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									         Information Office of the Permanent Mission of Spain to the United
                                       Nations
            823 U.N.Plaza/345East 46 st, 9th floor New York, N.Y.10017 Tlf
                           212/6611050 Fax 212/6824460
                            E-Mail:info@spainun.org




   Spain and the United Nations
          Priorities and
            Positions
           2000-2001
Information Office of the Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations


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                                      Introduction


Spain as an European Union Member State co-ordinate his positions on UN issues with
the EU Members States both in the General Assembly and in other UN organs.

The European Commission is the Community spokesman on areas of exclusive EC
responsibility ("competence") such as trade, agriculture and fisheries. In other areas, the
EU common position is normally expressed by the country holding the Council
presidency.

Spain has expressed his national position , inter alias, on themes like Gibraltar and the
Security Council Reform . The Spanish national positions are expressed through the
Statements by the President of the Government ,the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain
and the Permanent Representative of Spain to the U.N at the United Nations General
Assembly .




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      EUROPEAN UNION PRIORITIES FOR THE 55TH UNITED NATIONS
                      GENERAL ASSEMBLY

The following issues are central to EU action and therefore to Spain   at the U.N. in the second half of 2000.


     Millennium Summit

     Human Rights

     Conflict prevention, Peace-keeping and Peace building

     International Criminal Court

     Disarmament and Non Proliferation

     UN Finances

     Sustainable Development

     Eradication of Infectious Diseases

     Environment

     Follow-up to UN major Conferences




   Millennium Summit
The EU warmly welcomes the GA decision to designate its 55th session as the "Millennium Assembly of the
UN" and attaches great political importance to the holding of the Millennium Summit as an unprecedented
gathering of Heads of State and Government which will address the main challenges facing the World
community and the role of the UN in the 21st century.

The Union expects a forward-looking, action-orientated outcome encapsulated in a political document,
based on the ideas outlined in the Secretary-General’s report and containing basic principles and practical
measures, that will stimulate further debates during the Millennium Assembly and beyond.

The 55th GA, the Millennium Assembly, should give priority to the follow-up of the Summit.

The EU continues to support the strengthening and revitalisation of the Organisation, including its principal
organs, as one of its priorities and is committed to work towards a more efficient and effective UN.




   Human Rights


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The promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in full conformity with their
universal, indivisible and interdependent character are at the centre of the EU’s policies and a founding
principle of the Union as well as our commitment to democracy and rule of law. The EU remains committed
to co-operating with the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the UN human rights mechanisms, Special
Rapporteurs and Representatives as well as Treaty bodies. The EU will reinforce its efforts towards
achieving the UNSG's goal that the rights of all women, men and children be «at the heart of every aspect of
UN work".

The EU will participate fully in the work of the Third Committee, either through the presentation of EU
specific initiatives or the EU follow-up of third country initiatives and initiatives from individual EU Members
States.

In a broader context, the EU will actively contribute to the preparation of the world conference against
racism, in particular through its participation in the European Regional Conference against racism
(Strasbourg, 11-13 October 2000), in the framework of the Council of Europe. The same active contribution
will be devoted to the preparation of the UNGA Special Session for Children in 2001. In this context, the EU
will encourage the signing of the two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.




   Conflict prevention, Peace-keeping and Peace building
The EU will continue to play a leading role in UN-mandated operations. It is also an essential actor in
humanitarian operations and emergency situations. Recognising the primary responsibility of the UNSC for
the maintenance of international peace and security, the EU will strengthen its cooperation with the UN and
other international organisations in the promotion of stability, conflict prevention, humanitarian assistance
and post-conflict rehabilitation, taking account also of the importance of economic and social development.
The EU is establishing crisis response and management capabilities in both the military and the civilian
fields to be used in accordance with the provisions of the UN Charter.

The EU will seek to enhance international cooperation against terrorism and will participate actively in the
negotiations to this end.

The EU is firmly committed to building a secure, prosperous and democratic Balkan region as an essential
element of a Europe whole, free and at peace. Therefore the EU plays a leading role in the stabilisation and
development of the region.

The EU has devised the Stabilisation and Association Process to bring the countries of the region closer to
European structures. Moreover European countries and institutions provide the vast majority of resources
pledged to the reconstruction of the region through bilateral programmes, the SAA process and within the
framework of the Stability Pact for Southeast Europe.

The EU is determined to support democracy in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) as the absence of
democracy in Serbia remains a main obstacle to stability in the Balkans. In Kosovo the EU is committed to
full implementation of UN SCR 1244 and strongly supports the efforts made by UNMIK to that end.
Regarding Bosnia and Herzegovina, the EU actively supports the implementation of the Dayton Peace
Agreement in order to draw that country closer to the European family.

The EU is equally committed to support efforts in favour of the prevention and resolution of conflicts in
Africa, in close cooperation with the UN, the OAU and other sub-regional organisations. The EU and its
Member States will continue to facilitate African capacity and means of action in the field of conflict
prevention and resolution, in particular through support for the OAU and subregional organisations and
initiatives. The EU supports efforts to deal with illicit trade in minerals and other resources that directly fuel
conflict.

The EU will continue to participate fully in the work of the GA regarding the Middle East and East Timor to


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which it attaches great political importance. The EU will in particular work to reflect in GA resolutions the
progress on the Middle East Peace Process. The EU considers the status quo in Cyprus to be unacceptable
and supports the Secretary General’s efforts for a negotiated, comprehensive, just and lasting settlement
consistent with the relevant UNSC resolutions. The EU reaffirms its commitment to the stability and
prosperity of the Mediterranean region.




   International Criminal Court
The EU continues to support strongly the International Criminal Court and an early entry into force of the
Rome Statute. The EU urges all States to ratify the Statute and will continue to participate actively in the
work of the Preparatory Commission. The Union looks forward to setting out further procedures and
activities during UNGA 55.




   Disarmament and Non Proliferation
The Union will actively continue to support international efforts in the field of disarmament, arms control, with
a special focus on small arms and light weapons. Furthermore, the EU attaches great importance to the
strengthening of the non-proliferation regime of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery vehicles.

In this sense, the EU will participate actively in the preparatory process of the UN Conference on the Illicit
Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its aspects, which will take place during the summer of
2001, with the objective of obtaining a positive and enforceable plan of action to combat the destabilising
accumulation and spread of small arms and light weapons.

Similarly, the EU will continue to support the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling,
Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on their Destruction, and in this context will continue its
activities towards achieving a total ban on anti-personnel landmines world-wide. The EU will also support
strengthening of the Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of
Certain Conventional Weapons which may be deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate
Effects.

The Union will also support the early conclusion of a protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons
Convention and the adoption of such a protocol by a Special Conference before the 2001 Conference of the
States Party.




   UN Finances
The EU remains fully committed to putting UN finances on a sound, sustainable and equitable basis, and
therefore looks forward to securing a comprehensive reform of both the Regular and Peacekeeping scales in
line with its long-standing position on this matter. The EU reaffirms its attachment to the principle of "capacity
to pay" as the basis for UN member states’ contributions.




   Sustainable Development
The EU attaches great importance to the work carried out by the UN Funds and Programmes. The EU is
strongly committed to cooperating with the UN in supporting developing countries’ efforts to achieve the


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agreed international targets for development and poverty reduction. For the progressive integration of
developing countries into the world economy, with special emphasis on the needs of LDCs, the Union
considers essential the creation of an enabling environment through the enhancement of relevant conditions
such as good governance, the rule of law and respect for human rights. The EU attaches the utmost
importance to the preparation of the third UN Conference on LDCs, which it will be proud to host in 2001.

In the framework of poverty eradication efforts, the EU emphasises the central importance of the reduction of
hunger and malnutrition and, in particular, of the halving of the number of undernourished people before
2015 and the improvement of living conditions of rural populations.

The EU considers the Financing for Development process as an opportunity to work towards a better
mobilisation of national and international resources and better policy coherence and a more effective
cooperation between all development actors, in particular all governments, the UN and the Bretton Woods
Institutions, other international organisations, private sector and civil society at large in order to meet the
international development targets emanating from the UN conferences in the 1990s, with a view to achieving
poverty eradication in the context of sustainable development.




   Eradication of Infectious Diseases
The EU places high priority on coordinated efforts and international partnerships against infectious diseases
such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, a key issue for development and security in the developing
world, in particular in Africa. In this context, it fully supports the action of UN/AIDS and its cosponsoring
organisations. This issue was one of priorities of the Africa-Europe Summit (Cairo, 3-4 April 2000) and
reinforced in the last EU/US Summit (Lisbon, 4 June 2000), specifically in the EU/US Summit Declaration on
HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis in Africa.




   Environment
In the EU’s view, environment should remain a UN agenda priority.

The EU shares the concern for environmental sustainability in the Millennium report of the Secretary-
General and supports the call to ratify the Kyoto protocol, so that it may enter into force by 2002.

The EU attaches great importance to the preparatory process of Rio + 10, which will represent the first
comprehensive global meeting on sustainable development in the XXI century. The EU supports the idea
that the Rio+10 summit be held in a developing country, attended at the highest possible level, with the
participation of all stakeholders, and that it should be a forward-looking and action-oriented summit to inject
a new spirit of cooperation and urgency into the pursuit of sustainable development. Experiences gained
from the preparations for Habitat II, preceding Rio + 5, should be taken into account in the preparatory
process of Rio + 10. The EU stresses the importance of the implementation and output of the UN
Conferences on Environment and Development (UNCBD, UNFCCC, UNCCD, Agenda 21, Rio Principles). In
this regard, the EU welcomes the outcome of the first Global Ministerial Environment Forum and the
adoption of the Malmoe Declaration.

The EU considers the Special Session of the UNGA in June 2001 for an overall review and appraisal of the
Habitat Agenda as an important occasion for substantial discussions on follow-up to the Habitat II
conference.




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Follow-up to UN major Conferences
           The EU places high priority on ensuring that the outcome of major UN Conferences and Summits in the
           General Assembly, in particular in the fields of social development and the advancement of women and the
           reduction of poverty in its various forms, is appropriately reflected in the work of the 55th UNGA.

           The EU attaches great importance to the value added to UN conference follow-up processes by improved
           coherence and coordination between them. The review and appraisal processes should be made more
           rational and manageable, whilst the political impact of any follow-up event should become more visible and
           target-oriented.




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Statement by the President of the Government of
Spain,H.E Mr. José María Aznar at the Millennium
Summit(New York,September 6th 2000)
           Statement by the President of the Government of Spain,H.E Mr. José María Aznar at the
                                               Millennium Summit(New York,September 6th 2000)
Madame President, Mr. President, Mr. Secretary-General,
 How will history rate the performance of the UN? It is most fitting to
pose this and many other questions at this moment which we all agree
is as crucial as it is symbolic for the organization at the turn of the
century.
 Has the UN effectively preserved humankind from the scourge of war? Has the UN
positively influenced economic development around the world? Is the Organization
suited to manage and confront the challenges of globalization?

Un Reform
In the light of these questions, let me remind some of the reckless critics of the
Organization that we are the UN and we, the Member States, the governments thereof,
are the ones who influence its performance. So it behooves us to decide what we want
the Organization to be in the coming century: whether we want a useful tool to prevent
war, overcome poverty and uphold human rights or whether we favor an increasingly
hollow and dull forum.
The choice is ours to make. Now, as it was back in June 1945, we must seek and find
common ground as to the fundamental role of the UN in our time.
 The original goal of the UN was to preserve the world from the scourge of war and
remains so to this day. The Security Council is the cornerstone of a system, which
strives to maintain international peace and security. It is therefore a priority to achieve
Council reform through a broad-based consensus, avoiding dissension among Member
States that would adversely erode its legitimacy.
 Other issues of Security Council reform, the working methods thereof and the veto
power should be all dealt with in a most rigorous manner because although the central
role of the Council within the UN system is beyond question, humankind’s ethical
conscience has greatly evolved over time so that the international community will not
sit idle in the presence of mass-scale atrocities and human rights violations wherever
they may occur.

Humanitarian Intervention
The principle of state sovereignty is the mainstay of the international community and
no one intends to question this fact. By the same token, that very principle may not be
used as a shield behind which those encouraging and abetting massive atrocities find
cover. In our days, armed conflicts take their heaviest toll among civilian populations,



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namely women and children. We must therefore seek and define an understanding of
those situations in which international reaction may not be thwarted by the exercise of
veto power.
 Any progress achieved by mankind during this violent XX century owes to the fact
that - even at a staggering high cost- the notion has prevailed that human dignity is
deemed more valuable than the sanctity of the state.

Economic and Social Development
Other than maintaining international peace and security, the UN has set out to achieve
the goal of economic development and prosperity for all. If we are to build a more just
and equitable world we must overcome poverty. The recent upsurge of economic
growth and technological progress give us the best chance ever to achieve our goal. It
would be unforgivable if we do not gather the means to do it.
 We heartily support the concrete objectives set out to this end in the Secretary
General’s report for the Millennium Summit, around which we may all join forces,
developing and developed countries alike. Together we share the burden: the latter
must provide ample resources over time to support this endeavor while the former
should lay the legal, economic and political framework that will allow for an adequate
use of these funds and prevent mismanagement thereof.
 Let me underline our commitment to achieving the goal set forth in the World Summit
of Social Development of directing 20% of our development aid to basic sectors such
as education, health care, housing and employment policies.
These are the tools that help primarily those in need and lift them up from poverty.
Specifically, equal opportunity in education worldwide may open new doors for a new
and more confident generation. We are fully aware of the valuable role played by
different social and civic endeavors, in particular NGO´s, in implementing cooperation
projects.

Globalization
The last challenge before the UN, and the most current one, is related to the
unstoppable trend towards global integration through the development and use of new
technologies. The endless possibilities at hand to share and spread information and
knowledge like never before lead us towards a more independent and evolved
world. The UN should enhance the many positive sides of globalization to prevent the
weakest among us from being left behind.
 Globalization creates new challenges, among which the need to protect and preserve
the environment for future generations, the fight against organized international crime,
the establishment of an international criminal justice system, and also finding a cure for
globally spread diseases. To deal with those problems, the Organization remains
indispensable in the threshold of the XXI century. Only the UN has the global reach
and vision required to accomplish the task at hand.



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International Criminal Court
 Needless to say, Spain will vigorously support any and all efforts to find consensus
solutions and uphold agreements. Specifically, ratification by my country of the Rome
Treaty establishing an International Criminal Court is very near and we trust that it will
be implemented promptly.
 The manifold addresses during this Summit are laying down the challenges facing our
Organization in the future. The Secretary-General’s report no doubt stands as a
suitable and revealing proposal for analysis thereof. Thus, let us all be convinced and
therefore provide the means to make the UN in the new century the indispensable and
useful tool to secure a better world for us all.
Thank you.

Statement by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain
H. E. Mr. Josep Piqué at 55th United Nations General
Assembly 2000.
 Statement by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain H. E. Mr. Josep Piqué at 55th United Nations
                                                                           General Assembly 2000.
Mr. President,
      I wish to congratulate you sincerely on your election as President of
this United Nations General Assembly - the Millennium Assembly. I also
wish to thank your predecessor, Minister Gurirab, for his work which
culminated in the recent Millennium Summit.
        I welcome Tuvalu as a new United Nations Member State. I am
sure that it will make a useful and enriching contribution to the work of the Organization.

Un Reform
Mr. President,
       What kind of United Nations do we want? Why and to what purpose do we need
the United Nations in this new millennium? The Millennium Summit was convened in
order to answer these questions. The task of this General Assembly is to specify and
implement the guidelines that the Summit has proposed. Spain wishes to suggest some
ideas for progress in three of the Organization's basic spheres of action: managing
globalisation, combatting poverty, and peacemaking.
       The United Nations that we want must be our main instrument for meeting the
many challenges of globalisation. Its universal nature places our Organisation in an
ideal position for that purpose. It would be unforgivable if it were not capable of
rising to this task, which has to be undertaken in very different fields.

Human rights




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 For instance, in the field of human rights. The drive towards process of universalization
of human rights constitutes one of the United Nations' most valuable contributions to
international relations since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in 1948. If the 20th century has been that of the formulation and international
structuring of human rights, the next century must be that of the universalization of their
effective implementation.
       The practices to be eradicated most urgently are those of racism, racial
discrimination, xenophobia and intolerance. The 2001 World Conference against
Racism must be an effective instrument to that end. We must also strive to abolish the
death penalty, which we consider a punishment contrary to human dignity. The adoption
of moratoria can be a first step towards its total ban.
        Our Organization must enable us to provide solutions, in a spirit of solidarity, to
humanitarian problems which - until recently - have simply not been addressed. The
consequences have been borne by defenseless civilian populations. I refer to the
situation of refugees, of those displaced within their own countries, the civilian victims of
armed conflicts, and international aid workers who are subject to threats or coercion. It
is essential to broaden the scope of our action in this area, and pay special attention to the
most vulnerable sectors of the population.
       Last week, in this very building, the President of the Spanish Government signed
the two optional protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, relative to
children in armed conflicts, the sale of children, and child prostitution and
pornography. In that same vein, the United Nations General Assembly this year adopted
a resolution agreeing to the holding in Spain in 2002 of the 2nd World Assembly on
Aging. We, for our part, shall do everything possible to ensure the success of such
important event.

Humanitarian Intervention
       It is within this context that we need to refer to the issue of "humanitarian
intervention" so aptly proposed on more than one occasion by the Secretary-
General. The United Nations that we want cannot be an organization that remains
paralysed in the face of massive violations of human rights, wherever they may take
place. When that has occurred, its prestige has been seriously affected, and it has been
left out of basic decision-making in times of crisis. The disgust provoked by a passive
stance in the face of these atrocities, and the need to strengthen the role of the
Organization in crisis situations are merely two sides of the same coin. It is essential
that we be capable of building consensus on at least two fundamental issues:
       -     the actions regarding which the international community cannot remain
idle: for example, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide - which are the
offenses referred to in the Rome Statute of the International Court of Justice;
       -    likewise, consensus among the permanent members of the Security Council
regarding the cases in which they should refrain from exercising their veto to block




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Security Council resolutions aimed at putting an end to massive violations of human
rights.
       The principle of state sovereignty continues to be essential in contemporary
international society. But it must not be used as a protective shield in order to trample
upon human rights with impunity.

International Criminal Court
 The establishment of the International Criminal Court signals the direction in which the
international community is moving in this area. The coming into being of an
international system of criminal justice constitutes the most important change in
international law since the the adoption of the San Francisco Charter. I am pleased to
inform this Assembly that my country´s ratification process of the Statute of Rome
concluded yesterday. I am confident that the International Court of Justice will become
a reality in the not too distant future. Therefore I trust that the Rome Statute will be
signed and ratified by the largest possible number of states, without any amendments
either directly to its wording or indirectly to its spirit, that might affect its integrity and
effectiveness.

Kyoto Protocol
Mr. President,
        If there is an issue that highlights the kind of global interests which need our
collective management it is that of environmental protection. It is imperative that the
Kyoto Protocol for combatting the greenhouse effect should come into force in 2002, at
the latest. Spain is a signatory of the Protocol, as well as of the agreements on the ozone
layer, bio-diversity, bio-security and desertification - the latter problem being one which
especially affects my country.

International terrorism
       Unfortunately, globalisation has also generated fresh opportunities for the
development of universal scourges such as terrorism and trans-national organised
crime. At the same time it provides us with new instruments for combatting them,
provided that we agree on how to use them. Spain supports the drawing up of a general
convention against international terrorism, and is grateful to India for its initiative in this
respect. The work aimed at the adoption of a convention against trans-national
organised crime must also be concluded.

Fight against poverty
Mr. President,
      One of the United Nations' top priorities is the fight against poverty. The
Millennium Summit has focused our attention on the measures directed at eradicating
poverty. The specific implementation of these measures must be a basic aspect of the
work of this General Assembly. The United Nations that we want must make it possible



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for developed and developing countries to conclude agreements regarding the part they
must play in this task.
       The high-level meetings that will be held in 2001 on Development Financing and
the Least-Advanced Countries must be put to good use. Spain will certainly do
everything within her power to contribute to their success. My country follows the
guidelines set forth by the World Social Development Summit to the effect that at least
20% of co-operation resources should be devoted to basic social sectors such as health,
education, housing and employment, which are those that have the greatest impact on the
most disadvantaged layer of the population and, as a result, on the eradication of
poverty. Spain has drawn up an ambitious program of micro-credits aimed at satisfying
the needs of the least favored sectors of the population of developing countries.
       Moreover, Spain has set up debt-relief programs in several countries, including
Mozambique and the Central-American countries most affected by Hurricane
Mitch. We resolutely support the initiative on the highly indebted poor countries, and
are of the opinion that medium-income countries with serious external-debt problems
should not be excluded either from debt-relief plans as long as they implement
meaningful domestic programs for eradicating poverty.

Fight against infectious diseases
       In the health sector, there have been severe setbacks in recent years in the fight
against infectious diseases - especially in Africa. Spain actively backs UNAIDS and the
efforts underway to facilitate access to drugs against AIDS for patients in developing
countries. It likewise supports the holding of a special session of the United Nations
General Assembly on this illness. Moreover, Spain has special interest in examining
possible action against other infectious and parasitic diseases, particularly in Africa.

Africa
Mr. President,
        The first sentence of the Charter states the United Nations' resolution to preserve
coming generations from the scourge of war. We must not resign ourselves to the
eternalization of regional conflicts. In Africa, a solution has not yet been found for the
situation in Congo, which for years has ravaged one of the richest and most influential
countries in the continent. Angola and Sierra Leone continue to be the backdrop for
civilian conflicts, often financed by the illegal sale of diamonds and other precious
resources.

Western Sahara
        Political and practical support for the United Nations and the mission deployed on
the ground has been a constant feature of Spain's policy concerning the dispute over
Western Sahara. Therefore, my country will maintain its unflinching commitment to a
definitive settlement of this dispute and will support the efforts by the Secretary-General
and his Special Envoy in compliance with Security Council Resolution 1309.



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Middle East
  New prospects have opened up in the Middle East following the Camp David
summit. It is necessary to consolidate the important progress made there and take
advantage of this historic opportunity to conclude an agreement on all outstanding
issues. Spain considers that, pursuant to the Declaration of Berlin, the Palestinian
people are entitled to establish their own state. The evolution of the peace process must
be reflected in the resolutions to be adopted this year by the General Assembly, which
must not be a mechanical repetition of the wording used in previous years.


Iraq
 The situation in Iraq is nevertheless proving to be frustrating. The interruption
of weapons inspections, the absence of any foreseeable date for lifting the sanctions, the
continuation of armed action, and the difficult humanitarian situation in the country all
cast a situation that is far from encouraging. It is imperative that consensus within the
Security Council on this matter be strengthened and that Iraq should collaborate with the
United Nations with a view to the full implementation of Resolution 1284 and other
pertinent resolutions.

Latin America
In Latin America, it is essential that the international community send a clear message of
support for the peace process in Colombia. The efforts by President Pastrana to reach an
agreement that will put an end to decades of violence and lack of security deserve the
backing of us all.

Kosovo
        The difficulties faced by the United Nations mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) in
accomplishing its task should not overshadow its achievements to date in what is
probably the peacekeeping operation with the widest-ranging objectives ever undertaken
by the United Nations - that is, to pacify the territory, to reconcile its population, to
rebuild its economy, and to enable Kosovo (as stated in Resolution 1244) to enjoy
substantial autonomy and its truly own administration, while respecting the principle of
territorial sovereignty and integrity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Conflict-prevention
       Many of these conflicts could perhaps have been avoided. Spain unreservedly
supports the Secretary-General's efforts to direct the Organization's strategy towards
conflict-prevention. His report on Africa provides an innovative focus on proposing a
wide-ranging package of measures for addressing the conflicts on the African continent.

Sanctions policy
       An important element in this arsenal of diplomatic preventive measures is a sound
sanctions policy. The sanctions regime must be carefully graduated in order to fulfill their


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goal: that of punishing the policy of a particular government which constitutes a threat to
peace, without thereby harming the civilian population of that country (which in many
cases is totally powerless to influence the decisions of its government) or third
parties. Sanctions must be applied in a flexible way and subject to periodic review that
enable them to adapt to changing circumstances.

Disarmament and non proliferation
       Disarmament and non proliferation are another two essential elements of conflict-
prevention. It is necessary to overcome the setbacks suffered in recent months by the
nuclear non-proliferation process and to promote the signing and ratification of the
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. It is likewise a matter of concern that it has
not yet been possible to start negotiations on a protocol on fissile material: it is urgent to
achieve the necessary consensus to that end.
       The conclusion of the negotiations on the Verification Protocol to the Convention
on Biological Weapons must signify an achievement in this field as important as the entry
into force of the Convention on Chemical Weapons. In the same way, the 2001
Conference on Small and Light Arms must constitute a milestone comparable to the
Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines.

Decolonisation process:Gibraltar
Mr. President,
       Another of the United Nations' goals must be to conclude the decolonisation
process world-wide, by doing away with the last vestiges of colonialism. One of them
persists, as a painful anachronism, in Spanish territory. I am, of course, refering to
Gibraltar where, nearly three centuries after its population was expelled and the Rock was
occupied by British troops, a colonial situation still lingers. This is an infringement of my
country's territorial integrity and contravenes the provisions of General Asembly
Resolution 2353. Regaining sovereignty over this part of our terrritory is a permanent
goal for Spain, which is fully in favor of a meaningful dialogue. It is regrettable that the
United Kingdom has not yet shown a genuine political will to solve this problem.
Because of this, fifteen years after the start of bilateral talks in the framework of the
Brussels process and in conformity with the decisions of this General Assembly, we have
not registered any progress at all on this matter, in spite of several concrete proposals put
forward by our side.

Security Council Reform
Mr. President,
       We strive for a United Nations that will be capable of carrying out the tasks that
have been entrusted to it. To achieve this it must complete its process of reforms. For
instance, the role of the General Assembly - the only body in which all the Member
States are represented - must be enhanced as the United Nations' driving force for debate
and political impetus. Civil society should be incorporated to a greater extent into the



                                             16
Organization's tasks; this would contribute to bringing people closer to the United
Nations and to securing a greater commitment from them with regard to its work.
       It is also necessary to reform the Security Council in order to enable it to fully
perform its duties in maintaining peace and international security. The Spanish
Government considers that this reform must draw its inspiration from the following
principles:
       -     consensus: it must be conducted on the basis of a broad and solid
consensus, in order to avoid dangerous divisions among Member States and to provide
the enlarged Council with the greater legitimacy needed so as to carry out its work
effectively;
       -     democratization: it must allow for enlargement of the number of non-
permanent members from all regional groups, and especially from the developing
world. Spain considers that an enlargement of the category of non-permanent members
would best reflect the trend towards the democratization of international society in the
threshold of the third millennium;
      -     effectiveness: steps must be taken to prevent exercise of the veto power
from blocking the Council in particular crises;
       -     transparency: the Council's working methods must be improved, by
increasing the number and quality of the consultations among its members and with other
Member States, so that the latter will not be left out of the decision-making process.

Peacekeeping operations
The Organization that we need must also be able to act firmly and effectively on the
ground in order to keep peace. The first step in this direction is to reflect on the
mistakes that have been made in the past. Therein lies the importance of the Brahimi
report on Peacekeeping Operations, which - in the same way as former reports on
Rwanda and Srebenica - hit a raw nerve when it acknowledged our faults and proposed
solutions for overcoming them.
       The Organization's shortcomings in this field have at times been very serious, and
have cost human lives and great suffering to the people who were directly
affected. They have also cost grave discredit to the United Nations in the eyes of our
people Spain has a direct interest in ensuring that the peacekeeping operations are
organised and managed on solid ground because at this time hundreds of Spaniards are
participating in such far away places as East Timor, Kosovo, Ethiopia and
Guatemala. Moreover, last year Spain signed an agreement with the Secretariat on the
Stand-by Forces
- an agreement in which some of the recommendations contained in the Brahimi report
already appear.
       Spain steadfastly supports these recommendations and hopes that they will be
rapidly implemented. At the same time, we must be aware that all this will require a


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much larger political and financial commitment on the part of everyone. It will require
faster deployment of the necessary military and civilian units, and larger-scale measures
in order to consolidate peace once conflicts come to an end. Above all, if United Nations
troops are compelled to take greater risks in order to guarantee the implementation of
Security Council mandates, these must be clear, realistic and have the unequivocal
backing of the Council. All this requires a serious effort to find common positions and
to achieve consensus within the Council, eliminating any ambiguities that could hamper
their effective application. It means more resolute and unwavering action against
specific states or groups which may attempt to disrupt such action, including the possible
application of sanctions. Only then may we send our troops to situations in which they
will have to risk their lives in order to ensure that these mandates are upheld.

UN financial crisis
      Improving peacekeeping operations will undoubtedly be costly. Neither this nor any
of the other of the tasks facing the Organization will be possible if it does not solve its
financial crisis. Spain is the eighth largest contributor to its regular budget, and pays its
contributions on time, fully and unconditionally. Therefore we have a direct interest in
seeing the Organization's financial crisis solved once and for all as soon as
possible. The principle of capacity to pay must continue to be the basic criterion for
deciding the assessed contributions. European Union partners already contribute to the
U.N. budget well over what they should in accordance with this principle. Spain's stance
will be a constructive one in the negotiations to review the scales of assessments later this
fall.
Mr. President,
       In an increasingly interdependent world, there is no alternative to multilateral co-
operation. The United Nations must rise to the occasion in order to fulfil the
expectations of the peoples who founded it. The countries represented here must face up
to that responsibility by building an organization capable of providing solutions to the
challenges that globalisation entails for humanity in the new millennium. The United
Nations that we want is possible. It is within our reach to achieve it.




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