Tma02 T172 Luma kabariti ID-020392 developing country -has a by tyndale


									Tma02 T172

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developing country :-has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped
industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score. In
developing countries, there is low per capita income, widespread poverty, and
developed, which usually correlates best with other factors such as low human
development. The Correlation between an Ledc and Medc, is characteristic of a sub-
economical organistic system of living.

Development entails a modern infrastructure (both physical and institutional), and a
move away from low value added sectors such as agriculture and natural resource
extraction (with the exception of oil and diamonds). Developed countries, in
comparison, usually have economic systems based on continuous, self-sustaining
economic growth in the tertiary and quaternary sectors and high standards of living.

The application of the term developing country to some of the world's less developed
countries could be considered inappropriate: a number of poor countries are not
improving their economic situation (as the term implies), but have experienced
prolonged periods of economic decline.

Countries with more advanced economies than developing nations, but which have
not yet fully demonstrated the signs of a developed country. .

Index number: - is a figure reflecting value or quantity as compared with a standard
or base value. [1] The base usually equals 100 and the index number is usually
expressed as a percentage. For example, if a commodity costs twice as much in 1970
as it did in 1960, its index number would be 200 relative to 1960. Index numbers are
used especially to compare business activity, the cost of living, and employment.
They enable economists to reduce unwieldy business data into easily understood

In economics, index numbers are time series summarizing movements in a group of
related variables. The best-known is the consumer price index which measures
changes in retail prices paid by consumers.

There is a substantial body of economic analysis concerning the construction of index
numbers, desirable properties of index numbers and the relationship between index
numbers and economic theory.

Proxy data: data used to study a situation, phenomenon or condition for which no
direct information - such as instrumental measurements - is available.
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Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine
particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. Sources of particulate
matter can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating
from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea
spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants
and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols.
Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—
currently account for about 10 percent of the total amount of aerosols in our
atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards
such as heart disease, altered lung function and lung cancer.

Systems ApproachThe   term "systems" is derived from the Greek word
"synistanai," which means "to bring together or combine." The term has been
used for centuries. Components of the organizational concepts referred to as
the "systems approach" have been used to manage armies and governments
for millennia. However, it was not until the Industrial Revolution of the 19th
and 20th centuries that formal recognition of the "systems" approach to
management, philosophy, and science emerged (Whitehead 1925, von
Bertalanffy 1968). As the level of precision and efficiency demanded of
technology, science, and management increased the complexity of industrial
processes, it became increasingly necessary to develop a conceptual basis to
avoid being overwhelmed by complexity. The systems approach emerged as
scientists and philosophers identified common themes in the approach to
managing and organizing complex systems. Four major concepts underlie the
systems approach:

Question 1

Part 1


1. raised blood pressures:
Noise from transport may contribute to range of problems such blood
Pressure so I can but inside car at 60 kph 65-75 db (A).

2. Sleep deprivation I think the busy kerbside 85 db(A).because if you want to sleep
at night and noise is above than maximum of 45 DB(A) so it will lead to sleep


1. Alteration of mood.
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  Alarm clock at 0.5 m gives 89 db(A). and sleeping in the nose causes these
  problem .
  2. Effects on concentration the busy office 65 db(A) every day can cause
  problem in concentration.

  B. the sum of table 2 :

  = 75 /30 = 2.5 people per vehicle
  1/3 = 1.5 2= 2.25
  2/1 =-0.52=0 .25
  1/4= -1.52 = I

  The variance =147.5/30 = 4.9 (people per car) to tow significant,
  Find the standard deviation, given by the square root the variance = 2.2. People
  per care (to tow significant figures )

  68% of all values lie within one standard deviation of the mean .
  95% of all values lie within tow standard deviation of the mean .
  99.7 of all values lie within three standard deviation of the mean .

  Question 2

  The three last energy efficient:
  1. Air (domestic) 2.36 md per seat km.
  2. Moped 1.4 md per seat km.
  3. Motorcycle 0.95 md per seat km.

    The three most
    1. waking 0.14
2. light rail 0.18 under ground 0.22 .

   Question 3
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 (A) The answer is approximate. About 5300 tones of tyre material are lost by road
abrasion each year of these 85% is rubber compound from tyre wear =900 tones per
This answer assumes that the material lost by abrasion has tyre and this may not be
the case because tyres are constructed in layers with different layers.
- grinding ( mechanically or cryogenically to produce rubber crumb             -
or granulate which can be used for sporting surfaces ,roofing ,carpet
underlay and noise barriers)
- reclaiming (through chemical processing of tyer pieces ,oil water           -
and other additives to give compounding ingredients used in , for
example , bicycle tyres packaging material .conveyor belts, shoes,
battery boxes).
Pyrolysis (chemical decomposition in the partial or total absence of            -
oxygen to give carbon black ,oil, gas and scrap steel)

National Agenda 21 does recognize that transportation contributes to air pollution
problem, however it
does not address transportation issues at all. The GR indicates that “transportation is
facing problems
since the last Gulf war and recently, the current procedures applied at the borders with
the West
Bank”. The GR included old information that discussions are ongoing to establish
Peace airport in
Aqaba. These discussions ended years ago. The GR did not mention any
environmental and social and
economical problems related to transportation and it did not have any
Transportation in Jordan has many adverse impacts on the environment, economy and
Transportation systems are not developed: The SR will address these issues as
Public Transportation
A   considerably large percentage of Jordan's population depends on unreliable public
transportation system. Jordan does not have a proper domestic transportation system
except of
two lines; Amman - Aqaba and Amman - Irbid. Public transportation in Jordan has
problems Busses and service Taxis do not work according to any time schedule, thus
unpredictable waiting time vary from 2 minutes to 2 hours. The availability of public
transportation varies significantly in the Kingdom; while some parts lack basic
services, other
areas suffer from oversupply. There are no route maps or schedules at bus stops,
decrease their reliability. Buses could be diverted to serve school trips and visits to
Holly places
in Saudi Arabia without any prior planning of finding substitutes. All these increase
the public
tendency to get private cars.
 Although private ownership of cars has increased over the past couple of years due
to the
decrease in customs on imported cars, it still remains very low. It is currently
estimated at 8 cars
per 100 of the population in the Amman area and 2-3 cars per 100 of the population in
the rest
of the kingdom. The demand for public transportation is expected to increase in the
future due
to the high population growth rate and the increase in economic activity[26]. The
table[27] shows that the number of buses in Jordan till the year 2000 showed a
decrease. The
annual increase in the total number of vehicles ranges between 6 to 7% however in
the year
2001 the percentage increase to around 9.8% [28]. These figures could be
extrapolated to show
an increase in cars and related air pollution emissions.
Year               1996              1997               1998              1999          2000
Buses              1,534             1,276              1,374             1,417         1,229

Cars              191,72            198,04            209,40            220,59         272,55
                  4                 1                 0                 3              7

Policies to maximize the benefits of public transportation are still weak. The last
import tax
(customs) removal increased the number of private cars in the Kingdom significantly
causing the
increase of the air pollution problems especially in cities’ centers and increased
chronic congestions. It
also increased the kingdom petrol bill. On the other hand, Amman Municipality
invests tens of
millions JD to widen current roads and to build bridges and tunnels to overcome
severe sudden
congestion problems.
Prior to November 2001, three governmental institutions including the Ministry
of Interior, the
Ministry of Transportation and the Public Transportation Corporation (PTC) managed
this sector. The
fact that three government entities were responsible for passenger transportation led to
the lack of
coordination between them and had an adverse effect on the level of service provided
to the general
public. This was primarily exemplified by the poor conditions of the vehicles and
All buses in Jordan function using diesel fuel, therefore they contribute
significantly to the
deterioration of air quality especially in the cities centers where air is more stagnant.
Besides, bus
drivers have a track record of causing 28 per cent of all traffic accidents as statistics
indicated in the
year 2000. This shows that the current bus system impacts the quality of environment
and has direct
risk on human safety.
The Government of Jordan should complete a Transportation Master Plan.
The Government of Jordan should adopt policies to encourage the use of the
transportation system. It is also requested to improve the current system. The public
system needs to be reorganized. Bus and service Taxi stops should be established
together with routes
and maps. A proper time schedule should also be implemented.
The government should adopt and facilitate the use of less harmful fuel options.
The use of
natural gas, electric systems should be introduced and encouraged. Areas with high air
pollution rates
should be restricted to pedestrians and public vehicles.
The governments should encourage the private sector to implement clean
transportation systems.
Design walking and cycling paths in the most crowded cities areas. The possibility of
underground Metro system should also be seriously examined.
A separate bus and service line should be allocated and enforced on major roads
to reduce air
pollution resulted from congestion and also to reduce the huge number of accidents.
Maritime Transportation
Maritime Ports in Jordan suffer from various problems. Besides its environmental
impacts, the most
salient of which including overstaffing and lack of technically qualified workers, old
and obsolete
equipment, operating capacity is less than design capacity, inefficient and outdated
framework and inadaptability to changes in the political conditions.
 The Marine port in Jordan is expected to face increased goods movement pressure
as a result of
the signing of the trade agreements. The environmental review of the Jordan - US
anticipates significant impacts on the coral reef in the Gulf of Aqaba[29]. Moreover,
the levels
of contaminates that reach the sea during the loading and unloading process, water
disposal, oil spills are expected to increase.
 The port of Aqaba is not efficient compared to ports in the region including Syria,
Egypt, Saudi
Arabia and Dubai. The number of imported/exported empty containers has doubled
from the
years of 1996-2000[30]. Services do not adhere to international standards while the
laws and
regulations governing them are old and outdated[31].
 The environmental impacts of the port are huge. The harbor is originally divided
into many
sections; the container port, the phosphate port, oil port, etc. These diffident ports
have many
adverse impacts on the environment including the destruction and fragmentation of
habitat, since these harbors are not contained in one area. They are scattered over the
shore. The current Governmental plan to rebuild one new harbor and remove the
current ones
will increase the damage of the marine life.
 The operation of these harbors adds lots of pressure on the environment. The
loading of the
phosphate at the loading/unloading area create immense amount of air pollution to the
and terrestrial ecosystems. Other pollution sources including water ballast still consist
damage to the marine environment.
 The  Jordan Maritime Authority should get full power to achieve sustainable
maritime operation
to increase the efficiency of the port.
 The current environmental pollution sources from the different port and maritime
activities must
be eradicated.
 The plan to relocate the harbor ports must be canceled
 An environmental management and monitoring plan should be produced and
implemented in
line with the ASEZA environmental guidelines.
 The Jordan Maritime Authority should take into consideration the environmental
resulting from the trade liberalization with the US, EU countries and Arab countries
establishing waste handling facilities, taking precautionary measures to reduce the
impact on the
fragile coral reef, etc.
Rail Transportation
Rail transportation in Jordan dates back to 1901 when the Hijaz Railway was built.
During the year
2000, approximately 30,000 passengers used the railway and 5,200 tones of cargo
were transported,
which are marginal figures.
Cargo transportation is very minimal and limited to phosphate mines exports
Passenger rail transportation is very marginal and is limited to the only line
between Jordan and
The government of Jordan should encourage the development of the railway
sector and enable
private sector to assume an important role.
The Government should also take serious steps to develop this transportation
mean on the
national level and future linkage on the regional and international levels.
Railway Department within the Ministry of Transportation should be developed
into a strong
Railway Authority to tackle all railway transportation issues.
A Railway strategy and action plan should be developed.
 The railway system needs to be renovated and the old passenger wagons should

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