the worlds most popular granites by alendar

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									              THE WORLD'S MOST POPULAR GRANITES

                                                                       Dr.Daniel Pivko
                                                    Dept. of Geology and Paleontology
                                       Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences,
                                                                    Bratislava, Slovakia


This article presents 150 most-popular granites in the commercial sense. The granites are
described from a different point of view than usual viz. commercial name, other
commercial names, country, petrographic type, geological age, water absorption, similar
stones, and basis of name. Terms are defined first followed by a table of 150 granites in
alphabetical order, which is the main part. The idea for this article was from my
experience and observation of the frustration of consumers and the trade in the process of
selection, use, care and maintenance of granite as evident from the popular Expert Advice
section of www.findstone.com . The data is based on my own research and evaluation of
hundreds of web sites and catalogues. Your questions, comments, corrections and
additions are welcomed at daniel@findstone.com

True Granites vs. Commercial Granites

Granites in the commercial sense are hard natural stones which are polishable and need
to be worked on by harder tools than for marble for cutting, shaping and polishing. They
are usually suitable for interior and exterior use. Thus have different geological origins
and minerals. Petrographically, they are either magmatic or metamorphic rocks.

True granites, i.e. granites in the scientific sense, are only their one group within the
range of commercial granites. They are light magmatic rocks formed by crystalization
from magma under the earth‘s surface.

Commercial granites are mixtures of minerals and are composed of visible multicoloured
mineral grains. Grains of one colour are typically encircled by grains of other colours,
e.g. grey quartz is close to pink orthoclase, white plagioclase and dark mica.

Marbles in the commercial sense are either without visible grains of calcite (in
limestones) or are composed of grouped calcite grains of similar colour (in true marbles).

                  True Granite                                 True Marble




                                                                                        1
Comparison of true granite and true marble. Schematic images are magnified.

In commercial granites, the larger the grain size, the lower is the strength, and the greater
is the brittleness, because mineral cleavage can occur more easily in larger grains. A
homogenous structure or a mildly-oriented one is a feature of magmatic rocks & so they
have a similar appearance (structure) even over a large area of a slab. Metamorphic rocks
are characterised by structures with bands, schlierens, & waves & so every part of a slab
usually has a different appearance.

Every commercial granite contains feldspar of 6 Mohs Hardness of various colours
white, pink, red, yellow, brown, green and grey. Feldspar grains are typically not
translucent and are with cleavage. Many granites, especially of lighter colours, contain
quartz of 7 Mohs Hardness with grey (sometimes bluish, brownish) colour and the grains
are glassy translucent without cleavage. Further, there are dark minerals such as
hornblende, pyroxene and biotite with black, dark green or dark brown colours. These
minerals have larger specific gravity and lower hardness than feldspars and quartz. Some
granites (e.g. KASHMIR WHITE) contain garnet of almost round shape and brown to
dark-red colour.

The more the quartz, the lighter is the granite in colour, the larger is the microcrack
porosity (because quartz volume decreases during crystalization), and so the lower is the
strength, and the lower is the resistance to fire. The darker the granite, the more are the
dark minerals, and the heavier is the granite.

Granites are hard and not scratchable by a nail, knife or glass piece unlike marbles.
Depending on the feldspars and quartz portions, the total Mohs Hardness of granite is
from 5.5 to 7. The darker the granite, the lesser is the quartz, and thus the lower is the
hardness.

Commercial granites are not affected by common organic acids such as a lemon acid
and vinegar, contrary to marbles.


                                                                                           2
How to use the table below?

Explanation of every column in the table is given below. Sample images are available at
Stone                  Album                    of                www.findstone.com

COMMERCIAL NAME & COUNTRY, STATE, PROVINCE

In the first column, the most frequently used or the most suitable names are presented
alphabetically. The geographical location can help you source or select a stone.

COLOURS

In this column typical colours are stated according to their importance. While some
variations are possible, this column can help you select or shortlist stones

PETROGRAPHIC TYPE

As mentioned, commercial granites have different origins and compositions: & this is an
important consideration for the application for which the stone is used.

MAGMATIC ROCKS were formed by crystalization from magma. Many commercial
granites are magmatic (igneous) rocks created some kilometers under the earth‘s surface.
These so-called plutonic rocks are composed of visible mineral grains of equal size or
some grains larger than others - porphyritic structure (e.g. SAPPHIRE BROWN). The
grains are typically without orientation (e.g. RUBY RED), but there are also oriented
plutonic rocks (e.g. SALISBURY PINK). Classification is based on mineral content as
follows.

Granite group - rich in quartz (20 - 60 %) and feldspars (K-feldspars, Na-Ca-feldspars -
plagioclases).

      Granite feldspars (K-feldspars more than plagioclases), quartz, a little mica
       - light grey, pink, red, white, yellow, brown colour.
      Granodiorite - feldspars (plagioclase more than K-feldspar), quartz, a little dark
       mica, biotite. It is mainly of grey colour.
      Pegmatite - very coarse rock of granite composition created in dykes.

Syenite group - rich in K-feldspars with less plagioclase and quartz (up to 20 %).

      Syenite - feldspars (K-feldspars more than plagioclases), less biotite, hornblende.
      Quartz syenite - feldspars (K-feldspars more than plagioclases), less quartz,
       biotite, hornblende.
      Larvikite - special feldspars, small quantity of quartz, pyroxene, magnetite.
      Monzonite - feldspars (K-feldspars = plagioclases), less biotite, hornblende,
       pyroxene.




                                                                                        3
        Quartz monzonite - feldspars (K-feldspars = plagioclases), less quartz, biotite,
         hornblende, pyroxene

Diorite group - rich in plagioclase, biotite, hornblende and pyroxene. It is usually of
dark-grey colour.

        Diorite - plagioclase, biotite, hornblende and pyroxene, small amount of K-
         feldspar and quartz.

Gabbro group - rich in plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine. It is usually of dark-grey to
black colours.

        Gabbro - plagioclase, pyroxene and less olivine.
        Anorthosite – plagioclase, small quantity of pyroxene and olivine.
        Dolerite – fine-grained rock of gabbro composition formed in dykes. Older name
         – diabase. It is transition between gabbro and basalt.


Charnockite group is rich in feldspars (K-feldspars, plagioclases) with less quartz and
pyroxene.
This special group can be mainly added to granite group or to syenite group according to
their composition.

Table showing the composition of magmatic rocks used as commercial granites

         Minerals            Plagioclase Plagioclase Plagioclase        Plagioclase
                             10 – 35 % 35 – 65 % 65 – 90 %              90 – 100 %
         Quartz 20 – 60 %                            Granodiorite
                                      Granite
         Quartz 5 – 20 %       Quartz       Quartz
                               syenite    monzonite
         Quartz 0 – 5 %        Syenite    Monzonite                      Diorite
                                                                        Anorthosite
                                                                         Gabbro

Notes:

1. Plagioclase calculated from total feldspar content
2. Quartz calculated from total light minerals (quartz and feldspars)
3. yellow = granite group
4. green = syenite group
5. blue = diorite and gabbro groups
6. charnockites belong to granite or syenite groups
7. blank areas are rocks which are almost neverused as natural stones for construction

METAMORPHIC ROCKS were formed by the recrystalization of sedimentary or


                                                                                            4
magmatic rocks under the earth's surface during raised pressure and temperature
conditions, from low to high grade metamorphism.

(Commercial slates are metamorphic rocks exposed to low metamorphism. High
metamorphic rocks such as gneisses belong to commercial granites.)

Gneiss group contains rocks with high pressure and high temperature metamorphism,
which have strongly oriented, schlieren, banded, and wavy structures such as
paragneisses, orthogneisses, garnet gneisses, migmatites and granulites. Migmatites and
granulites are added to gneiss group only because of their similar structures.

· Paragneisses were formed by strong metamorphism of clayey sedimentary rocks (slates,
clayey sandstones).

· Orthogneisses were created by strong metamorphism of light magmatic rocks (granite
group, light volcanics).

· Garnet gneisses are rich in garnet & can be formed like para- or ortho-gneisses.

· Migmatites were formed by partial melting of gneisses.

· Granulites were created by very strong metamorphism of light magmatic rocks.

Metaconglomerates are formed by metamorphism of conglomerates - sedimentary rocks
composed of rounded grains over 2 mm (4 mm in Europe).

(Quartzites are almost exclusively composed of quartz, metamorphosed from quartz
sandstones. They are sometimes separated as an individual commercial stone group.)

GEOLOGICAL AGE

The age of the stone is determined in this table by the geological time unit when the stone
was created by the geological process. In some cases the older the stone the greater the
strength and lesser the water absorption is characteristic.

The basic geological periods with their ages are:

Quaternary (0 - 2 million years)
Terciery

      Neogene (2 – 25 million years)
      Paleogene (25 – 65 million years)

Mesozoic

      Cretaceous (65 – 135 million years)



                                                                                         5
      Jurassic (135 – 205 million years)
      Triassic (205 – 250 million years)

Paleozoic

      Permian (250 – 295 million years)
      Carboniferous (295 – 355 million years)
      Devonian (355 – 415 million years)
      Silurian (415 – 440 million years)
      Ordovician (440 - 495 million years)
      Cambrian (495 - 540 million years)

Proterozoic (540 - 2500 million years)

Archean (2500 - 4550 million years)

WATER ABSORPTION BY WEIGHT

The percentage of water absorption into stone by weight is determined by the ratio of the
weight of absorbed water and the stone weight. Values in brackets are less reliable
because of small amount of data available or estimation done according to similar stones.

Absorbency has a correlation with staining & is this a factor for selection for countertop
& other application

OTHER NAMES AND VARIETIES

In the column, less used or less suitable names and varieties are mentioned. In many
cases the word order is wrongly reversed while some are incorrect because of wrong
spelling       or        have      been        mistaken        for     another  stone.
It is hoped that this column can help the standardization of stone names.

SIMILAR STONES

This column can help stone specialists and customers to find similar stones. A stone is
similar to another stone by its colour(s), grain size and particle arrangement. A stone is
partially similar to another one by its colour (s) or appearance. This column, also has
additional stones not covered in the Commercial Name and Other Names columns.(
Use 'Ctrl+F' or 'Find in Page' feature of your computer to find your stone in the Other
Names                 or              Similar               Stones              columns.)

BASIS OF NAME

Commercial names have different origins. The majority of names are derived from a
geographic area or colour. The geographic site could be the quarry place or a nearby town
or the state. The colour is described in English, Italian, Spanish or other languages. Some



                                                                                         6
stones have their names according to colours of precious stones, plants or animals. This
column may help in a more intuitive understanding of stones names & origin


COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-               GEOLOGICAL        WATER      OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR             BASIS OF
   L NAME                   GRAPHIC         AGE      ABSORPTION          VARIETIES         STONES        NAME
 COUNTRY +                    TYPE                    BY WEIGHT
    STATE,
  PROVINCE
ABSOLUTE      black        gabbro     Archean -      ( 0.05-0.15% ) ABSOLUTE BLACK       BELFAST        JET BLACK =
BLACK                      group -    Proterozoic                   INDIA, approximately BLACK,        color, JET =
India, mainly              probably                                 JET BLACK, INDIAN NERO             coal type;
Andhra                     dolerite                                 BLACK, not quite     ZIMBABWE,     WARANGAL,
Pradesh                                                             correct BLACK        SWEDISH       KHAMMAM,
                                                                    ABSOLUTE, varieties: BLACK         CHAMRAJ
                                                                    PREMIUM BLACK,       Sweden,       NAGAR =
                                                                    WARANGAL BLACK, IMPERIAL           sites
                                                                    KHAMMAM BLACK,       BLACK
                                                                    CHAMRAJNAGAR         Australia,
                                                                    BLACK Karnataka      and all
                                                                                         stones with
                                                                                         names:
                                                                                         ABSOLUTE
                                                                                         BLACK,
                                                                                         NERO
                                                                                         ASSOLUTO
ACADEMY       black, grey gabbro      Jurassic       ( 0.1-0.15% )                       IMPALA
BLACK                                                                                    BLACK,
USA,                                                                                     partially
California                                                                               CAMBRIAN
                                                                                         BLACK and
                                                                                         JET MIST
AFRICAN       rose, dark granite      Archean        ( 0.15-0.2% )                       partially     LILAC = bush
LILAC         grey, light                                                                FLOWER OF
South Africa, grey                                                                       UKRAINE
Gauteng                                                                                  Ukraine,
                                                                                         ROSY PINK,
                                                                                         LILAS
                                                                                         GERAIS,
                                                                                         GRAN
                                                                                         VIOLET,
                                                                                         ROSA
                                                                                         PORRINO,
                                                                                         MISTY
                                                                                         MAUVE
AFRICAN       red, dark granite       Proterozoic    ( 0.2-0.25% ) ROSSO AFRICA,         RUBY RED,
RED           grey                                                  incorrect name       INDIAN
South Africa,                                                       AFRICA RED           RED,
Gauteng                                                                                  JHANSI RED
AGATE         red-brown gneiss        Archean        ( 0.1-0.15%) AGATE GRANITE          partially     AGATE =
USA,          with grey group -                                                          DAKOTA        semi-
Minnesota     waves        migmatite                                                     MAHOGANY,     precious
                                                                                         SWEDISH       stone
                                                                                         MAHOGANY
                                                                                         Sweden,
                                                                                         TAN BROWN
ALMOND        pink,        quartz     maybe Mesozoic ( 0.3-0.35% ) varieties: MISTY      MISTY         ALMOND =
MAUVE         green,       syenite to                               MAUVE incorrect      MAUVE,        tree, MAUVE
China, Fujian brown        granite                                  name MYSTIC          partially     = color by
                                                                    MAUVE, MAJESTIC      FLOWER OF     plant
                                                                    MAUVE                UKRAINE ,
                                                                                         AFRICAN
                                                                                         LILAC,
                                                                                         VIOLETTA
AMADEUS       green-       gneiss     Proterozoic    ( 0.1-0.15% )                       partially     AMADEUS =
Finland,      black, light group                                                         TROPICAL      maybe
Mikkeli       greenish,                                                                  GREEN         according




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COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-                      GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                      BASIS OF
  L NAME          GRAPHIC                        AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                        NAME
COUNTRY +          TYPE                                   BY WEIGHT
  STATE,
 PROVINCE
          red                                                                                                   Mozart


AMARELO            gold-ivory,   gneiss      uppermost        ( 0.2-0.35% ) GIALLO SAN              GIALLO      AMARELO =
REAL               light grey    group -     Proterozoic to                 FRANCISCO REAL,         TOPAZIO,    yellow
Brazil, Espirito   with black    garnet      Cambrian                       GIALLO SF REAL,         partially
Santo              and brown     gneiss                                     GIALLO SAN              SANTA
                   spots                                                    FRANCISCO, GIALLO       CECILIA,
                                                                            S.FRANCISCO             GIALLO
                                                                                                    NAPOLEONE
                                                                                                    Brazil, NEW
                                                                                                    VENEZIAN
                                                                                                    GOLD
ASA BRANCA white,         granite            Proterozoic      ( 0.25-0.4%)    ASA BRANCO,           partially   ASA BRANCA
Brazil, Ceara grey, black                                                     BRANCO CEARA,         BLANCO      = pigeon
                                                                              BIANCO TAPAIO,        CRISTAL,
                                                                              VENUS WHITE           BRANCO
                                                                                                    BERROCAL
AUTUMN             brown,        syenite     Proterozoic      ( 0.15% )       variety: NEWTON;      POLYCHROM
BROWN              dark grey     group -                                      AUTUMN BROWN is       E,
Canada,                          quartz                                       also US granite and   CALEDONIA,
Quebec                           monzonite                                    Indian sandstone      CRYSTAL
                                                                                                    BROWN,
                                                                                                    partially
                                                                                                    TROPIC
                                                                                                    BROWN
AZUL ARAN          grey,         granite      Carboniferous   ( 0.3-0.35% ) AZUL D´ARAN             partially   AZUL = light
Spain,             bluish,       group -      Permian                                               AZUL        blue, ARAN =
Cataluna           brown         pegmatite                                                          PLATINO     site
AZUL BAHIA         blue,         syenite with Archean to      ( 0.05-0.1% ) AZUL DA BAHIA,          partially   AZUL = light
Brazil, Bahia      white,        sodalite     Proterozoic                   BAHIA BLUE              BLUE KING blue, BAHIA
                   black                                                                            Zambia,     = Brazilian
                                                                                                    AZUL        state
                                                                                                    BARRACUDA
AZUL             blue-grey, gneiss with Proterozoic           ( 0.1-0.3% )    BARRACUDA BLUE,       partially   BARRACUDA
BARRACUDA brown             cordierite                                        not quite correct     SAPPHIRE    = fish, AZUL
Brazil, Espirito            and garnet                                        BLUE BARRACUDA        BROWN,      = light blue
Santo                                                                                               ENGLISH
                                                                                                    BROWN
                                                                                                    India, BLUE
                                                                                                    KING
                                                                                                    Zambia,
                                                                                                    AZUL BAHIA
AZUL               light blue    quartzite   Proterozoic      ( 0.1% )        AZUL MACAUBA,         AZUL        MACAUBAS,
MACAUBAS           with blue                                                  varieties: AZUL       IMPERIAL, BOQUIRA =
Brazil, Bahia      waves                                                      IMPERIAL, AZUL        AZUL        sites, AZUL =
                                                                              BOQUIRA               BOQUIRA, light blue,
                                                                                                    partially   CARIBBEAN
                                                                                                    CARIBBEAN = from sea
                                                                                                    BLUE
                                                                                                    Sweden
AZUL               grey,         granite up Carboniferous     ( 0.2% )                              partially   PLATINO =
PLATINO            bluish        to                                                                 AZUL ARAN, platinum,
Spain,                           granodiorite                                                       BLUE        AZUL = light
Extremadura                                                                                         CRYSTAL     blue, CHIMA
                                                                                                    Australia,  = name
                                                                                                    CHIMA BLUE
                                                                                                    India
BALMORAL           dark          granite     Ordovician       ( 0.15-0.2% )                         partially   BALMORAL =
GREEN              green,                                                                           BALTIC      castle in
Australia,         dark grey                                                                        GREEN,      Scotland
South                                                                                               VERDE
Australia                                                                                           FONTAIN




                                                                                                                    8
COMMERCIA        COLOURS        PETRO-    GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR             BASIS OF
   L NAME                      GRAPHIC       AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES               NAME
 COUNTRY +                       TYPE                 BY WEIGHT
    STATE,
  PROVINCE
BALMORAL         rose light   granite    Proterozoic   ( 0.15% )    BALMORAL, ROSSO    partially   BALMORAL =
RED              red, dark                                          BALMORAL           ROSSO       castle in
Finland, Turku   grey                                                                  TOLEDO,     Scotland
- Pori                                                                                 CAPAO
                                                                                       BONITO
BALTIC        brown,     granite         Proterozoic   ( 0.15-0.2% ) BRUNO BALTICO     MONOLA      BALTIC = sea
BROWN         dark grey,                                                               BROWN
Finland, Kymi greenish                                                                 Finland,
              grey                                                                     partially
                                                                                       CALEDONIA,
                                                                                       AUTUMN
                                                                                       BROWN,
                                                                                       only by
                                                                                       structure
                                                                                       BALTIC
                                                                                       GREEN,
                                                                                       CARMEN
                                                                                       RED
BALTIC        green-     granite         Proterozoic   ( 0.15-0.2% ) VERDE BALTICO     partially   BALTIC = sea
GREEN         grey, dark quartz                                                        BALMORAL
Finland, Kymi grey       syenite                                                       GREEN,
                                                                                       VERDE
                                                                                       FONTAIN,
                                                                                       only by
                                                                                       structure
                                                                                       BALTIC
                                                                                       BROWN,
                                                                                       CARMEN
                                                                                       RED
BARENTS          grey-bluish gneiss     Archean        ( 0.1% )                        partially   BARENTS =
BLUE             with black group -                                                    VIZAG       sea
Norway,          waves       paragneiss                                                BLUE,
Finnmark                                                                               BAHAMA
                                                                                       BLUE,
                                                                                       NOCHE
                                                                                       BUENA
                                                                                       Argentina
BARRE GRAY light grey, granite      Devonian           ( 0.2-0.3% ) BARRE GRAY         KURU GREY, BARRE = site
USA, Vermont dark grey group -                                       GRANITE, BARRE    SIRA GREY,
                       granodiorite                                  GREY              SIERRA
                                                                                       WHITE,
                                                                                       PADANG
BELFAST          black        gabbro     Proterozoic   ( 0.05-0.1% ) NERO ASSOLUTO     JET BLACK, BELFAST =
BLACK                         group -                                BELFAST, BELFAST, NERO        town
South Africa,                 dolerite                               ABSOLUTE BLACK    ZIMBABWE,
Gauteng                                                                                SWEDISH
                                                                                       BLACK
                                                                                       Sweden,
                                                                                       PREMIUM
                                                                                       BLACK
                                                                                       India,
                                                                                       IMPERIAL
                                                                                       BLACK
                                                                                       Australia,
                                                                                       and all
                                                                                       stones with
                                                                                       names:
                                                                                       ABSOLUTE
                                                                                       BLACK,
                                                                                       NERO
                                                                                       ASSOLUTO
BELMONT          rosa, dark granite      Proterozoic   ( 0.2% )      BELMONT ROSE      partially   BELMONT =
ROSE             grey, grey                                          GRANITE, HAVELOCK BALMORAL site
Canada,                                                              PINK              RED,




                                                                                                       9
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-                GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                       BASIS OF
  L NAME          GRAPHIC                  AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                         NAME
COUNTRY +          TYPE                             BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
Ontario                                                                                      DESERT
                                                                                             ROSE

BETHEL       white,       granite up   Devonian          ( 0.2-0.3% )    BETHEL WHITE       partially      BETHEL =
WHITE        grey-        to quartz                                      GRANITE            SOLAR          site
USA, Vermont brownish     monzonite                                                         WHITE, ASA
                                                                                            BRANCA,
                                                                                            BLANCO
                                                                                            CRISTAL
BIANCO        ivory,      granite      Carboniferous     (   0.25-0.45%) SARDINIAN WHITE, GRIGIO           SARDO =
SARDO         grey,                                                       varieties: LUNA   SARDO,         Sardinian,
Italy,        white,                                                      PEARL, GRIGIO     partially      BERROCAL =
Sardegna      black                                                       SARDO SARDINIAN BLANCO           site
                                                                          GREY              BERROCAL
                                                                                            Spain, GRIS
                                                                                            PERLA
                                                                                            Spain,
                                                                                            GRIGIO
                                                                                            PERLA Italy,
                                                                                            GRIGIO
                                                                                            MALAGA
                                                                                            Italy, TARN,
                                                                                            OCONEE,
                                                                                            MONDARIZ
BLACK         black with gabbro with probably            (   0.05-0.15% ) GALAXY BLACK,     probably
GALAXY        brown      bronzite    Proterozoic                          STAR GALAXY       CHINA
India, Andhra spots                                                                         BLACK
Pradesh                                                                                     GALAXY;
                                                                                            partially
                                                                                            only by
                                                                                            black colour
                                                                                            all absolute
                                                                                            black
                                                                                            granite
BLACK         black, dark probably     probably          (   0.1-0.15% ) maybe SILVER PEARL partially
PEARL         grey        gabbro       Proterozoic                        DARK; BLACK PEARL CAMBRIAN
India, Andhra             group                                           also from China   BLACK and
Pradesh                                                                                     SILVER
                                                                                            PEARL
BLANCO        white,      granite      Carboniferous     (   0.2-0.35% ) BIANCO CRISTAL,    partially       BLANCO =
CRISTAL       grey, black                                                 BIANCO CRYSTAL    BETHEL         white,
Spain, Madrid                                                                               WHITE,         BERROCAL =
                                                                                            SOLAR          site
                                                                                            WHITE,
                                                                                            BRANCO
                                                                                            BERROCAL
                                                                                            Spain,
                                                                                            BIANCO
                                                                                            SARDO
BLUE EYES     brown-     gabbro      Proterozoic         (   0.05-0.1% ) not quite correct  LABRADOR
Canada,       grey with group -                                           BROWN EYES        ANTIQUE
Quebec        blue spots anorthosite

BLUE PEARL blue-grey      syenite      Carboniferous -   ( 0.05-0.15%) LABRADOR BLUE         MARINA         LABRADOR
Norway,                   group -      Permian                         PEARL, LABRADOR       PEARL         = incorrect
Vestfold                  larvikite    boundary                        CHIARO, LABRADOR      Norway,       name for
                                                                       BLUE, variety:        partially     rock with
                                                                       MARINA PEARL          EMERALD       play of colour
                                                                                             PEARL,
                                                                                             VOLGA
                                                                                             BLUE




                                                                                                              10
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-                GEOLOGICAL     WATER     OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR           BASIS OF
   L NAME                   GRAPHIC          AGE   ABSORPTION         VARIETIES         STONES        NAME
 COUNTRY +                     TYPE                 BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
CAFE BAHIA brown,          syenite     Proterozoic ( 0.15-0.2%) MARRON BAHIA,         IMPERIAL   BAHIA =
Brazil, Bahia black                                              BAHIA COFFEE, NEW BROWN,        Brazilian
                                                                 IMPERIAL BROWN,      CAFE       state,
                                                                 BAHIA BROWN          LABRADOR MARRON =
                                                                                      Brazil,    brown,
                                                                                      partially  GUAIBA =
                                                                                      MARRON     site
                                                                                      GUAIBA
                                                                                      Brazil
CAFE           brown,      syenite     Proterozoic ( 0.15-0.2% ) IMPERIAL BROWN,      CAFE        MARRON =
IMPERIAL       black                                             IMPERIAL BROWN       BAHIA,     brown,
Brazil,                                                          CAFE, IMPERIAL       CAFE       GUAIBA =
Pernambuco                                                       COFFEE, not quite    LABRADOR site,
                                                                 correct: MARRON      Brazil,    LABRADOR =
                                                                 IMPERIAL Spain       partially  incorrect
                                                                 limestone, incorrect MARRON     name for
                                                                 names COFFEE         GUAIBA     rock with
                                                                 BROWN, CAFE          Brazil     play of colour
                                                                 BROWN, MARRON
                                                                 CAFE
CALEDONIA brown,           granite     Proterozoic ( 0.1-0.2% ) CALEDONIA BROWN, POLYCHROM CALEDONIA
Canada,        grey, black                                       variety: CALEDONIA E, AUTUMN = maybe by
Quebec                                                           NARA, NARA BROWN BROWN,         site
                                                                                      CRYSTAL
                                                                                      BROWN
                                                                                      South
                                                                                      Africa,
                                                                                      partially
                                                                                      TROPIC
                                                                                      BROWN
CAMBRIAN black, grey gabbro            Proterozoic ( 0.05-0.1% )                      partially  CAMBRIAN =
BLACK                      group -                                                    BLACK      site or
Canada,                    anorthosite                                                PEARL,     geological
Quebec                                                                                ACADEMY    period
                                                                                      BLACK,
                                                                                      IMPALA
                                                                                      BLACK, JET
                                                                                      MIST
CAMELIA        white, grey oriented    Devonian    ( 0.2% )      CAMELLIA WHITE       SOLAR      CAMELIA =
WHITE                      granite                                                    WHITE      maybe by
USA, North                                                                                       plant
Carolina
CAPAO          light red, granite      uppermost   ( 0.2-0.25% ) ROSSO CAPAO          partially  CAPAO
BONITO         grey                    Proterozoic               BONITO, CAPAO        ROSSO      BONITO =
Brazil, Sao                                                      BONITO RED           TOLEDO,    town
Paulo                                                                                 MAPLE RED
                                                                                      China,
                                                                                      BALMORAL
                                                                                      RED, TEXAS
                                                                                      RED,
                                                                                      SUNSET
                                                                                      RED USA
CARIOCA        gold, grey granite      Proterozoic ( 0.3-0.4% ) DOURADO CARIOCA, partially       CARIOCA =
GOLD                                                             GOLDEN CARIOCA       GIALLO     Rio de
Brazil, Rio de                                                                        ANTICO,    Janeiro
Janeiro                                                                               ARIAH PARK inhabitant or
                                                                                      GOLD       dance
                                                                                      Australia,
                                                                                      MARIGOLD




                                                                                                     11
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-                GEOLOGICAL      WATER     OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR         BASIS OF
    L NAME                 GRAPHIC           AGE    ABSORPTION         VARIETIES       STONES        NAME
 COUNTRY +                   TYPE                    BY WEIGHT
    STATE,
  PROVINCE
CARMEN RED red, dark granite           Proterozoic  ( 0.15-0.2% ) maybe BALTIC RED; KARELIA     CARMEN =
Finland, Kymi grey                                                variety: KARELIA   RED,       Spain name
                                                                  RED CARELIAN RED partially    from opera,
                                                                                     BALMORAL KARELIA =
                                                                                     RED,       region
                                                                                     ROSSO
                                                                                     TOLEDO,
                                                                                     CAPAO
                                                                                     BONITO,
                                                                                     only by
                                                                                     structure
                                                                                     BALTIC
                                                                                     BROWN,
                                                                                     BALTIC
                                                                                     GREEN,
CHARCOAL dark grey, granite            Proterozoic  ( 0.1% )      CHARCOAL BLACK     partially  CHARCOAL
BLACK         grey -      group -                                 GRANITE, ST. CLOUD BOHUS      BLACK =
USA,          pinkish     granodiorite                            GRAY, MINNESOTA GREY          color,
Minnesota                                                         DARK GRAY, PEWTER Sweden,     CHARCOAL =
                                                                                     IMPALA     coal from
                                                                                     BLACK,     wood
                                                                                     ACADEMY
                                                                                     BLACK
CHIMA         pink, grey granite       Proterozoic  ( 0.3% )      CHEEMA PINK        partially  CHIMA =
PINK                                                                                 ROSY PINK, name
India,                                                                               ROSA
Rajasthan                                                                            PORRINO,
                                                                                     DESERT
                                                                                     ROSE
COLONIAL      gold,       gneiss       Proterozoic  ( 0.15-0.35%)                    partially
DREAM         white, grey group        metamorphism                                  KASHMIR
Sri Lanka                                                                            GOLD,
                                                                                     MADURA
                                                                                     GOLD,
                                                                                     VYARA
CORAL MIST gold, dark granite to Proterozoic        ( 0.25-0.45%) variety: FLOWER OF FLOWER OF
Ukraine,      grey-       quartz                                  UKRAINE            UKRAINE
Zhitomir      greenish    syenite                                                    Ukraine,
                                                                                     partially
                                                                                     ALMOND
                                                                                     MAUVE,
                                                                                     VIOLETTA
CRYSTAL       gold, grey porphyritic Archean        ( 0.3% )                         partially
GOLD                      granite                                                    OCONEE,
Canada,                                                                              GIALLO
Ontario                                                                              ANTICO,
                                                                                     GIALLO
                                                                                     FIORITO
DAKOTA        red-brown, granite       Archean      ( 0.15-0.2% ) DAKOTA RED,        SWEDISH    DAKOTA =
MAHOGANY grey, black                                              varieties:         MAHOGANY state,
USA, South                                                        CARNELIAN,         Sweden,    CARNELIAN
Dakota                                                            AMERICAN           ROYAL      =
                                                                  MAHOGANY,          MAHOGANY semiprecious
                                                                  SEQUOIA, AMERICAN Sweden,     stone
                                                                  BOUQUET            partially
                                                                                     CALEDONIA,
                                                                                     POLYCHROM
                                                                                     E, AUTUMN
                                                                                     BROWN
DEER ISLE     grey, rose granite       Devonian     ( 0.3% )      DEER ISLE GRANITE ROSA BETA, DEER ISLE =
USA, Maine                                                                           partially  site
                                                                                     MONDARIZ,
                                                                                     PINK ROSE
                                                                                     China




                                                                                                 12
COMMERCIA       COLOURS      PETRO-       GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                     BASIS OF
   L NAME                   GRAPHIC          AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                       NAME
 COUNTRY +                    TYPE                    BY WEIGHT
    STATE,
  PROVINCE
DESERT          rose, grey granite      Proterozoic       ( 0.3% )      varieties: DESERT  ROSA
ROSE                                                                    BROWN, DESERT      PORRINO,
Australia,                                                              RUBY, DESERT LILAC AFRICAN
South                                                                                      LILAC,
Australia                                                                                  CHIMA PINK
EAGLE RED       red, dark   granite     Proterozoic       ( 0.1-0.2% ) KOTKA RED, ROSSO AFRICAN            KOTKA =
Finland, Kymi   grey                                                    MARINA             RED, RUBY      site
                                                                                           RED,
                                                                                           JHANSI
                                                                                           RED,
                                                                                           ROSSO
                                                                                           TOLEDO
EMERALD         dark-grey syenite       Carboniferous -   ( 0.15-0.35%) LABRADOR SCURO, partially         EMERALD =
PEARL           to green, group -       Permian                         incorrect name:    BLUE           precious
Norway,         blue      larvikite     boundary                        LABRADOR GREEN     PEARL,         stone,
Vestfold                                                                Brazil             VOLGA          LABRADOR =
                                                                                           BLUE           incorrect
                                                                                                          name for
                                                                                                          rock with
                                                                                                          play of colour
FOREST        green,     granite        probably          ( 0.1-0.5%)    FOREST GREEN also     partially
GREEN         rose, dark                Proterozoic                      marble from India     FLOWER OF
India, Andhra grey                                                       and granite from      UKRAINE,
Pradesh                                                                  China, Australia;     GREEN
                                                                         incorrect name with   ROSE,
                                                                         FORREST               AFRICAN
                                                                                               LILAC, ROSY
                                                                                               PINK
GHIBLI          ivory and   gneiss      Proterozoic       ( 0.25-0.35%) GIBLI, incorrect       SAHARA      GHIBLI = dry
India, Tamil    beige       group -     metamorphism                    names: GHIBLEE,        GOLD India, wind,
Nadu            bands       maybe                                       GIBLEE                 partially   CHIFFON =
                            granulite                                                          IVORY       cloth
                                                                                               CHIFFON
                                                                                               India,
                                                                                               SIVAKASI
                                                                                               YELLOW
GIALLO           yellow     granite     Proterozoic       ( 0.2% )       AMARELO ANTICO,       partially   GIALLO =
ANTICO           brown,                                                  AMARELO ANTIQUE,      CARIOCA     yellow,
Brazil, Espirito grey                                                    GIALLO ANTIQUE        GOLD,       ANTICO =
Santo                                                                                          ARIAH PARK antique,
                                                                                               GOLD        ARIAH PARK
                                                                                               Australia   = site,
GIALLO          pink-       gneiss      Proterozoic       ( 0.3-0.4% )                         partially   GIALLO =
CALIFORNIA      yellow with group -                                                            PARADISO yellow,
Brazil, Minas   dark grey migmatite                                                            BASH,       CALIFORNIA
Gerais          waves                                                                          GOLDEN      = state
                                                                                               FANTASY,
                                                                                               JUPARANA
                                                                                               INDIA,
                                                                                               JUPARANA
                                                                                               CLASSICO
GIALLO           gold-ivory, porphyritic uppermost        ( 0.2-0.3% )   GIALLO VENEZIANO      partially   GIALLO =
FIORITO          grey        granite     Proterozoic to                  FIORITO, AMARELO      GIALLO      yellow,
Brazil, Espirito                         Cambrian                        VENECIA FLORIDO       NAPOLEONE FIORITO =
Santo                                                                                          Brazil,     flowery
                                                                                               GIALLO
                                                                                               VENEZIANO,
                                                                                               SANTA
                                                                                               CECILIA,
                                                                                               CRYSTAL
                                                                                               GOLD
GIALLO           gold-ivory, gneiss     uppermost         ( 0.25-0.35%) AMARELO TOPAZIO,       AMARELO     GIALLO =
TOPAZIO          light grey group -     Proterozoic to                  TOPAZIO IMPERIAL,      REAL, NEW yellow,
Brazil, Espirito with black garnet      Cambrian                        TOPAZIO, incorrect     VENETIAN TOPAZIO =




                                                                                                             13
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-                      GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                        BASIS OF
   L NAME             GRAPHIC                    AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                          NAME
 COUNTRY +              TYPE                              BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
Santo      and brown gneiss                                                   JUPARANA TOPAZIO GOLD,              precious
           spots                                                                                    partially     stone
                                                                                                    SANTA
                                                                                                    CECILIA,
                                                                                                    GIALLO
                                                                                                    NAPOLEONE
                                                                                                    Brazil
GIALLO             gold-ivory,   gneiss      uppermost        ( 0.25-0.35%)   GIALLO VENECIANO, partially         GIALLO =
VENEZIANO          light grey    group -     Proterozoic to                   AMARELO               SANTA         yellow,
Brazil, Espirito   with black    probably    Cambrian                         VENECIANO             CECILIA,      VENEZIANO
Santo              and brown     orthogneiss                                                        NEW           = Nova
                   spots                                                                            VENETIAN Venecia town
                                                                                                    GOLD,
                                                                                                    GIALLO
                                                                                                    NAPOLEONE
                                                                                                    Brazil,
                                                                                                    AMARELO
                                                                                                    REAL,
                                                                                                    GIALLO
                                                                                                    TOPAZIO
GOLDEN             yellow-       gneiss      Archean -        ( 0.15-0.3% )    maybe BLUE           JUPARANA
FANTASY            pink with     group -     Proterozoic                      FANTASY               INDIA,
India,             dark grey     migmatite                                                          JUPARANA
southern           waves                                                                            COLOMBO,
states                                                                                              partially
                                                                                                    JUPARANA
                                                                                                    CLASSICO
GRAN               dark red- gneiss          Proterozoic      ( 0.15-0.25%)   VIOLET TROPICAL       TROPICAL      GRAN =
VIOLET             violet, light group -     metamorphism                                           OCEANO        great,
Brazil, Minas      grey with migmatite                                                              Brazil,       GUARANI =
Gerais             dark grey                                                                        partially     nation in
                   waves                                                                            TROPICAL      Brazil,
                                                                                                    GUARANI       SAMAMBAIA
                                                                                                    Brazil, ROSA = site, plant
                                                                                                    SAMAMBAIA
                                                                                                    Brazil,
                                                                                                    JACARANDA
                                                                                                    , LILAS
                                                                                                    GERAIS
GREEN ROSE green,        gneiss              probably         ( 0.2-0.3% )                          partially
India, Andhra rose, dark group               Archean                                                FOREST
Pradesh       grey                                                                                  GREEN,
                                                                                                    NAGINA
                                                                                                    GREEN,
                                                                                                    VERDE
                                                                                                    MARINACE
GRIGIO             ivory         granite     Carboniferous    ( 0.55-0.6% )   GRIGIO PERLATO,       BIANCO        GRIGIO =
PERLA              pinkish,                                                   GRIGIO PERLATO        SARDO,        grey, PERLA
Italy,             grey,                                                      SARDO; GRIS PERLA MONDARIZ, = pearl
Sardegna           white,                                                     is granite from Spain GRIS PERLA
                   black                                                                            Spain,
                                                                                                    OCONEE
HASSAN             black, light gabbro to    Archean          ( 0.4% )        VERDE FIORITO,        partially JET HASSAN =
GREEN              green        diorite                                       VERDE INDIA,          MIST,         town
India,                                                                        incorrect name        ACADEMY
Karnataka                                                                     HASAN GREEN           BLACK,
                                                                                                    IMPALA
                                                                                                    BLACK
HIMALAYAN          red with   gneiss         Archean          ( 0.15-0.2% )   HIMALAYA BLUE         partially      LIETO = site
BLUE               dark grey- group -                                                               MULTICOLO
India,             bluish     migmatite                                                             R RED,
Karnataka          waves                                                                            LIETO RED
                                                                                                    Finland,
                                                                                                    VANGA RED




                                                                                                                    14
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-               GEOLOGICAL           WATER     OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR            BASIS OF
   L NAME                   GRAPHIC          AGE        ABSORPTION        VARIETIES          STONES         NAME
 COUNTRY +                    TYPE                       BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
IMPALA         dark grey, gabbro      Proterozoic       ( 0.05-0.15%) NERO AFRICA          ACADEMY     IMPALA=
BLACK          black                                                  IMPALA, NERO         BLACK,      antilope
South Africa,                                                         IMPALA, NERO         CAMBRIAN
Gauteng                                                               AFRICA, BLACK        BLACK, JET
                                                                      IMPALA,              MIST
                                                                      RUSTENBURG GREY
IMPERIAL       white, grey gneiss     maybe Archaen ( 0.35-0.45%)                          SILVER
WHITE          bands       group -                                                         CLOUD,
India, Tamil               maybe                                                           partially
Nadu                       paragneiss                                                      KASHMIR
                                                                                           WHITE,
                                                                                           WHITE
                                                                                           GALAXY
JACARANDA dark red         gneiss     Archean -         ( 0.2-0.3% ) JACARANDA RED;        COBRA       JACARANDA
Brazil, Minas with grey group -       Proterozoic                     JACARANDA DA         Brazil,     = tree,
Gerais         to redish migmatite                                    BAHIA is different   TUPIM       TUPIM =
               bands                                                  stone                Brazil,     river, site
                                                                                           partially
                                                                                           HIMALAYAN
                                                                                           BLUE, LILAS
                                                                                           GERAIS,
                                                                                           GRAN
                                                                                           VIOLET
JET MIST       black, grey gabbro -   Triassic -        ( 0.1-0.15% ) VIRGINIA BLACK       ACADEMY     JET = coal
USA, Virginia              maybe      Jurassic                                             BLACK,      type
                           dolerite   boundary                                             IMPALA
                                                                                           BLACK,
                                                                                           partially
                                                                                           CAMBRIAN
                                                                                           BLACK
JHANSI RED red, dark granite          Archean -         ( 0.2-0.3% ) not quite correct:    RUBY RED, JHANSI =
India, Uttar   grey                   Proterozoic                     RED JHANSI,          AFRICAN     site
Pradesh                                                               probably INDIAN      RED,
                                                                      RED                  JHANSI
                                                                                           RED, EAGLE
                                                                                           RED
JUPARANA       rose-       gneiss     Archean -         ( 0.15-0.3%) AFRICAN JUPARANA, JUPARANA
AFRICA         yellow,     group      Proterozoic                     maybe FLAMINGO       INDIA,
South Africa, light grey probably                                                          JUPARANA
Orange Free with dark migmatite                                                            COLOMBO,
State          grey                                                                        GOLDEN
               waves                                                                       FANTASY,
                                                                                           partially
                                                                                           RAINBOW
JUPARANA       gold-ivory, gneiss     uppermost         ( 0.25-0.35%) JUPARANA, varieties: JUPARANA JUPARANA =
CLASSICO       light grey group       Proterozoic up to               JUPARANA             GOLD,       lake in Brazil;
Brazil, Rio de with dark              Cambrian                        FANTASTICO,          partially   similar stones
Janeiro        grey                                                   JUPARANA             JUPARANA inBrazil, India
               waves                                                  CHAMPAGNE,           CHAMPAGNE and South
                                                                      JUPARANA             Brazil,     Africa were
                                                                      DELICATO, incorrect JUPARANA named
                                                                      names with           DELICATO according the
                                                                      JUPERANA, JUPRANA Brazil,        stone
                                                                                           JUPARANA
                                                                                           FANTASTIC
                                                                                           O Brazil,
                                                                                           SANTA
                                                                                           CECILIA,
                                                                                           JUPARANA
                                                                                           INDIA,
                                                                                           VYARA




                                                                                                           15
COMMERCIA       COLOURS       PETRO-      GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                    BASIS OF
   L NAME                    GRAPHIC         AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                      NAME
 COUNTRY +                     TYPE                   BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
JUPARANA        rose-      gneiss        Proterozoic     ( 0.15-0.3% ) COLOMBO              JUPARANA JUPARANA =
COLOMBO         yellowish, group -       metamorphism                  JUPARANA, incorrect  INDIA,      lake in Brazil,
India, Tamil    light grey migmatite                                   names with:          GOLDEN      COLOMBO =
Nadu            with grey                                              JUPERANA, JUPRANA    FANTASY,    Sri Lanka city
                waves                                                  or COLUMBO           partially   previous
                                                                                            JUPARANA quarry
                                                                                            CLASSICO,
                                                                                            JUPARANA
                                                                                            GOLD
JUPARANA        gold-ivory, gneiss       Archean to      ( 0,25-0.35%) GOLDEN JUPARANA, JUPARANA JUPARANA =
GOLD            light grey group         Proterozoic                   not quite correct:   CLASSICO, lake in Brazil.
Brazil          with dark                                              GOLD JUPARANA        JUPARANA CHAMPAGNE
                grey                                                                        CHAMPAGNE = wine,
                waves                                                                       Brazil,     DELICATO =
                                                                                            JUPARANA delicate, fine
                                                                                            DELICATO
                                                                                            Brazil
JUPARANA        rose-      gneiss        Archean         ( 0.2-0.3% ) INDIAN JUPARANA, JUPARANA JUPARANA =
INDIA           yellowish, group -                                     incorrect names with COLOMBO, by lake in
India,          light grey migmatite                                   JUPRANA, JUPERANA, GOLDEN        Brazil
Karnataka       with dark                                                                   FANTASY,
                grey                                                                        partially
                waves                                                                       RAINBOW,
                                                                                            PARADISO
                                                                                            BASH,
                                                                                            GIALLO
                                                                                            CALIFORNIA
KASHMIR         white to  gneiss         Proterozoic     ( 0.3-0.5% ) CASHMERE WHITE, WHITE             KASHMIR =
WHITE           ivory or  group -        metamorphism                  incorrect names      GALAXY,     state but
India, Tamil    greenish  granulite                                    with: KASHMIRI,      SAMBA       stone is not
Nadu            with grey                                              KASHMIRE,            WHITE,      from it, a
                and brown                                              KASHMERE             BRANCO      type of wool,
                spots                                                                       REGINA      REGINA =
                                                                                            Brazil,     queen,
                                                                                            BRANCO      PANNA
                                                                                            POLAR       FRAGOLA =
                                                                                            Brazil,     strawberry
                                                                                            PANNA       cream
                                                                                            FRAGOLA
                                                                                            Brazil,
                                                                                            partially
                                                                                            IMPERIAL
                                                                                            WHITE
KINAWA          rose, light gneiss       Archean -       ( 0.1-0.3% ) ROSA KINAWA,          ROSA RAISA KINAWA =
Brazil, Bahia   grey with group -        Proterozoic                   KINAWA PINK,         Brazil,     maybe by
                dark-grey migmatite                                    KINAWA ROSE,         LAMBADA     character in
                waves                                                  KINAWA CLASSICO; Brazil,         film, RAISA =
                                                                       incorrect names:     partially   name,
                                                                       KINAVA, OKINAWA TIGER SKIN, LAMBADA =
                                                                                            RAINBOW, dance
                                                                                            LILAS
                                                                                            GERAIS,
                                                                                            JUPARANA
                                                                                            CORAL
                                                                                            Brazil,
                                                                                            JUPARANA
                                                                                            INDIA
KUPPAM          light grey   gneiss      maybe Archaen   ( 0.2-0.3% ) VERDE MARINA, not partially       KUPPAM =
GREEN           with grey-   group -                                   quite correct:       SILVER      site, AOSTA
India, Andhra   green        probably                                  MULTICOLOR GREEN, CLOUD,         = valley
Pradesh         waves        migmatite                                 GREEN MULTICOLOR, VISCON
                                                                       GREEN                WHITE,
                                                                       MULTICOLOUR          VERDE
                                                                                            AOSTA Italy




                                                                                                            16
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-              GEOLOGICAL     WATER    OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                       BASIS OF
   L NAME                 GRAPHIC          AGE   ABSORPTION       VARIETIES      STONES                      NAME
 COUNTRY +                  TYPE                  BY WEIGHT
    STATE,
  PROVINCE
KURU GREY light grey, granite        Proterozoic ( 0.1-0.2% ) probably KARIN   BARRE                       KURU = site
Finland, Hame dark grey                                       GREY             GRAY, SIRA
                                                                               GREY,
                                                                               PADANG
LABRADOR brown-          gabbro      Proterozoic ( 0.05-0.1%) LABRADOR ANTIQUE BLUE EYES                   LABRADOR =
ANTIQUE       grey with group -                                                                            incorrect
Norway,       blue spots anorthosite                                                                       name for
Rogaland                                                                                                   rock with
                                                                                                           play of
                                                                                                           colour;
                                                                                                           Canadian
                                                                                                           part
LAVENDER        light grey- migmatite Proterozoic           ( 0.2-0.3% )   incorrect names with partially  LAVENDER =
BLUE            blue with charnockite metamorphism                         LAVANDER,            ORISSA     plant,
India, Orissa   dark grey composition                                      LAVENDAR             BLUE,      EIDELWEISS
                waves and                                                                       VIZAG      = plant
                red spots                                                                       BLUE,
                                                                                                BAHAMA
                                                                                                BLUE,
                                                                                                PARADISO
                                                                                                BLUE India,
                                                                                                BENGAL
                                                                                                BLUE India,
                                                                                                EIDELWEIS
                                                                                                S South
                                                                                                Africa
LILLA           rose-      gneiss         Archean up to     ( 0.1-0.25% ) LILLA GERAIS,         partially   LILAS =
GERAIS          violetish, group          Proterozoic                      incorrect names with GRAN        color,
Brazil, Minas   light grey                                                 LILA, LILLAS         VIOLET, LAC GERAIS =
Gerais          with dark                                                                       DU BONNET Minas Gerais
                grey spots                                                                      Canada,     state, LAC
                                                                                                HALLANDIA DU BONNET
                                                                                                Sweden      = site
LILLET          rose, light   gneiss      Archean up to     ( 0.2-0.3% ) LILET, incorrect       partially   LILLET =
India,          grey with     group       Proterozoic                      LILAC                RAW SILK    type of wine
southern        dark grey     probably                                                          PINK, TIGER
states          streaks,      migmatite                                                         SKIN,
                bands                                                                           JUPARANA
                                                                                                INDIA,
                                                                                                JUPARANA
                                                                                                CORAL
                                                                                                Brazil,
                                                                                                JUPARANA
                                                                                                COLOMBO
MADURA          ivory with gneiss         Proterozoic       ( 0.15-0.35% ) MADURAI GOLD         GOLDEN      MADURA =
GOLD            gold and group            metamorphism                                          OAK India, former name
India, Tamil    grey                                                                            partially   of Madurai
Nadu            waves and                                                                       VYARA,      town, OAK =
                spots                                                                           SIVAKASI    tree
                                                                                                YELLOW
MAPLE RED       red to light granite      Paleozoic up to   ( 0.15-0.3% ) MAPLE LEAF RED is partially       MAPLE = tree
China,          red, grey,                Mesozoic                         also Canadian        IMPERIAL
Guangxi         black                                                      granite, MAPLE RED RED
                                                                           is also Ukrainian    Sweden,
                                                                           granite              CAPAO
                                                                                                BONITO,
                                                                                                AFRICAN
                                                                                                RED
MARIGOLD        gold, dark granite        Proterozoic       ( 0.2-0.3% ) incorrect names:       partially   MARIGOLD =
India,          grey                                                       MERRY GOLD, MARI RANIWARA, plant, ARIAH
Rajasthan                                                                  GOLD, MARRY GOLD, ARIAH PARK PARK = site
                                                                           MARY GOLD            GOLD
                                                                                                Australia,
                                                                                                GIALLO




                                                                                                              17
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-              GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                    BASIS OF
  L NAME          GRAPHIC                AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                      NAME
COUNTRY +          TYPE                           BY WEIGHT
  STATE,
 PROVINCE
                                                                                           ANTICO,
                                                                                           CRYSTAL
                                                                                           GOLD
MOKALSAR grey-         probable      probably         (   0.15-0.25% ) MOKAL GREEN,        SILVER SEA MOKALSAR =
GREEN India, green,    granite       Proterozoic                       variety: NAGINA     GREEN,     site, NAGINA
Rajasthan    dark grey                                                 GREEN NAGEENA       PINE GREEN = name
                                                                       GREEN               Canada,
                                                                                           TUNAS
                                                                                           GREEN
MONDARIZ grey, pink, granite         Carboniferous    (   0.3% )       GRIS MONDARIZ,      partially  MONDARIZ =
Spain, Galicia white                                                   MONDARIZ GREY,      BIANCO     site, PERLA =
                                                                       variety: ROSA       SARDO,     pearl
                                                                       MONDARIZ            GRIGIO
                                                                       MONDARIZ PINK       SARDO,
                                                                                           OCONEE,
                                                                                           GRIS PERLA
                                                                                           Spain
MOUNTAIN      dark green gneiss      Proterozoic      (   0.05% )      variety: COLD       ROYAL      EMERALD =
GREEN USA,    bluish,    group                                         SPRING GREEN,       EMERALD, precious
New York      dark grey anorthosite                                    AQUA PEARL, ROYAL COLD         stone, COLD
                         composition                                   EMERALD             SPRING     SPRING =
                                                                                           GREEN,     site
                                                                                           partially
                                                                                           SEAWEED
                                                                                           GREEN,
                                                                                           VOLGA
                                                                                           BLUE
MOUNT AIRY white ligth granite to Devonian            (   0.1-0.2% ) MOUNT AIRY            TARN       MOUNT AIRY
USA, North grey, grey, granodiorite                                    GRANITE, MOUNT      CLAIR,     = site, mount
Carolina   black                                                       AIRY WHITE, MT.     PADANG
                                                                       AIRY, CAESAR        LIGHT,
                                                                       WHITE (incorrect    BLANCO
                                                                       CEASAR WHITE)       CRISTAL,
                                                                                           SIERRA
                                                                                           WHITE
MULTICOLO red, light gneiss          Archean          (   0.2-0.3% ) MULTICOLOUR RED, partially        FUNIL =
R REDIndia, grey with group -                                          ROSSO               RAINBOW, site, TEAK =
Karnataka   dark grey migmatite                                        MULTICOLOR,         FUNIL      tree
            waves                                                      incorrect names     Brazil,
                                                                       with: MULTI         VANGA RED,
                                                                       COLOUR, MULTI       HIMALAYAN
                                                                       COLOR               BLUE,
                                                                                           AURORA
                                                                                           and LIETO
                                                                                           RED
                                                                                           Finland,
                                                                                           ENGLISH
                                                                                           TEAK India
NEW           red, dark granite      Archean          (   0.1-0.15% ) not quite correct    partially   TRANAS =
IMPERIAL      grey, rose                                               IMPERIAL RED, NEW RUBY RED, site, BOHUS
RED India,                                                             IMPERIAL            JHANSI     = part of
Karnataka                                                                                  RED, JAEM Sweden
                                                                                           RED India,
                                                                                           ROSSO
                                                                                           TOLEDO,
                                                                                           TRANAS
                                                                                           Sweden,
                                                                                           BOHUS RED
                                                                                           Sweden
NEW           gold, ivory gneiss     uppermost        (   0.25-0.35% ) VENETIAN GOLD,      partially  VENETIAN =
VENEZIAN      with grey group        Proterozoic to                    NEW VENEZIANO,      GIALLO     according
GOLD Brazil   and brown              Cambrian                          incorrect name with TOPAZIO,   Nova Venecia
              spots                                                    VENEZIAN            AMARELO    town
                                                                                           REAL,




                                                                                                         18
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-                 GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                     BASIS OF
  L NAME          GRAPHIC                   AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                       NAME
COUNTRY +          TYPE                              BY WEIGHT
  STATE,
 PROVINCE
                                                                                              SANTA
                                                                                              CECILIA,
                                                                                              GIALLO
                                                                                              VENEZIANO
OCONEE       ivory,      oriented    Carboniferous       (   0.25-0.3% )                      partially   OCONEE =
USA, Georgia grey, black porphyritic                                                          BIANCO      river
                         granite                                                              SARDO,
                                                                                              GRIGIO
                                                                                              SARDO,
                                                                                              MONDARIZ
OLIVE         green with gneiss         Proterozoic      (   0.1-0.2% ) OLIVE GREEN:          VERDE       OLIVE GREEN
GREEN         black      group -                                          incorrect OLIVER    MARITACA, = color,
South Africa, bands      migmatite                                        GREEN               VERDE SAN VERDE =
Northern Cape                                                                                 FRANCISCO, green,
                                                                                              VERDE       CANDEIAS =
                                                                                              CANDEIAS site,
                                                                                              Brazil,     FORESTA =
                                                                                              VERDE       forest
                                                                                              FORESTA
                                                                                              Brazil
ORISSA          light grey- migmatite Proterozoic        (   0.15-0.2% ) SAMANTHA BLUE,       LAVENDER ORISSA =
BLUE            blue with charnockite metamorphism                        not quite correct:  BLUE,       state,
India, Orissa   dark-grey composition                                     BLUE ORISSA,        partially   BENGAL =
                waves and                                                 incorrect: ORISA    VIZAG       part of sea,
                red spots                                                 BLUE                BLUE,       EIDELWEISS
                                                                                              BAHAMA      = plant
                                                                                              BLUE,
                                                                                              BENGAL
                                                                                              BLUE India,
                                                                                              PARADISO
                                                                                              BLUE India,
                                                                                              EIDELWEIS
                                                                                              S South
                                                                                              Africa
PADANG       grey,         granite to Cretaceous         (   0.15-0.35% ) PADANG HELL,        partially   PADANG =
LIGHT China, white,        granodiorite                                   varieties: PADANG   BLANCO      site
Fujian       black                                                        DARK DUNKEL,        CRISTAL,
                                                                          PADANG CRISTALLO SIERRA
                                                                                              WHITE,
                                                                                              SIRA GREY,
                                                                                              KURU GREY
PARADISO        rose-      gneiss       Archean          (   0.2-0.3% ) PARADISO LIGHT,       partially
BASH India,     yellowish, group -                                        PARADISO CHIARO, PARADISO
Tamil Nadu      light grey migmatite                                      incorrect name with CLASSICO,
                with dark                                                 BUSH, BOSH          GOLDEN
                grey                                                                          FANTASY,
                waves                                                                         JUPARANA
                                                                                              INDIA
PARADISO        rose-         gneiss    Archean          (   0.2-0.3% ) PARADISO,             partially
CLASSICO        violet, light group -                                     PARADISO DARK       PARADISO
India, Tamil    grey with migmatite                                                           BUSH,
Nadu            black                                                                         MULTICOLO
                waves                                                                         R RED,
                                                                                              JACARANDA
                                                                                              , KINAWA
PIRACEMA        white, pink gneiss      Archean to Early (   0.1-0.3% ) PIRACEMA WHITE,       BIANCO      PIRACEMA =
Brazil, Minas   with dark group -       Proterozoic                       BRANCO PIRACEMA, KINAWA         fish, RAISA =
Gerais          grey        migmatite                                     BIANCO PIRACEMA, Brazil,        name
                waves                                                     not quite correct:  partially
                                                                          WHITE PIRACEMA      KINAWA,
                                                                                              ROSA RAISA
                                                                                              Brazil
PLATINUM     white,      porphyritic Proterozoic         (   0.1-0.3% )                       partially
WHITE India, grey, black granite                                                              PADANG




                                                                                                             19
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-               GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                       BASIS OF
  L NAME          GRAPHIC                 AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                         NAME
COUNTRY +          TYPE                            BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
Rajasthan                                                                                    CRISTALLO,
                                                                                             SIERRA
                                                                                             WHITE
POLYCHROM brown,      granite         Proterozoic      ( 0.1-0.15% )    incorrect name:      CALEDONIA, POLYCHROME
E         grey, black                                                  POLICHROME            AUTUMN      = multicolor
Canada,                                                                                      BROWN,
Quebec                                                                                       CRYSTAL
                                                                                             BROWN
                                                                                             South
                                                                                             Africa,
                                                                                             partially
                                                                                             TROPIC
                                                                                             BROWN
RAINBOW        rose       gneiss      Early Archean    ( 0.05% )       RAINBOW GRANITE;      partially    TEAK = tree
USA,           yellowish group -                                       RAINBOW is also       ENGLISH
Minnesota      with black migmatite                                    granite from Canada   TEAK India,
               waves                                                                         LIETO RED
                                                                                             and
                                                                                             AURORA
                                                                                             Finland,
                                                                                             PARADISO
                                                                                             BASH,
                                                                                             MULTICOLO
                                                                                             R RED,
                                                                                             GIALLO
                                                                                             CALIFORNIA
RANIWARA       gold, dark granite     Proterozoic      ( 0.2-0.3% )    GOLDEN PEARL,         PANTHER     RANIWARA =
India,         grey                                                    GOLDEN FLOWER,        YELLOW      site, ARIAH
Rajasthan                                                              not quite good        India,      PARK = site
                                                                       GOLDEN YELLOW,        partially
                                                                       variety: PANTHER      MARIGOLD,
                                                                       YELLOW                ARIAH PARK
                                                                                             GOLD
                                                                                             Australia
RAW SILK       pink, ivory gneiss     Proterozoic      ( 0.15-0.35% ) RAW SILK PINK,         IVORY SILK, SILK = cloth,
India, Tamil   and grey group         metamorphism                    variety: IVORY SILK    partially   RAW SILK =
Nadu           bands                                                  RAW SILK IVORY,        GHIBLI,     type of fabric
                                                                      IVORY RAW SILK         SAHARA
                                                                                             GOLD India,
                                                                                             SIVAKASI
ROSA BETA      grey, pink, granite    Carboniferous    ( 0.25-0.3% ) ROSA SARDO BETA         DEER ISLE, BETA =
Italy,         white                                                                         PINK ROSE maybe site
Sardegna                                                                                     China,
                                                                                             MOUNTAIN
                                                                                             PINK China,
                                                                                             partially
                                                                                             MONDARIZ,
                                                                                             ROSA
                                                                                             LIMBARA
ROSA           grey, rose- porphyritic Carboniferous   ( 0.25-0.3% ) ROSA SARDO              partially   LIMBARA =
LIMBARA        brown,      granite                                   LIMBARA, LIMBARA,       LIBEREC     mount,
Italy,         white                                                 varieties:              Bohemia,    GHIANDONE
Sardegna                                                             GHIANDONE ROSA          ROSA        = acorn,
                                                                     GHIANDONE, ROSA         DANTE,      LIBEREC =
                                                                     GALLURA, not quite      MONDARIZ, site
                                                                     correct: ROSA           ROSA
                                                                     SARDO                   VILLAR,
                                                                                             ROSA BETA,
ROSA           rose, grey, granite    Carboniferous    ( 0.25-0.3% ) PORRINO PINK,           DESERT      PORRINO =
PORRINO        white                                                 incorrect names         ROSE,       site
Spain, Galicia                                                       with: PORINO            CHIMA
                                                                                             PINK,
                                                                                             partially
                                                                                             SALISBURY




                                                                                                            20
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-                 GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                      BASIS OF
  L NAME          GRAPHIC                   AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                        NAME
COUNTRY +          TYPE                              BY WEIGHT
  STATE,
 PROVINCE
                                                                                              PINK, ROSY
                                                                                              PINK,
                                                                                              AFRICAN
                                                                                              LILAC
ROSSO           red, dark porphyritic Proterozoic        (   0.15-0.35% ) SANTIAGO RED,       partially    SANTIAGO =
SANTIAGO        grey, light granite                                       KAPUSTINO,          SIERRA       Spanish town
Ukraine,        grey                                                      KAPUSTIN            CHICA,       = St. Jacob
Kirovograd                                                                                    TEXAS RED
ROSSO           red, grey   granite     Proterozoic      (   0.2-0.35% ) EMELYANOV            partially    TOLEDO =
TOLEDO                                                                                        CAPAO        Spanish town
Ukraine,                                                                                      BONITO,
Zhitomir                                                                                      BALMORAL
                                                                                              RED
ROSY PINK       pink, grey, granite     Proterozoic      (   0.25% )      incorrect name:     FLOWER OF
India,          greenish                                                  ROSSY PINK          UKRAINE
Rajasthan                                                                                     Ukraine,
                                                                                              partially
                                                                                              ROSA
                                                                                              PORRINO,
                                                                                              CHIMA
                                                                                              PINK,
                                                                                              ALMOND
                                                                                              MAUVE,
                                                                                              AFRICAN
                                                                                              LILAC,
                                                                                              FOREST
                                                                                              GREEN
RUBY RED        red, dark   granite     Archean          (   0.15-0.25% ) NEW RUBY RED,       INDIAN       RUBY =
India,          grey                                                      ROSSO RUBINO, not RED,           precious
Karnataka                                                                 quite correct with  JHANSI       stone
                                                                          RUBIN               RED,
                                                                                              AFRICAN
                                                                                              RED, EAGLE
                                                                                              RED,
                                                                                              partially
                                                                                              NEW
                                                                                              IMPERIAL
                                                                                              RED
SALISBURY       pink, grey oriented     Devonian         (   0.15-0.45% ) incorrect name PINK CAMELIA      SALISBURY =
PINK                       granite                                        SALISBURY           PINK USA,    site,
USA, North                                                                                    ROSA         CAMELIA =
Carolina                                                                                      PORRINO,     plant,
                                                                                              DESERT       ROCKWELL =
                                                                                              ROSE,        site
                                                                                              ROCKWELL
                                                                                              PINK USA,
                                                                                              partially
                                                                                              AFRICAN
                                                                                              LILAC,
                                                                                              CHIMA PINK
SAMBA           white, grey gneiss      Archean to Early (   0.2-0.35% ) SAMBA, BIANCO        WHITE        SAMBA =
WHITE           with red    group -     Proterozoic                       SAMBA               GALAXY,      dance,
Brazil, Bahia   spots       probably                                                          KASHMIR      REGINA =
                            granulite                                                         WHITE,       queen,
                                                                                              BRANCO       BRANCO =
                                                                                              REGINA       white
                                                                                              Brazil,
                                                                                              BRANCO
                                                                                              POLAR
                                                                                              Brazil




                                                                                                             21
COMMERCIA          COLOURS      PETRO-     GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                     BASIS OF
   L NAME                      GRAPHIC        AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                       NAME
COUNTRY +                        TYPE                  BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
SANTA              gold, grey gneiss      uppermost        ( 0.25-0.35% ) GIALLO SANTA          partially    ST. CECILIA
CECILIA            with dark group        Proterozoic to                  CECILIA,              GIALLO       = site
Brazil, Espirito   grey,                  Cambrian                        ST.CECILIA, incorrect NAPOLEONE
Santo              brown                                                  names: CECELIA,       Brazil,
                   spots                                                  S.CECILIA             GIALLO
                                                                                                FIORITO,
                                                                                                GIALLO
                                                                                                TOPAZIO,
                                                                                                AMARELO
                                                                                                REAL,
                                                                                                GIALLO
                                                                                                VENEZIANO
SAPPHIRE           light      porphyritic probably         ( 0.2-0.35% ) varieties: SAPPHIRE SAPPHIRE        SAPPHIRE =
BROWN              brown,     granite     Archean                         BLUE, ENGLISH         BLUE,        precious
India, Andhra      dark grey,                                             BROWN, incorrect      ENGLISH      stone
Pradesh            blue-grey                                              name: BROWN           BROWN
                                                                          SAPPHIRE, SAPHIRE India,
                                                                          BROWN, SAPHIRE        partially
                                                                          BLUE                  TAN
                                                                                                BROWN,
                                                                                                CRYSTAL
                                                                                                BROWN
                                                                                                South
                                                                                                Africa, AZUL
                                                                                                BARRACUDA
SEAWEED            green,     gneiss      Archean -        ( 0.2-0.3% ) probably GREEN          VERDE        SEAWEED
GREEN              black,     group       Proterozoic                     GALAXY, POCONO        LABRADOR, GREEN =
India, Orissa      brownish   probably                                    GREEN, PINE GREEN VERDE            color
                              charnockite                                                       UBATUBA,
                              composition                                                       VERDE
                                                                                                BUTTERFLY,
                                                                                                VERDE
                                                                                                BAHIA
SERIZZO            light grey, gneiss      Carboniferous   ( 0.35-0.4% ) SERIZZO                partially    SERIZZO =
Italy,             black       group -     Permian                        ANTIGORIO,            SILVER       old name for
Piemonte                       orthogneiss                                SARIZZO, varieties: CLOUD,         gneiss
                                                                          SERIZZO SEMPIONE, GRIGIO
                                                                          SERIZZO               MALAGA
                                                                          FORMAZZA,             Italy,
                                                                          SERIZZO               SIERRA
                                                                          MONTEROSA,            WHITE
                                                                          incorrect names
                                                                          SERRIZO, SARRIZIO
SHANXI        black            gabbro     maybe Terciery   ( 0.05-0.15% ) ABSOLUTE BLACK,       BELFAST      SHANXI =
BLACK                         group -     or Proterozoic                  SUPREME BLACK,        BLACK, JET province
China, Shanxi                 probably                                    partially CHINA       BLACK,
                              dolerite                                    BLACK, variety:       NERO
                                                                          FENGZHEN BLACK        ZIMBABWE,
                                                                          Nei Mongol            SWEDISH
                                                                                                BLACK
                                                                                                Sweden,
                                                                                                PREMIUM
                                                                                                BLACK
                                                                                                India,
                                                                                                IMPERIAL
                                                                                                BLACK
                                                                                                Australia,
                                                                                                and all
                                                                                                stones with
                                                                                                names:
                                                                                                ABSOLUTE
                                                                                                BLACK,
                                                                                                NERO
                                                                                                ASSOLUTO




                                                                                                               22
COMMERCIA       COLOURS      PETRO-     GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                      BASIS OF
   L NAME                   GRAPHIC        AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                        NAME
COUNTRY +                     TYPE                  BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
SIERRA          red, dark porphyritic probably            ( 0.15-0.2% ) ROJO SIERRA CHICA, partially  SIERRA
CHICA           grey, light granite   Paleozoic                         ROSSO SIERRA       TUMKUR     CHICA =
Argentina,      grey                                                    CHICA, SIERRA      RED,       mountains
Buenos Aires                                                            CHICA RED          ROSSO
                                                                                           SANTIAGO,
                                                                                           NEW
                                                                                           IMPERIAL
                                                                                           RED,
                                                                                           AFRICAN
                                                                                           RED
SIERRA          light grey, granite    Cretaceous         ( 0.3% )      SIERRA WHITE       BARRE      SIERRA =
WHITE           dark grey                                               GRANITE            GRAY,      mountains
USA,                                                                                       partially
California                                                                                 BLANCO
                                                                                           CRISTAL,
                                                                                           TARN, SIRA
                                                                                           GREY, KURU
                                                                                           GREY,
                                                                                           PADANG
SILVER       light grey    gneiss     uppermost           ( 0.2-0.4% ) SILVER CLOUD        VISCON     EIDELWEISS
CLOUD        with dark     group -    Proterozoic to                    GRANITE            WHITE,     = plant
USA, Georgia grey          paragneiss Cambrian                                             IMPERIAL
             waves         or                                                              WHITE,
                           migmatite                                                       partially
                                                                                           KUPPAM
                                                                                           GREEN,
                                                                                           EIDELWEIS
                                                                                           S South
                                                                                           Africa,
                                                                                           SERIZZO
SILVER          grey, dark maybe       probably           ( 0.1-0.15% )                    partially
PEARL           grey       syenite     Proterozoic                                         BLACK
India, Andhra              group                                                           PEARL
Pradesh
SILVER SEA      grey, light maybe      probably           ( 0.15% )     incorrect name:      VERDE        SEA GREEN
GREEN Saudi     green       granite    Proterozoic                      SILVER GREEN,        TUNAS,       = color
Arabia                                                                  EMERALD GREEN is     PINE GREEN
                                                                        also marble          Canada,
                                                                                             MOKALSAR
                                                                                             GREEN,
                                                                                             ORIENTAL
                                                                                             GREEN
                                                                                             Saudi Arabia
SIRA GREY       light grey, granite       maybe Archaen   ( 0.3% )      SIRA GRAY, SEERA     BARRE        SIRA = site
India,          dark grey group -                                       GREY, incorrect      GRAY, KURU
Karnataka                    maybe                                      name with CIRA,      GREY,
                             granodiorite                               SERA                 PADANG
SIVAKASI        ivory, light gneiss       Proterozoic     ( 0.25-0.3% ) SIVAKASI,            IVORY        SIVAKASI =
YELLOW          grey with group -         metamorphism                  SHIVAKASHI,          BROWN        site
India, Tamil    brown        migmatite                                  SHIVAKASHI           India,
Nadu            spots                                                   YELLOW, varieties:   SHIVA
                                                                        IVORY BROWN, SIVA GOLD India,
                                                                        GOLD, SHIVA GOLD partially
                                                                        SHIVA YELLOW,        GHIBLI,
                                                                        incorrect names with IVORY SILK
                                                                        SHIVAKASI,           India
                                                                        SIVAKASHI
SOLAR           white, grey oriented   Devonian           ( 0.15-0.2% ) SOLAR WHITE          CAMELIA
WHITE                       granite                                     GRANITE              WHITE,
USA, North                                                                                   partially
Carolina                                                                                     ASA
                                                                                             BRANCO,
                                                                                             BETHEL
                                                                                             WHITE,




                                                                                                            23
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-               GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                        BASIS OF
  L NAME          GRAPHIC                 AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                          NAME
COUNTRY +          TYPE                            BY WEIGHT
  STATE,
 PROVINCE
                                                                                     BLANCO
                                                                                     CRISTAL
SWEDISH        black    gabbro      Carboniferous to ( 0.05% )     EBONY BLACK,      BELFAST
BLACK                   group -     Permian                        SWEDISH EBONY     BLACK, JET
Sweden,                 dolerite                                   BLACK, STANDARD BLACK,
Skane                                                              BOALT             NERO
                                                                                     ZIMBABWE,
                                                                                     SWEDISH
                                                                                     BLACK
                                                                                     Sweden,
                                                                                     PREMIUM
                                                                                     BLACK
                                                                                     India, and
                                                                                     all stones
                                                                                     with names:
                                                                                     ABSOLUTE
                                                                                     BLACK,
                                                                                     NERO
                                                                                     ASSOLUTO
TAN BROWN brown-red, porphyritic probably            ( 0.2-0.3% )                    partially             TAN BROWN
India, Andhra dark grey oriented    Archean                                          AUTUMN                = color
Pradesh                 granite                                                      BROWN,
                        maybe                                                        CAT`S EYE
                        orthogneiss                                                  India,
                                                                                     SAPPHIRE
                                                                                     BROWN,
                                                                                     DAKOTA
                                                                                     MAHOGANY
TARN           grey,    granite     Carboniferous    ( 0.3-0.35% ) varieties: TARN   SIERRA                TARN = river,
France, Midi - white,                                              MOYEN, TARN CLAIR WHITE,                region, CLAIR
Pyrenees       black                                               CLAIR DU TARN,    BARRE                 =light,
                                                                   BIANCO TARN, TARN GREY,                 MOYEN =
                                                                   FONCE             PADANG                medium,
                                                                                     LIGHT                 FONCE =
                                                                                                           dark
TEXAS RED    rose to      porphyritic Proterozoic       ( 0.1-0.2% )    TEXAS RED             SUNSET       TEXAS =
USA, Texas   light red,   granite                                       GRANITE, varieties:   RED USA,     state,
             grey,                                                      SUNSET RED,           partially    AZALEA =
             greenish                                                   SUNSET BEIGE,         TEXAS        plant, BOHUS
                                                                        INDIAN SUNSET,        PINK,        = part of
                                                                        TEXAS PINK            AZALEA       Sweden,
                                                                                              USA,         MAPLE = tree
                                                                                              BOHUS RED
                                                                                              Sweden,
                                                                                              CAPAO
                                                                                              BONITO,
                                                                                              MAPLE RED
                                                                                              China
TIGER SKIN rose, light gneiss         Proterozoic       ( 0.25-0.3% )    not quite correct    partially
India, Tamil grey with group          metamorphism                      TIGER RED because     TIGER RED
Nadu         grey                                                       of Brazilian TIGER    Brazil,
             streaks                                                    RED                   KINAWA,
                                                                                              VANGA RED,
                                                                                              RAINBOW
TIGER SKIN ivory-gold, gneiss         Paleozoic up to   ( 0.25-0.35% ) TIGER YELLOW           partially
YELLOW        grey, dark group        Mesozoic                                                SANTA
China, Fujian grey                                                                            CECILIA,
                                                                                              GIALLO
                                                                                              TOPAZIO,
                                                                                              AMARELO
                                                                                              REAL




                                                                                                             24
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-                  GEOLOGICAL          WATER     OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR           BASIS OF
   L NAME                     GRAPHIC          AGE        ABSORPTION         VARIETIES         STONES       NAME
 COUNTRY +                      TYPE                       BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
TROPIC           brown,      granite     Proterozoic      ( 0.1-0.15% ) TROPICAL BROWN, partially
BROWN            grey                                                   NAJRAN BROWN,        AUTUMN
Saudi Arabia                                                            GHADEER; NEW         BROWN,
                                                                        TROPIC BROWN         CALEDONIA,
                                                                        Brazil               POLYCHROM
                                                                                             E
TROPICAL         green with gneiss       Proterozoic      ( 0.2-0.3% ) KERALA GREEN,         partially
GREEN            green-      group -     metamorphism                   VERDE KERALA, not AMADEUS
India, Kerala black and probably                                        quite correct: GREEN
                 red spots granulite                                    KERALA
TUMKUR           red, grey gneiss        maybe Archean ( 0.1-0.2% ) TUMKUR PINK,             partially  TUMKUR =
RED                          group -                                    TUMKUR PORPHYRY ROSSO GOA site, PERLA =
India,                       maybe                                      incorrect names with India,     pearl, GOA =
Karnataka                    orthogneiss                                PORPHERY,            VANGA RED, part of India
                                                                        PORPHYRE, maybe      JACARANDA
                                                                        ROSSO PERLA,         , ROSSO
                                                                        ROSSO PERLA INDIA, SANTIAGO
                                                                        ROSSO GOA, GOA
                                                                        RED
VANGA RED red, dark gneiss               Proterozoic      ( 0.15-0.2% ) VANGA, ROSSO         partially  VANGA =
Sweden,          grey        group -                                    VANGA, VANGA         TUMKUR     site, TRANAS
Skane                        orthogneiss                                GRANITE              RED,       = site
                                                                                             MULTICOLO
                                                                                             R RED,
                                                                                             TRANAS
                                                                                             Sweden
VERDE            dark        charnockite Archean to Early ( 0.05-0.2% ) BAHIA GREEN          VERDE      BAHIA =
BAHIA            green,      group       Proterozoic                                         UBATUBA, Brazilian
Brazil, Bahia dark grey, granite to                                                          partially  state
                 gold        quartz                                                          VERDE
                             syenite                                                         BUTTERFLY,
                             composition                                                     VERDE
                                                                                             LABRADOR
VERDE            dark        charnockite uppermost        ( 0.1-0.2% ) BUTTERFLY GREEN, partially
BUTTERFLY green,             group       Proterozoic to                 not quite correct:   VERDE
Brazil           grey        quartz      Cambrian                       GREEN BUTTERFLY      BAHIA,
                             syenite                                                         VERDE
                             composition                                                     UBATUBA,
                                                                                             VERDE
                                                                                             LABRADOR
VERDE            light green gneiss      uppermost        ( 0.2-0.25% ) VERDE EUCALYPTUS, VERDE         EUCALIPTO =
EUCALIPTO with green group -             Proterozoic to                 incorrect name with CRUZEIRO tree,
Brazil, Espirito and red     granulite   Cambrian                       EUCALIPTUS           Brazil,    CRUZEIRO =
Santo            spots                                                                       partially  cross, site
                                                                                             KASHMIR
                                                                                             WHITE
VERDE            green,      charnockite Proterozoic      ( 0.1-0.15% ) VERDE FOUNTAIN,      partially  FONTAINE =
FONTAINE         dark grey group                                        VERDE FONTAIN        VERDE      Bitterfontain
South Africa,                quartz                                                          TUNAS,     town
Northern Cape                syenite                                                         BALTIC
                             composition                                                     GREEN,
                                                                                             BALMORAL
                                                                                             GREEN,
                                                                                             NAGINA
                                                                                             GREEN,
                                                                                             SEAWEED
                                                                                             GREEN
VERDE            dark        charnockite uppermost        ( 0.15% )     LABRADOR GREEN       partially  LABRADOR =
LABRADOR green,              group       Proterozoic to                                      VERDE      incorrect
Brazil, Espirito dark grey, maybe        Cambrian                                            BUTTERFLY, name for
Santo            brownish syenite                                                            VERDE      rock with
                             composition                                                     BAHIA,     play of
                                                                                             VERDE      colour,
                                                                                             UBATUBA    Canadian




                                                                                                          25
COMMERCIA COLOURS PETRO-                  GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                  BASIS OF
  L NAME          GRAPHIC                    AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                    NAME
COUNTRY +          TYPE                               BY WEIGHT
  STATE,
 PROVINCE
                                                                                                          part
VERDE           green,       gneiss      Proterozoic    ( 0.1-0.15% ) LAVRAS GREEN,          VERDE        LAVRAS =
LAVRAS          dark grey,   group -     metamorphism                 incorrect name:        GLORIA       site
Brazil, Minas   grey-        maybe                                    VERDE LAURA            Brazil,
Gerais          violetish    orthogneiss                                                     partially
                                                                                             NAGINA
                                                                                             GREEN,
                                                                                             SEAWEED
                                                                                             GREEN,
                                                                                             VERDE
                                                                                             MARITACA,
                                                                                             VERDE SAN
                                                                                             FRANCISCO
VERDE           green,     meta-      Archean to        (   0.05-0.15% ) MARINACE,           partially    MARINACE =
MARINACE        dark grey, conglomera Proterozoic                        MARINACE GREEN      NAGINA       maybe by
Brazil, Bahia   rose       te                                                                GREEN,       marinate
                                                                                             FOREST
                                                                                             GREEN,
                                                                                             GREEN
                                                                                             ROSE
VERDE           green-grey gneiss        Proterozoic    (   0.15-0.25% ) incorrect name:     VERDE SAN MARITACA =
MARITACA        with dark group -        metamorphism                    VERDE MARITAKA      FRANCISCO, parrot,
Brazil, Minas   grey       migmatite                                                         OLIVE        CANDEIAS =
Gerais          waves                                                                        GREEN,       site
                                                                                             VERDE
                                                                                             CANDEIAS
                                                                                             Brazil,
                                                                                             VERDE
                                                                                             FORESTA
VERDE SAN       green-grey gneiss        Proterozoic    (   0.15-0.25% ) VERDE SAO           VERDE        CANDEIAS =
FRANCISCO       with dark group -        metamorphism                    FRANCISCO, VERDE MARITACA, site, SAN
Brazil, Minas   grey       migmatite                                     S.FRANCISCO,        OLIVE        FRANCISCO
Gerais          waves                                                    incorrect name with GREEN,       = site
                                                                         FRANSISCO           VERDE
                                                                                             CANDEIAS
                                                                                             Brazil,
                                                                                             VERDE
                                                                                             FORESTA
VERDE           light grey quartz        Tertiery       (   0.3-0.35% )                      VERDE        SPLUGA,
SPLUGA          white, light gneiss to   metamorpism                                         AOSTA        AOSTA =
Italy,          green        quartzite                                                       Italy, VERDE valleys
Lombardia                                                                                    ARGENTO
                                                                                             Italy,
                                                                                             ANDEER
                                                                                             Switzerland
VERDE           green-     gneiss        Proterozoic    (   0.15-0.25% ) incorrect name:     partially
TROPICAL        grey, rose group -       metamorphism                    TROPICAL GREEN      VIOLET
Brazil, Minas   with dark migmatite                                      Indian granite      TROPICAL
Gerais          grey                                                                         Brazil,
                waves                                                                        VERDE
                                                                                             MARITACA,
                                                                                             AMADEUS,
                                                                                             VERDE SAN
                                                                                             FRANCISCO
VERDE          green,        syenite     Proterozoic    (   0.45-0.5% ) TUNAS GREEN          SILVER SEA TUNAS = site
TUNAS          grey                                                                          GREEN,
Brazil, Parana                                                                               ORIENTAL
                                                                                             GREEN
                                                                                             Saudi
                                                                                             Arabia, PINE
                                                                                             GREEN
                                                                                             Canada,
                                                                                             MOKALSAR
                                                                                             GREEN




                                                                                                          26
COMMERCIA      COLOURS       PETRO-      GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                     BASIS OF
   L NAME                   GRAPHIC         AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                       NAME
COUNTRY +                     TYPE                   BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
VERDE          dark         charnockite uppermost        ( 0.2-0.45% ) UBATUBA, UBATUBA      VERDE       UBATUBA =
UBATUBA        green,       group       Proterozoic to                 GREEN,                BAHIA,      site
Brazil, Sao    dark grey,   quartz      Cambrian                           incorrect name    partially
Paulo          gold         syenite                                    UBA TUBA              VERDE
                            composition                                                      BUTTERFLY,
                                                                                             VERDE
                                                                                             LABRADOR,
                                                                                             SEAWEED
                                                                                             GREEN
VIOLETTA       rose,       granite      uppermost        (   0.15-0.2% ) NAJRAN RED          partially
Saudi Arabia   greenish,                Proterozoic to                                       FLOWER OF
               beige, red-              Cambrian                                             UKRAINE
               brown,                                                                        Ukraine,
               grey                                                                          MISTY
                                                                                             MAUVE,
                                                                                             AFRICAN
                                                                                             LILAC,
                                                                                             ALMOND
                                                                                             MAUVE,
                                                                                             FOREST
                                                                                             GREEN,
                                                                                             ROSY PINK
VISCON         white with gneiss        Archean -        (   0.2-0.25% ) misleading but very SILVER      VISCON =
WHITE          dark grey group          Proterozoic                       used: VISCOUNT     CLOUD,      viscose fibre
India,         waves      probably                                        WHITE, VISCONT     IMPERIAL
southern                  migmatite                                       WHITE              WHITE,
states                                                                                       partially
                                                                                             KUPPAM
                                                                                             GREEN,
                                                                                             EIDELWEIS
                                                                                             S South
                                                                                             Africa,
                                                                                             SERIZZO
VIZAG BLUE grey-blue migmatite Proterozoic               (   0.15-0.25% ) not quite correct  BAHAMA      VIZAG =
India, Andhra with dark charnockite metamorphism                          BLUE VIZAG;        BLUE, SILK Visakhapatna
Pradesh       grey      composition                                       varieties: BAHAMA  BLUE India, m town,
              waves and                                                   BLUE, BENGAL BLUE, PARADISO BENGAL =
              red spots                                                   SRIKAKULAM BLUE BLUE India, part of sea
                                                                                             BENGAL
                                                                                             BLUE India,
                                                                                             partially
                                                                                             LAVENDER
                                                                                             BLUE
VOLGA BLUE black,           gabbro      Proterozoic      (   0.1-0.3% ) varieties: BLUE      BLUE        VOLGA =
Ukraine,   greenish         group -                                       VOLGA, BLUE        VOLGA       Russian river,
Zhitomir   with blue        anorthosite                                   POLARE, IRINA      Ukraine,    IRINA =
           spots                                                          BLUE, BLUE NIGHT, BLUE         name
                                                                          ARCTIC BLUE, BLUE POLARE
                                                                          STAR               Ukraine,
                                                                                             IRINA BLUE
                                                                                             Ukraine,
                                                                                             BLUE NIGHT
                                                                                             Ukraine,
                                                                                             ARCTIC
                                                                                             BLUE
                                                                                             Ukraine,
                                                                                             BLUE STAR
                                                                                             Ukraine,
                                                                                             SPEKTROLIT
                                                                                             Finland,
                                                                                             partially
                                                                                             EMERALD
                                                                                             PEARL




                                                                                                            27
COMMERCIA      COLOURS      PETRO-     GEOLOGICAL    WATER   OTHER NAMES AND SIMILAR                  BASIS OF
   L NAME                  GRAPHIC        AGE     ABSORPTION    VARIETIES    STONES                    NAME
 COUNTRY +                   TYPE                  BY WEIGHT
   STATE,
 PROVINCE
VYARA          beige-      gneiss     Archean -        ( 0.15-0.25% ) JUPARANA VYARA,   partially    VYARA =
India, maybe   ivory, gold group      Proterozoic                     GOLDEN VYARA,     MADURA       site, OAK =
Tamil Nadu     bands                                                  GIALLO VYARA,     GOLD,        tree
                                                                      incorrect names   GOLDEN
                                                                      VIYARA, VIARA     OAK India,
                                                                                        SIVAKASI
                                                                                        YELLOW,
                                                                                        GHIBLI
WHITE         white, grey gneiss      Proterozoic      ( 0.2-0.3% )   GALAXY WHITE      KASHMIR       REGINA =
GALAXY        with red    group -     metamorphism                                      WHITE,       queen
India, Andhra spots       granulite                                                     SAMBA
Pradesh                                                                                 WHITE,
                                                                                        BRANCO
                                                                                        REGINA
                                                                                        Brazil,
                                                                                        BRANCO
                                                                                        POLAR
                                                                                        Brazil
ZIMBABWE       black      gabbro      Proterozoic      ( 0.1-0.15% ) NERO ZIMBABWE,     JET BLACK    JET = type
BLACK                     group -                                    NERO ASSOLUTO      India,      of coal
Zimbabwe,                 dolerite                                   ZIMBABWE,          PREMIUM
Mashonaland                                                          ABSOLUTE BLACK     BLACK
                                                                     ZIMBABWE,          India,
                                                                                        BELFAST
                                                                                        BLACK,
                                                                                        IMPERIAL
                                                                                        BLACK
                                                                                        Australia,
                                                                                        SWEDISH
                                                                                        BLACK
                                                                                        Sweden and
                                                                                        all stones
                                                                                        with names:
                                                                                        ABSOLUTE
                                                                                        BLACK,
                                                                                        NERO
                                                                                        ASSOLUTO


Explanation             of           some           terms       in       the         text       above:

K= Potassium, Mg= Magnesium, Fe= Iron, Al= Aluminium, Na= Sodium, Ca=
Calcium
Biotite - dark mica K, Mg, Fe, Al Silicate
Cleavage - the tendency of some mineral crystals to break along definite planes of
weakness
Conglomerate - sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments over 2 mm
Cordierite - mineral - Mg, Al Silicate
Feldspars - light minerals - K, Na, Ca Alumosilicates
Garnet - mineral of red to brown colour Fe, Mg, Ca, Al Silicate
Hornblendes (Amphiboles) - group of dark minerals Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Al Silicates
K feldspars - orthoclase or microcline minerals - K Alumosilicates
Micas - scales minerals muscovite and biotite
Mohs Hardness - To a relative scale of ten minerals arranged in order of increasing
hardness
Muscovite - light mica K, Al Silicate
Olivine - dark mineral Mg, Fe Silicate




                                                                                                       28
Oriented granites - where columnar or tabular minerals are distributed according to a
certain orientation
Petrography - branch of geology concerned with rock description
Plagioclases - minerals type of feldspars - Na, Ca Alumosilicates
Plutonic rocks - formed by crystalization from magma under earth`s surface in large
massifs
Porphyritic - texture in which larger crystals or grains occur in smaller ones
Pyroxenes - group of dark minerals - Ca, Mg, Fe, Al Silicates
Quartz - mineral - silicon oxide
Schlieren - texture with discontinuous almost parallel bands
Translucent - light passes through the mineral but the object viewed is not clearly
outlined




                                                                                  29

								
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