Pre-listening (Part 1)
Q1. Can you remember any accident where people got trapped for a long time?
rescue trapped dig horizontal
concrete drill explosions crack upwards
collapse end up damage drip
Listen to Part 1
Q1. What happened to two men in the story?
Q2. What did people do to get the men out?
Q3. How long had they been trapped?
Q4. What kind of food did they eat while there were trapped underground?
Listen again and answer the missed questions from above.
The final stages of the rescue of two Beaconsfield miners, trapped one kilometre
underground, took much longer than anyone expected.
The rescuers used a huge machine to dig a horizontal tunnel, one metre wide and almost 16
But when they started digging the last part by hand, they hit rock like this.
It's 5 times harder than concrete.
So they drilled lots of smaller holes and set off small explosions to crack the rock and
make it easier to dig through.
Then they had to dig upwards, being careful not to cause a collapse.
So Todd Russell and Brant Webb ended up spending two weeks trapped in the mine.
They didn't eat for the first five days and only drank small amounts of water.
It seems amazing that anyone can go for so long and still be OK.
So we asked Lucy to find out more about what our bodies need to survive and which things
are most important.
Pre-listening (Part 2)
Q1. How long do you think people can survive without water?
Q2. How long do think people can survive without food?
Q3. There are meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, bread, nuts and water.
What would you eat to survive?
desert island strand carbohydrate fibre lung
kidney juggle equivalent of crumpet diabetes
asthma obese plenty of a tub of fizzy drinks
Listen to Part 2
Q1. How much energy do 100g of almonds compared to the same amount of tuna
Q2. What is “kilojoule”?
Q3. How does our body use up energy? Do we need energy when we are asleep,
Q4. What happens when you burn less energy than you put into your body?
Q5. Why are more kids putting on weight these days?
Q6. How long can people survive without food? What about without water?
If you were stranded on a desert island, what food would you choose to help you survive?
100 g of tuna, 100 g of wholemeal bread or 100 g of almonds? If you chose the almonds,
you would probably survive the longest.
The almonds have five times the energy of the tuna and twice the energy of the bread.
Fish is high in protein, bread is high in carbohydrate and almonds are high in fat
Because fat has the most kilojoules per gram it provides us with the most energy we need to
People stranded at sea or lost in the desert have been known to survive on very little food.
This man was lost for three months and ate anything he could find.
RICKY MEGEE: Leeches out of the dam, frogs, grasshoppers.
The miners trapped underground at Beaconsfield didn't eat anything for five days. At first
they survived on small amounts of water but eventually they would have needed some food.
LUCY, REPORTER: Food is fuel for our bodies. As I burn this marshmallow, the sugar,
which is the fuel, creates energy in the form of heat and light. And when I eat the
marshmallow, the sugar provides me with energy to do all sorts of things like...juggle.
Energy is measured in kilojoules. This apple has about 300 KJ so if I eat it, I will then have
enough energy to do some exercise. But how much do we need to eat?
The amount of energy that you put into your body by eating should be balanced with the
amount of energy your body uses up. Even when we're resting we are using up energy to
keep our hearts beating, lungs breathing, kidneys filtering, brain thinking. We even use
energy when we are asleep.
Most children need to eat about 10,000 kilojoules per day to provide the energy they need
for an active lifestyle.
That's the equivalent of eating all this food in one day.
- Cereal with milk and fruit, a piece of toast and half a glass of juice for breakfast.
- A piece of fruit for a snack.
- A salad wrap and tub of yogurt for lunch.
- Cracker with cheese and salad for an afternoon snack.
- And a glass of milk and crumpet for supper.
You need to get the right mix of protein, carbohydrate and fat. A balanced diet also includes
plenty of fibre and vitamins.
So the more exercise you do the more kilojoules you need to eat. If you don't get enough
kilojoules you won't have the energy to exercise, think and grow. You also wouldn't have
the energy that your brain needs to think and your body needs to grow.
Too many kilojoules result in putting on weight which leads to all sorts of health problems -
such as heart disease, diabetes, asthma and even cancer. Twenty five per cent of Australian
children are considered to be overweight or obese.
Research shows that Australian kids are not exercising enough and are eating, and drinking,
too many kilojoules. A Victorian study showed some kids are drinking up to two litres of
soft drink a day. Fizzy drinks and sports drinks have lots of kilojoules but they don't fill you
up so you'll probably still feel hungry and will eat something as well. It's much better if you
just eat a piece of fruit.
So how long can we survive without any food?
It's not healthy to go without food - that can damage your body - but you can survive for
several weeks. What you really can't survive without is water. As we saw earlier, the
Beaconsfield miners were able to survive by drinking water dripping into the cave where
they were trapped. They were very thirsty and as soon as rescuers drilled the small shaft the
men were given water.
Back to our desert island survivors¦.
While almonds are the best choice of food what they really need is about one and a half
litres or six to seven glasses of water every day. So maybe a water bottle is more important
than a snack pack!
* by hand – by using the hands, manually
* in hand – in one‟s possession / under control or consideration
* out of hand – out of control
* on hand – present, available
* on one‟s hands – to have responsibility or burden
* at hand – close by, near / soon in time
* on the one hand – as one point of view
* on the other hand – as another point of view
Fill in the gap with the correct idiom
1. Don’t worry. I still have some money …………..
2. My dog got ………………. and it took an hour to calm him down.
3. It is good to have a dictionary ………………. when you write something.
4. She has three children …………… so she is very busy all day.
5. When I make bread, I knead the dough …………
6. My manger kept the situation …………., so we didn’t have to worry about it.
7. His credit card debt got ……………. and he had to sell his car to pay it off.
8. ………………, a computer game gives you entertainment, but ………………, it is
9. Some companies ask you to write your resume …………. to see your hand writing.
10. I don’t have the answer …………. at the moment.
11. We should start studying. The exams are …………..
12. The rugby fans got ……………….. during yesterday’s match.
13. The movie was hard to understand; ……………….., the performance of the main
character was brilliant.
14. There are many people ………… to help us.
Go – There are too many phrases with „Go‟ to list here. Further lesson will follow.
* go with – to match nicely/to accept
* go without – to not have / to cope without having something
* Subject + seem + like + Noun : It seems like rain.
* Subject + seem +Adjective : You seem healthy. It seems expensive.
* Subject + seem + to + Base Verb :
You seem to be healthy. She seems to like him. It seems to be raining.
* Subject + seem + (that) + S + V : It seems he doesn‟t the idea.
Exercise (go, seem)
Fill in the gap with the correct phrase
1. They are coming, so we’ll have to ……………… their help.
2. Does this shirt …………… my pants?
3. I …………….. lunch because I didn’t have time.
4. We decided to …………. our original plan.
5. Sushi ……………. soy sauce.
Change the sentence to a different format
1. He seems busy. – He seems to ………………
2. It seems like chicken. – It seems to me (that) …………….
3. It seems you get angry easily. – You seem to …………….
4. They seem to like each other. – It seems …………………
5. She seems to be a nice person. – She seems like …………
End up – to become or do something unplanned
I forgot my wallet and ended up walking for an hour to get to work.
We wanted to eat Italian food but ended up having Mexican!
End up with – to get as a result of something
He tried hard but ended up with a poor grade.
She cooked the meat for too long and ended up with hard chewy meat.
End in – finish a certain way
Her marriage ended in divorce.
It will end in tears / diaster / tragedy / happiness.
Consider – to think carefully / to form an opinion or to judge = regard
He considers the feelings of others.
I consider him as the most generous man I have ever met.
= I consider him to be the most generous man ……..
= He is considered as the most ………
= He is considered to be the most…….
= It is considered that he is the most ………..
Suppose – to assume to be true or real
I suppose (that)he is still working.
He is supposed to be working.
This place is supposed to be the best Italian restaurant in Sydney.
You are supposed to be at work by 9 o’clock.
☼ The more exercise you do, the more kilojoules you need to eat.
The + comparative form ( + S +V), the + comparative form (+ S + V)
The healthier you are, the longer you live.
The faster you drive, the earlier we will get there.
The sooner, the better. The bigger, the better.
1. …………… food you eat, ………….. you get.
2. …………….. children you have, ……………. time you have to do other work.
3. …………….. a house is, ……………rooms it has.
4. ……………. people there are, ………….. the party is.
5. ……………. he sleeps, (relaxed)…………. he seems.
☼ make it easier to dig through
= make + it + adjective + (for someone or something)+ to Base Verb
it = dig through : it replace a long phrase
Example: These shoes make it hard to walk fast.
These shoes make it hard for me to walk fast.
Compare: It is impossible (for me) to work for 10 hours a day.
-> It = I work for 10 hours a day = impossible
It is nice of you to say that.
-> You = nice ≠ it = you say that
Rewrite the sentence by replacing the underlined phrase with ‘it’
1. The wind makes to open my eyes difficult.
2. The pollution makes I breath hard.
3. This bed makes I sleep easier.
4. The noise makes I concentrate on my study difficult.