knowledge of the skill or subject area
[minimum competence] to ability to train others in this area. When it came to programmatic
knowledge, the gap was seen more in areas of blood safety, ART and sentinel surveillance.

Its interesting to note that majority of the participants are comfortable in communication
skills, all most all (90%) respondents are comfortable in written and oral communication and
more than 80% of the respondents said that they have fair knowledge on how to do minutes
of meeting, agenda.

Data interpretation is remaining out of comfort zone for majority of the respondents. 61% of
the respondents said that they are not having much idea on prevalence rate, incidence rate,
attack rate, mortality rate, risk ratio.

Target audience are in a better position in data collection skills comparing to the data
interpretation skills. 83% of the respondents said that they know how to conduct survey and
77% of the respondents said that they know how to design questionnaire where as 74% of
the target audience said that they have fair knowledge on how to conduct FGD and
interview. it’s interesting to note that 80% of the respondents said that they don’t have any
knowledge on how to do GIS mapping and more than half (57%) of the respondents said
that they don’t know how to use internet to search for information. incidentally 74% of the
respondents said that they are having fair knowledge on doing community needs
assessment where as 56% of the respondents said that they are familiar on primary
stakeholder analysis in the meanwhile 60% of the respondents said that they don’t know
how to use secondary data(NFHS,BBS,IBBA).

After data collection analysis of the data is important. More than one third of the respondents
(80%) said that they don’t know how to do univariate analysis where as 78% of the target
audience said they don’t have nay idea about time trends. More than half of the (64%)
respondents are not having knowledge about timeline, pert where as 46% of the
respondents said that they are having fair knowledge on how to develop indicators.
Incidentally 75 to 80% of the target audience said that they do not have any knowledge
about analysis with Epi Info,SPSS and using software for qualitative analysis analysis
atlas,Ti,nudist where as more than half (57%) of the respondents are not having any
knowledge about CMIS.

Planning and human resource management are easily identifies as areas where the
managers in NGOs accept lower levels of competency. Incidentally 54% of the respondents
said that they don’t know how to do cost analysis and 77% of the respondents said that they
are comfortable using time line for monitoring/supervision purpose. 42% of the respondents
said that they are not having any knowledge on how to assess of manpower requirement.
More than half(52%) of the respondents said that they know how to provide feedback to a
field staff where as 46% of the target audience said that they don’t know how to do
performance appraisal.

Curriculum
Subject like basic understanding of HIV/AIDS transmission, programmatic knowledge on
essential care and treatment as well as skills to interpret data using QUALY, DALY were
excluded from the curriculum as the gap between present competencies of the group from
the expectations of their line managers was absent.
Of the different skill sets, the credit allotment was highest in data analysis followed by skills
for data collection. Data interpretation skills, communication as well as skills in human
resource management were of the same gap level. Software skills and finance receive less
importance as the gap noticed is less. The curriculum structure in terms of skills sets and
time allotment is given below.




Table 1: Curriculum Subject areas arranged according to gap score
                                                          Gap in
                                                          competen
Skills included in the curriculum                         cy*      Credit**       Time
Analytical Skills
Univariate analysis                                                2          3   12 hr
Time trends                                                        2          3   12 hr
Timeline, PERT                                                     2          3   12 hr
Analysis with SPSS                                                 2          3   12 hr
Using software for qualitative analysis atlas.Ti,nudist            2          3   12 hr
Analysis with Epi Info                                           1.5          2   6 hr
CMIS                                                             1.5          2   6 hr
Monitoring quality of data                                         1          1   3 hr
Qualitative analysis(FGD,interviews)                               1          1   3 hr
Data entry and validation                                        0.5          1   3 hr
Develop indicators                                               0.5          1   3 hr
 Total                                                    16
Data collection skills
Using the internet to search for
information(PICO,Boolean)                                          2          3   12 hr
Using data from NFHS,BBS,IBBA                                      2          3   12 hr
Design questionnaires                                              1          1   3 hr
Conducting interviews, FGD                                         1          1   3 hr
Doing situational analysis                                         1          1   3 hr
Doing a community needs assessment                                 1          1   3 hr
Primary stakeholder analysis                                       1          1   3 hr
Doing GIS mapping                                                  1          1   3 hr
Stakeholder, facility mapping                                      1          1   3 hr
Secondary data collection                                          1          1   3 hr
Conducting a survey                                              0.5          1   3 hr
 Total                                                    12.5
Communication Skills
Written and oral communication                                    1           1   3 hr
Minutes of meeting, agenda                                        1           1   3 hr
Writing letters, memos                                            1           1   3 hr
Writing event reports, tour reports                               1           1   3 hr
Communication etiquettes in email                                 1           1   3 hr
  Total                                                               5
 Data interpretation
 Prevalence rate, incidence rate, attack rate, mortality
 rate, risk ratio, odds ratio                                                  2              3 12 hr
 Significance-P value                                                        1.5              2 6 hr
 Understand tables, graphs                                                     1              1 3 hr
  Total                                                               4.5
 HR
 Conflict resolution among employees                                           1              1   3 hr
 Providing Feedback a to field staff for better performance                    1              1   3 hr
 Developing team spirit & motivation                                           1              1   3 hr
 Assessment of Manpower requirement                                          0.5              1   3 hr
  Performance appraisal                                                      0.5              1   3 hr
  Total                                                               4
 Planning
 Preparation of annual action plan                                             1              1 3 hr
 Using Logical frame work tool for develop your annual
 plan                                                                          1              1 3 hr
 Undertake cost analysis                                                       1              1 3 hr
 Using time line for monitoring/supervision purpose                            1              1 3 hr
  Total                                                              4
 Programmatic Knowledge
 Sentinel surveillance                                                         1              1   3 hr
 Programmatic knowledge Blood bank                                             1              1   3 hr
 Programmatic knowledge ART                                                    1              1   3 hr
 Programmatic Knowledge-TI                                                   0.5              1   3 hr
 Programmatic knowledge ICTC                                                 0.5              1   3 hr
  Total                                                               4
 Computer skills
 Using search engines for collecting data                                      1              1   3 hr
 Using Ms Excel                                                                1              1   3 hr
 Using Ms Power point                                                          1              1   3 hr
 Using Ms Word                                                               0.5              1   3 hr
  Total                                                               3.5
 Reporting/Finance
 Preparing budget as per action plan                                           1              1 3 hr
 Maintaining bank account& report on fund flow                               0.5              1 3 hr
 Checking fund flow based on activities on a monthly basis                   0.5              1 3 hr
  Total                                                               2
*This is the difference between the competency level the line managers want the target audience to be and the
perceived competence of the respondents in the same skill sets.
**This is the credit assigned for each skill based on the gap in competency. 0.5 to1=1; 1.1to1.9=2; 2to3=3
Training preference
Majority of the respondents preferred to attend trainings in state of district capital. The
favoured medium of communication is English for all the persons interviewed. However a
sizeable percentage also wanted Telugu for communication and learning. The response in
favour of residential workshop is overwhelming with stress on on-the-job training as well as
lecture hours.
The respondents are willing to commit an average of 6.8 days while their line managers are
willing to let them go for training for a shorter period of time ( 5.5 days). The average of 6
days for training for the group seems to satisfy both groups.



Conclusion
The training needs assessment exercise for Data for Decision Making fellowship among
district level managers was helpful in building the curriculum of the course. The subject/skills
to be included in the syllabus were charted out. The final syllabus will depend on the inputs
of subject experts keeping the learning objective, teaching methodology as well as the
nature of skill training in mind. However the skills with greater credit will be given priority in
terms of time allotted as well as inclusion in group exercises or home work.
The language of instruction will be English as the whole group appears to be comfortable
with it. The reading material and tool kit can be in English. The resource person capable of
explaining the concepts in Telugu should be given precedence. However technical expertise
has to be considered too. The teaching methodology will depend on the session objectives
and adult learning methodology must be ensured. As residential workshop structure as well
as on the job training finds acceptance in the group, a balanced approach of on the job
mentoring and training along with residential workshop can be designed. In case of
workshop, duration of six days at a stretch at venues like district and state capital can be
planned as a part of training structure.
This needs assessment exercise also helped develop a strategy for curriculum development
based on data collected from stakeholders.
Figure 1: Flow chart for curriculum building –DDM (P.T.O)
Next steps
With this information, the next steps would involve fine tuning the curriculum with the help of
subject experts. This would require a curriculum building workshop with subject experts as
well as field experts. The main output being fixing up the flow of sessions, and session
objectives. The time needed for each of the sessions as well as the thematic content of the
workshops will be designed. Resource person identification, as well of design of home work
and field assignment can be accomplished in this workshop.
The fellowship model with six day workshops at different district capital and Hyderabad could
be planned. Planning for equally detailed homework and on the job training would ensue.




Annexure
Annexure 1.

Resource persons list


                                Resource persons list
Sl.No Subject Name                                          Resource Person Name


        Inter personal skills, management theatre,          1.Ms.Tilly sellers(PATH)
   1    convergence of HIV,conducting base line             2.Dr.Amitragitsaha
                                                            1.Nandinee
                                                            Bandhopadyay(path)
        Adolescent educate pro, convergence trg pro.        2.Amitrajit saha(path)
   2    HIV/AIDS                                            3.Manjusha(scert)
                                                            1.Janak doshi
        Iso 9001-2000,green belt, workplace                 2.Durga Prasad
   3    intervention                                        3.Dr.Ramnik
                                                   1.Raamki(saathi)
                                                   2.Dr.Ramesh
                                                   3.Dr.Manoharam
4    Dapcu,act,obgy trg                            4.Dr.Rajashekaran
                                                   1.Dr.Manoharan
                                                   2.Ramakrishna(saathi)
5    Clinical hiv,abstract writing                 3.Patric
                                                   1.Ms.Saraswathi
     Data management, proposal                     2.Mr.Dhenuka naik
6    development,HIV/AIDS                          3.Mr.Sathyanarayana
7    Programme management                          1.Prof.lina(IIM)

                                                   1.Mr.Andre
     Result based management, proposal             2.Mr.Showry
8    development, project management               3.Ms.Devika
                                                   1.Dr.Subhani
                                                   2.Ravi varma
9    Counselling,research,C.B.O Training           3.Dr.Prakash amma

10   Counselling on msm sexuality                  1.Vijay R Nair

     Advocacy and documentation,HIV life cycle,    1.Dr.Ramakrishnan
11   stages and ARV                                2.Dr.Satish

     Qualitative                                   1.Prof.Sony
12   inquiry,sampling,datacollection,documentation pillisery(IRMA,Anand)
                                                   1.Dr.Vijay
                                                   2.Dr.Reynold
                                                   3.Dr.Gajanan
     Infection control,HIV care mgt,project        4.Mr.Prathyngh
13   management, leadership for results            5.Mr.Alen

                                                   1.Mr.Veeerapandian
                                                   2.Ms.Magdeline
     Follow-up councelling,Comprehencive care of   3.Dr.Vikram
14   PLHIV,Human&Women rights                      4.Mr.Srinivas
        Annexure 2

        Tool used for training needs assessment –administered on target
        audience

                                        Questionnaire


                                 PUBLIC HEALTH MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE
                                    TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT

        This survey is being conducted by Public Health Management Institute. The objective of this survey is
        to identifying the training needs of public health professionals. This will result in more appropriate
        trainings to develop your knowledge and skills. Your feedback from this survey will help us design and
        offer courses in the next one year that better fit your training needs. We are doing this survey as a part
        of our routine process for curriculum development. Please take about 20 minutes to complete the
        following survey. All responses are strictly confidential.


    A. Personal History
    1. Name                                                      5. Years of service in the present post
    2. Age in years __________                                   6. Educational qualification [Includes degrees,
    3. Sex □M            □F                                      diplomas, and certification courses.]
    4. Post and Organization

B. Training history In Last One Year [This information is for our improvement, and will be kept strictly confidential]
                                                       3.
1. Area of training/skills learnt 2. Number of trainings Difficulties faced on 4. Memorable and impressive
                                     undergone in the       the training           resource persons
                                     last one year
C.Training preferences

           1. How would you prefer the training style :   (Please tick against the preferred method)

      a)         Lecture/discussion

      b)         Seminar

      c)         Residential workshop

      d)         Formal on-the-job training

      e)         Evening classes

      f)         Weekend classes
2. How many days at a stretch would you like to spend on training programs?
           a) 4 days           b) 7 days              c) 14 days

3. What languages do you want to be trained in? a) English         b) Telugu           c) Both

4. Where would you like your training programs to be conducted?[Place]
a) Any district Headquarter          b) Hyderabad c) Any other places in AP......please
mention..................




A. Training needs [Kindly tick on the relevant boxes to identify your level of competence in
the following skills listed below.]

Skills or Subject Area                        A              B            C               D

                                              Did not        Have a       Capable of      Capable of
                                              have a         rough idea   performing      performing
                                              chance to      on           & helping       & training
                                              use skill      performing   others          others
Programmatic Knowledge                                       the task

1.Basic Understanding of HIV/AIDS
epidemic, dynamics of transmission

2.Sentinel surveillance

3.Essential care and support in HIV/AIDS

4.Programmatic Knowledge-TI

5.Programmatic knowledge ICTC

6.Programmatic knowledge-PPTCT

7.Programmatic knowledge Blood bank

8.Programmatic knowledge ART

Communication Skills

9.Written and oral communication
10.Minutes of meeting, agenda

11.Writing letters, memos

12.Writing event reports, tour reports

13.Communication etiquettes in email

Data interpretation

14.Understand tables, graphs

15.Prevalence rate, incidence rate, attack
rate, mortality rate, risk ratio, odds ratio

16.Significance-P value

17.QUALY,DALY,Cost analysis, cost benefit
ratio

Data collection skills

18.Conducting a survey

19.Design questionnaires

20.Conducting interviews, FGD

21.Doing situational analysis

22.Doing a community needs assessment

23.Participatory approach-chapathi
diagram, ranking, problem tree

24.Primary stakeholder analysis

25.Doing GIS mapping

26.Stakeholder, facility mapping

27.Using the internet to search for
information(PICO,Boolean)

28.Secondary data collection
29.Using data from NFHS,BBS,IBBA



Analytical Skills

30.Univariate analysis

31.Time trends

32.Timeline, PERT

33.Data entry and validation

34.Monitoring quality of data

35.Qualitative analysis(FGD,interviews)

36.Analysis with Epi Info

37.Analysis with SPSS

38.Using software for qualitative analysis
atlas.Ti,nudist

39.Develop indicators

40.CMIS

Computer skills

41.Using Ms Word

42.Using Ms Excel

43.Using Ms Power point

44.Using search engines for collecting data

Planning

45.Preparation of annual action plan

46.Using Logical frame work tool for
develop your annual plan
47.Undertake cost analysis

48.Using time line for
monitoring/supervision purpose

HR

49.Assessment of Manpower requirement

50. Performance appraisal

51.Conflict resolution among employees

52.Providing Feedback a to field staff for
better performance

53.Developing team spirit & motivation

Reporting/Finance

54.Maintaining bank account& report on
fund flow

55.Checking fund flow based on activities
on a monthly basis

56.Preparing budget as per action plan
Annexure 3

Tool used for training needs Assessment Of Line Managers–
administered on Line Managers


                           PUBLIC HEALTH MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE
                                  TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT

This survey is being conducted by Public Health Management Institute. The objective of this survey is
to identifying the training needs of public health professionals. This will result in more appropriate
trainings to develop your knowledge and skills. Your feedback from this survey will help us design and
offer courses in the next one year that better fit the needs of your organization. We are doing this
survey as a part of our routine process for curriculum development. All responses are strictly
confidential.




        1. Name:



        2. Post & Organization:




 Skills or Subject Area                            A              B               C               D

                                                   Not            Have a rough    Capable of      Capable of
                                                   required       idea on         performing &    performing &
                                                                  performing      helping         training
 Programmatic Knowledge                                           the task        others          others

 1.Basic Understanding of HIV/AIDS epidemic,
 dynamics of transmission

 2.Sentinel surveillance

 3.Essential care and support in HIV/AIDS
4.Programmatic Knowledge-TI

5.Programmatic knowledge ICTC

6.Programmatic knowledge-PPTCT

7.Programmatic knowledge Blood bank

8.Programmatic knowledge ART

Communication Skills

9.Written and oral communication

10.Minutes of meeting, agenda

11.Writing letters, memos

12.Writing event reports, tour reports

13.Communication etiquettes in email

Data interpretation

14.Understand tables, graphs

15.Prevalence rate, incidence rate, attack rate,
mortality rate, risk ratio, odds ratio

16.Significance-P value

17.QUALY,DALY,Cost analysis, cost benefit ratio

Data collection skills

18.Conducting a survey

19.Design questionnaires

20.Conducting interviews, FGD

21.Doing situational analysis

22.Doing a community needs assessment


23.Participatory approach-chapathi diagram,
ranking, problem tree

24.Primary stakeholder analysis

25.Doing GIS mapping

26.Stakeholder, facility mapping

27.Using the internet to search for
information(PICO,Boolean)

28.Secondary data collection

29.Using data from NFHS,BBS,IBBA



Analytical Skills

30.Univariate analysis

31.Time trends

32.Timeline, PERT

33.Data entry and validation

34.Monitoring quality of data

35.Qualitative analysis(FGD,interviews)

36.Analysis with Epi Info

37.Analysis with SPSS

38.Using software for qualitative analysis
atlas.Ti,nudist

39.Develop indicators

40.CMIS

Computer skills

41.Using Ms Word
42.Using Ms Excel

43.Using Ms Power point

44.Using search engines for collecting data

Planning

45.Preparation of annual action plan

46.Using Logical frame work tool for
develop your annual plan

47.Undertake cost analysis

48.Using time line for
monitoring/supervision purpose

HR

49.Assessment of Manpower requirement

50. Performance appraisal

51.Conflict resolution among employees

52.Providing Feedback a to field staff for
better performance

53.Developing team spirit & motivation

Reporting/Finance

54.Maintaining bank account& report on
fund flow

55.Checking fund flow based on activities
on a monthly basis

56.Preparing budget as per action plan




57. What are the skills/competencies would you like your staff to develop and assist you?
58. How many days at a stretch would you allow your staff to spend on training programs in two
months?
          a) 4 days           b) 7 days              c) 14 days




59. What duration of time would you like the fellowship to spread across for capacity
building in D.D.M?

a) 3 months           b) 6 months               c) 1 year                 d) 1.5 years




60. What types of support will you provide to your staff who is attending DDM fellowship?

a) T.A & D.A         b) Sponsoring           c) Paid leave        d) Accommodation cost

e) All               f) None




61. Any other suggestions
Annexure 4 :Result

             Table No.4.1:Result of preference of training

                                    Average number of days preferred for
Source of information               workshop
Respondents                         6.8 days
Line managers                       5.5 days
Average value                       6.15 days                              6 days


             Table No 4.2: Preferred venue of the respondents
Venue for training                                    Frequency
Any place in AP                                                                 14
Hyderabad                                                                       22
District headquarter                                                            25


            Table No 4.3: Preferred medium of communication


Medium of instruction                                   Frequency
Both Telugu and English                                                         12
English                                                                         19




                       Table No 4.4: Favoured teaching style
Teaching style                                         Frequency
Residential workshop
                                                                                16
Lecture/discussion
                                                                                14
Formal on-the-job training
                             13
Weekend classes              12
Seminar                       8
Evening classes               7

								
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