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									   Development and
    Coordination of
 E-Transition Initiatives
 WTO Seminar on E-Commerce, CTD, 14 June 2001


                Daewon Choi

Economic Commission for Europe
        United Nations
    E-Transition Programme -
    Background
   Technology infrastructure in developing and
    transition economies inadequate to support e-
    business transactions
   Most developing and transition economy
    governments have focused on structural reform
    process
   E-transition requires different approach
   Development of the digital economy requires
    understanding of the digital trading system
   Government initiative matters for e-public goods
   E-International coordination required but
    selectively.
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                                                   Price for Dial-up for 20 hours




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E-Banking

    30
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    10                                                             % population

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E-Signature: Legislative Transposition
year

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      Correlation Issues
WIPO Copyright Treaty
(Geneva, 1996)
Status as of February 1, 2001
 Signatories from Transition Economies
  Belarus, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary,
   Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of
   Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
  (10 out of 51).
WIPO Performances and Phonograms
Treaty
(Geneva, 1996)
Status as of February 1, 2001
Signatories from Transition Economies
 Belarus, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary,
  Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, Romania,
  Slovakia, Slovenia
 (9 out of 50).
    Internet in Developing
    and Transition Economies
    Internet is available and growing but not
     widespread
    Major barrier is telecom infrastructure
     and poor connectivity
    Per-minute tariffing for local calls higher
     than the West making the Internet out of
     reach.
   Governments can reduce barriers and
    reform regulations, e.g. local loop or last
    mile.
   Telco policy centred on privatization &
    competition not sufficient for the Internet
    expansion
   Governments and IOs to consider
    policies for universal services access in
    the region.
   Alternative access by mobile, fixed
    wireless, satellite and cable modem can
    mitigate infrastructure deficiencies but
    not substitute.
   E-Coordination debate needs to balance
    universal services access and digital
    rights.
   Governments to collaborate with
    regional and I.O.s for harmonized
    regulatory framework.
   Technology changes the e-framework
   >>>>>>>>> Digital Trading System
 The Digital Trading System:
Architecture and Coordination
E-Coordination at the Meta Level

   Transaction Process Layers
      International Trade (eg. Multilateral Trading

       System)
      E-Commerce (eg. Intermediary)

      Cyber Business (eg. Digital Trading System)

   Component Layers
      Information Exchange

      Secure Transactions

      Dispute Settlement
                        Meta-Level Interface


Global Trading System (GTS) = f(MTS, DTS)



                DTS
         MTS




   MTS: Multilateral Trading System (WTO)
    DTS: Digital Trading System (Virtual)
The Internet Today

                                              Database

Application                FTP Server




                                                         Web Server
                                                         Documents
              Web Server
              Documents


                                 Web Server
                                 Documents

 Database                                          Application
Step 1: Metadata

                                              Database

Application                FTP Server




                                                         Web Server
                                                         Documents
              Web Server
              Documents


                                 Web Server
                                 Documents

Database                                           Application
Step 2: XML Components

                                              Database

 Application                FTP Server




                                                         Web Server
                                                         Documents
               Web Server
               Documents


                                 Web Server
                                 Documents

 Database                                          Application
  Step 3: XML Registries/Repositories


                                                                    Database          Registry
             Application                  FTP Server




                                                       Repository              Web Server
Repository                                                                     Documents
                           Web Server
                           Documents


                                                Web Server
                                                Documents

             Database                                                    Application
                               Registry
Step 4: Digital Services Agents

                       Agent

                                                             Database          Registry
       Application                  FTP Server




                                    Agent         Registry
                                                                        Web Server
                                                                        Documents
Registry             Web Server
                     Documents

                                                                                     Agent
                                            Web Server
                                            Documents

       Database                                                   Application
                         Registry
        Step 5: Digital Trading System
E-Payment Process
    Services


                          Agent

                                                                Database          Registry
          Application                  FTP Server




                                       Agent         Registry
                                                                           Web Server
                                                                           Documents
  Registry              Web Server
                        Documents

                                                                                   Digital Dispute
                                               Web Server                            Settlement
                                               Documents

          Database                                                   Application
                            Registry          E-Trust
                                           Intermediaries
E-Public Goods and E-Government

    Business                         Public Domain                           Citizens

   UN/EDIFACT                            Public Services            HTTP      Browser
                       VAN
                                            Process
                                          Applications

                                                                                Job
      ERP/                                  Process                            Shop
   Transaction                            Integration                         System


                                     Public Services                          Adapter
     Adapter
                                    Collaboration Hub
                                                                     XML    XML Message
   XML Message   XML
                                                                              Service
     Service                   Dispute Settlement Mechanism




  Financial                                                                Information
                             XML                              XML
  Services                                                                   Services
Components of the Global Trading System

                MTS            ETS        DTS
 Dispute
 Resolution

 Secure
 Transaction

 Data
 Exchange


               International   E-         Cyber
               Trade           Commerce   Business
       Global Trading System

Dispute                       ADR           DDR
              CDR. WTO
Resolution                    (ICC, OECD)


Secure
              Sig. VAN        E-sig.PKI     CA. DRM
Transaction

Data
              Doc.EDI         EDI.Web       XML, XSL
Exchange


              International   E-            Cyber
              Trade           Commerce      Business
WTO E-Commerce Programme

Dispute
Resolution                           E-Commerce
                       Financial
                       Services
Secure                           Competition
Transaction         Basci Telcom Policy
                    Services
                       Trade
                       Facilitation
Data
Exchange      ITA



              International       E-              Cyber
              Trade               Commerce        Business
EU E-Commerce Framework

Dispute                                    ADR. Art 17, E-
Resolution                                 C Dir 2000/31

                          Proposed Dir
Secure                    VAT 7/2000       E-Sig Dir
                                           99/93
Transaction
                                    E-Monex Dir
                          Personal Data
Data                      Protec Dir
Exchange      Database    95/46
              Protection Dir 96/9



              International            E-                    Cyber
              Trade                    Commerce              Business
WIPO Digital Agenda

Dispute                                 Artit.Media
                                                        Global
Resolution                              Centre
                                                        Licensing of
                                      gTLDs
                                                        Digital
Secure                              WPerfor.Phono Tr    Assests(study)
Transaction                                            E-Rights
              Patent Coop Treaty WCopyR.Treaty

                Hague Ind. Design
Data
Exchange      Madrid Marks



               International        E-                 Cyber
               Trade                Commerce           Business
BIS Payment and Settlement
Systems
Dispute                                Risk Manag .for E-
Resolution                             Banking & E-
                                       Money
                  Pay & Settlement
Secure                          Real Time Gross
Transaction                     Settl Systems
                 Intl Accounting
                 Stdd
Data
Exchange      Basel Accord



              International       E-                 Cyber
              Trade               Commerce           Business
UN/ECE CEFACT ebXML &
E-Transition Programme

 Dispute
 Resolution                                     E-Transition
                                                Programme: eInfra,
                                                ePay, eGov, eReg,
 Secure                                         eLearn
 Transaction              CEFACT


                  UN/EDIFACT            ebXML/ OASIS
 Data
                    Trade
 Exchange           Facilitation Rec.


               International      E-                   Cyber
               Trade              Commerce             Business
UN/ECE Team of Specialists on
Internet Enterprise Development
eInfrastructure, eRegulation
eGovernment, ePayment
eStartups, eLearning
ebXML Implementation Framework
Regular sessions in Geneva
E-Survey Series
Regional Conferences
E-Coordination Mechanisms

1.   De Facto
2.   E-International Organizations
3.   National E-Initiatives
       E-Issues: E-Infra, E-Restructuring, E-Pay,
                   E-Gov, E-Regulation, E-Learn
       E-Instruments: economic, technical and legal
       E-Coordination: global public/private interface
National E-Initiatives: Insitutional Patterns

1.   Presidential Commission on Digital Economy
2.   Interministerial Advisory Council
3.   E-Portfolios
4.   E-Programmes
5.   E-Centre
6.   E-Ad hoc Task Force
7.   E-Roadshow
E-Initiatifves: References

E-UK, E-Australia, E-Austria, E-Singapore

E-Estonia, E-Hungary, E-Macedonia for All, E-Russia
Conclusions



     Functional Equivalence
    •     Technical neutrality
    •     Legal neutrality
     Instruments
        •   National Coordination
        •   International Cooperation
        •   Digital Collaboration
www.unece.org/trade/entdev/internet/i
d-main.htm
                Dae Won Choi
       UN/ECE Economic Affairs Officer
    Secretariat, UN/ECE Team of Specialists
      on Internet Enterprise Development
daewon.choi@unece.org          +41.22.917.2474

								
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