Technology Development in Bioethanol Production in Indonesia

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					Technology Development in Bioethanol
      Production in Indonesia

                    Wahono Sumaryono

 Deputy Chairman of BPPT for Agroindustry dan Biotechnology




        The Asian Science and Technology Seminar
     Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)-BPPT
                 Jakarta, March, 8-9, 2007
                                                              1
           Presidential Regulation No. 5/2006

            National Energy Policy
      Promoting utilization of renewable source of energy: biofuels, solar energy,
      wind energy, ocean wave and current energy, geothermal etc.
      Energy efficiency and conservation.
      Optimalization on energy production
      Reduction of subsidy on fuel price
      Reduction of energy elasticity.
                            objectives

                       Domestic Energy Supply Security
                               goals

1.   Energy Elasticity from 1.84 (2006) to < 1 by 2025
2.   Optimized primary Energy Mix by 2025, consisting of:
     –    Petroleum < 20%
     –    Natural gas > 30%
     –    Coal > 33%
     –    Biofuels > 5%
     –    Other new & renewable energy > 5% (biomass, hydro, solar, wind, nuclear)
     –    Liquified Coal > 2%                                                      2
PROJECTED BIOFUEL CONSUMPTION (Mio KL)


   BIOETHANOL               BIODIESEL                BIO-OIL

 2006         1,71        2006       1,19       2006     0,37
 2007         1,75        2007       1,20       2007     2,43
 2008         1,78        2008       1,22       2008     4,71
 2009         1,82        2009       1,23       2009     4,77
 2010         1,85        2010       1,24       2010     4,82


Source : Dept. of Energy & Mineral Resources, 2006
                                                                3
        THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL IN INDONESIA
                      2000 - 2006

           Year          Productions of   Increase
                          ethanol (KL)       (%)
            2000             110 000           -
            2001             125 000        13.64
            2002             125 000           0
            2003             130 519         4.42
            2004             132 000         1.54
            2005             175 000        32.58
            2006             176.000         0.55
                                                     4
THE EXISTING CONDITION
                    Estimated Potential Land
                  for Sugarcane Outside Jawa
                (In addition of existing plantation)

                                                         Area (Ha)
 No.             Location
                                             Bruto                Netto
   1.   South Sumatra                            55 000               33 000
   2.   North Sumatra                            18 450               15 454
   3.   Middle Kalimantan                       200 847               36 017
   4.   East Kalimantan                          65 000               39 000
   5.   South Sulawesi                           36 000               13 000
   6.   North Sulawesi                          219 375               95 700
   7.   Middle Sulawesi                          90 300               54 200
   8.   South-east Sulawesi                     104 300               64 000
   9.   Maluku                                  441 500              253 200
  10.   West Nusatenggara                        51 900               36 500
  11.   East Nusatenggara                        32 500               21 000
  12.   Irian Jaya                              750 000              500 000
        Total                                2 065 172               710 829

Note : Existing Sugarcane Plantation : 391.000 Ha ~2,3 Mio Tons Sugar          5
   Estimated Potential Land for Cassava Plantation
                          (in addition of existing plantation)
                                                                               Potential
                                                      PROJECTED
                                                                              Bioethanol
 NO.          PROVINCE              AREA (Ha)        PRODUCTION
                                                                              Production
                                                      (Tons/year)
                                                                              (KL/year)
  1     North Sumatera                    23.000              575.000                88.400
  2     South Sumatera                    37.000              925.000               142.300
  3     West Sumatera                     19.500              487.000                75.000
  4     Lampung                           47.000            1.175.000               180.700
  5     Central Java                      29.000              750.000               115.000
  6     West Java                         42.000            1.050.000               161.500
  7     East Java                         33.000              825.000               126.900
  8     Yogyakarta                         9.500              237.000                34.500
  9     East Nusa Tenggara                25.000              625.000                96.000
  10    South Sulawesi                    38.000              950.000               146.100
  11    North Sulawesi                    33.000              630.000               126.900
  12    East Kalimantan                   18.000              396.000                60.900
                 Total                  336.000            8.400.000             1.292.308

Note : Existing plantation of cassava : 811.422 Ha ~ 13,28 Mio tons cassava                6
                 Average Productivity
                                                     Freq of
        Type of Raw   Harvesting   Productivity
No                                                Harvesting Per
          Material     (Months)     (Tons/Ha)
                                                     Annual
1    Cassava             10            25              1x

2    Corn               3,5-4           8              2x

3    Sorghum            3,5-4          4,5             3x

4    Sweet potatoes       4            20              2x

5    Sago                96            30

6    Sugarcane           10            80              1x



                                                               7
Raw Material Balance in Bioethanol Production


NO          RAW MATERIAL           WEIGHT (Kg)      BIOETHANOL (L)

1    Sugarcane                          15                  1
2    Molasse                             4                  1
3    Cassava                            6,5                 1
4    Corn                               2,5                 1
5    Sorghum                            2,8                 1
6    Sweet potatoes                      8                  1
7    Sago                               12                  1

Source : Research Center for Starch Development, BPPT, Lampung
                                                                 8
        Biofuels Implementation program
                                                        Self consumption


 State Own Agricultural Co.
                                              PLN
   (Palm Oil, Sugarcane,              Nat.Electrical Company
     Jatropha, Cassava)


Energy Selfsufficiency Village
                                          Target of             Export
   “Government Driven”
                                       Biofuels Program
                                          2007-2025
    Intended Investors:
   Specific Biofuels Zone,
  Big Plantation Palm Oil,
Sugarcane, Cassava, Jatropha            Pertamina

                                 Transportation           Household

                                             industry
                                                                      9
       FLOW PROCESS IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION
   Sugar                                               STARCH       LIGNOCELLULOSIC




                                                  LIQUIFACTION                        STEAM
                            ENZYME STEAM          OF COOKING      PRETREATMENT        ENZYME
                                                                                       ACID



                                               SUCCHARIFICATION   SACCHARIFICATIO     ENZYME
                               ENZYME            (HYDROLYSIS)      N (HYDROLYSIS)      ACID




                                        FERMENTATION 7
           MICROBE’S CELL                PURIFICATION                 BIOETHANOL



                                            STILLAGE




                                           ANAEROBIC
                                                                     FERTILIZER
                                            DIGESTER



                                            BIOGAS                   COMBUSTION




FLOW DIAGRAM BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION USING DIFFERENT RAW MATERIAL


                                                                                      10
          EQUIPMENT IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

                              FERMENTATION




                                                              DEHYDRATION
                                                                  UNIT


MASHING          HYDROLISIS
 UNIT                                          UNIT
                                               DISTILLATION
                    UNIT
                                             DISTILASI
                                                   UNIT




            CASSAVA


                                                                      11
          Material Balance in Production of 8 KL FGE

                           Amylase Enzyme :
                            7 kg alpha-amylase
 50 tons cassava            28 kg glucoamylase
 (14 tons starch)                                 14 tons sugar

                                     Temp 90 C
Cassava                  Slurry of                              Fermentation
          Raw Material               Hydrolysis
           Treatment                  Process                     Process
                         Cassava
                                                    (Glucose)
                                                                  Volume 90 KL



                                                                      8 KL FGE
    Bioethanol                       Bioethanol
                    Distillation                    Dehydration           FGE
      10 %           Process         95-96 %         Process
                                                                        (99,5%)
                                                                            12
                SEED IMPROVEMENT
1. Selective breeding, occulation (Cassava)
2. Radiation, selective breeding (Sorghum)
3. Selective breeding, biotech approach (Sugarcane)




      Cassava            Sugarcane        Sweet-stem Sorghum
      Balitkabi             P3GI          1. BATAN (Radiation)
  (Res. Center for     (Res. Center for   2. Res. Center for
 Peanuts-Cassava &       Sugarcane)          Cereals (Maros,
Related Species-Dept                         South Sulawesi
                                                                 13
   of Agriculture)
          CULTIVATION IMPROVEMENT
       Cassava                      Sugarcane              Sweet-stem Sorghum




• Average Nat. Prod. 16 -     • Average Nat. Prod. 79 -   • Demplot : 14 cultivars
  18 tons/ha                    80 tons/ha
• Res. Center for Starch      • (State owned Co. &
  Dev. ~25 tons/Ha              and private companies
                                in Java, Lampung)
        Balanced fertilizer
        (in org + org)

 Current : 28,5 tons/ha        Current : 90 tons/ha        Target : 8 tons/Ha
                                                                                     14
 Target : 35-40 tons/Ha        Target : 120 tons/Ha
             Pre Treatment Optimization
                     (Hydrolysis process)


Existing :                           Projected :
Raw material                         Liqnocellulosic mat.
• Sugarcane                          (woody biomass)
• Starch groups                      • Mechano-chemical
                                       Treatment
                                     • Hydrothermal treatment
Acid (hydrolysis)                    • Separation
Enzymatic                            • Enzymatic (saccharification)
(saccharification)




                                                                15
                    Production of Bioethanol
                  Using Liqnocellulosic Material                                          Ethanol

                         Acid                                   Fermentation
                         Hydrolysis
                                                                     Glucose
                                                                     (yeast)
Woody                                              glucose
Biomass                   T : 200 C,
            Size          H2SO4 3%
          reduction       10-15 min.                                Xylose
                                                   Xylose           (new microbe)




 Problem : • Chemical bounding between cellulose, hemicellulose and lignine
               is very difficult to be hydrolized using enzymatic approach (expensive).
            • The microbes (yeast) is able to ferment glucose (C6) to be ethanol,           Lignine
              but not able to convert xylose (C5) and others C5 sugars as hydolized            +
              product of fibers   exploring others microbes.                                Waste

                                                                                             16
ETHANOL FROM THE WHOLE
  PLANT OF SUGARCANE


   DRY LEAVES



    BAGASSE




     JUICE       MOLASSES




                            17
    Biomass Source (2005)

Palm Oil Mills :
   Fruits shell ~ 5.06 Mio Tones (~ 4220kcal/kg
   dry weight)
   Empty Fruits Bunch ~ 16.06 Mio Tones (~
   3700 kcal/kg dry weight)
Rice Mills : Rice Husk ~ 13.5 Mio Tones
Sugar Mills : Bagasse ~ 36.7 Mio Tones
Wood-based Industries
                                   > 50 Mio Tones
Other Agricultural residues



                                                    18
 Fermentation Process
         Strain Improvement

Current capacity of utilized strain :
resistent up to 11 - 12% ethanol

                      • Gradual adaption

                      • Genetic engineering

Target : ~ resistent up to 14% ethanol



                                              19
      DISTILLATION OPTIMIZATION

 Existing :     2 Steps distillation




              Ethanol 40%     95-96%

Projected : Membrane          Column
              Filtration      Distillation

                                             20
              Ethanol 40%     95 – 96%
      DEHYDRATION METHOD FOR BIOETHANOL
             (Leading to FGE 99,5 %)


- Azeotropic Distillation : operational cost is high, need
                            solvent

- Molecular Sieving      : operational cost is low, no need
                           solvent

- Membrane Filtration    : operational cost is low, applied in
                           pilot scale (to be developed into
                           commercial scale)

                                                              21
             PROFILE OF ENGINE PERFORMANCE
                  USING DIFFERENT FUEL

     Parameters       Gasohol E-10   Gasohol E-20   Premium    Pertamax
 Power (kW)               41,23          42,52        30,97     40,09
 Force (N)                1856,1        1913,3        1393,8     1804

 Fuel Consumption         30,39          31,24        31,03     27,38
 (L/jam)
 Octane number             91             94            87        94




Tested by Lab. for Thermodynamics & Motor Propulsion, BPPT


                                                                        22
PROFILE OF EMISSION TEST USING DIFFERENT FUEL


    Parameter       Premium Gasohol E-10 Pertamax

  CO (g/km)             5.00            3.10             5.77

  THC (g/km)            0.38            0.33             0.40

  Nox (g/km             1.28            2.04             2.00

   Premium      : Pertamina’s gasoline
   Gasohol E-10 : Premium 90% FGE 10%
   Pertamax     : Premium + additive



Tested by Lab. for Thermodynamics & Motor Propulsion, BPPT      23
24