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					    5.12 THE OUTLINES AND IMPORTANCE TURKISH ANIMAL HUSBANDRY IN
            TURKISH ECONOMY COMPARING WITH E. U. COUNTRIES

                                                                        A.GÜREL1, M.İ. SOYSAL, 2M. ÖZDER2

                                                         ABSTRACT
           Animal husbandry play an important role in Turkish economy. In general agricultural sector has a share of
44 % in Turkish economy . Animal production has share 25 percent in agricultural production the main problem of
animal husbandry comparing with E. U. lover productivity of animal and small scale size of firm . Average number of
cattle perform (4) and most of farms are not specialized in only one branch of animal husbandry . They are all family
operation and dealing with cattle sheep and even goats for earning , their daily life.
           Cattle population of Türkiye is approximately 11 million heads and about 38% of them are milking cow.
Sheep and goat population of this countries is (29) and (7) millions respectively. Native cattle breeds accounted for 75
% of total cattle production . Sheep population are consisted of mainly native breeds. The present problems , solutions,
comparing with E. U. country were discussed.

                                                     INTRODUCTION
        Agriculture has long been a significant sector in the Turkish economy . This significance
stems form its high capacity for production which is attributable to the presence of a rich resource
base in terms of soil and water In addition the different agro ecological conditions throughout the
country produce the sector with unique production diversity. At present about 45 % of population
demands for income or agriculture . Total area of Turkiye is approximately 78 million hectares of
when 28 million hectares or 36 % are cultivated and ranks in first grade among E.U. countries
sown areas account for 70 % of thus total cultivated land . Remaining 21 % is left to fallow
according to the 2002 data total population is 69,2 million and population increasing rate is 1,7 %
. The population density is 90 people Per km2 . The 41 % of population earns their life in crop and
animal production . The share of agriculture is national economy as Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) is 26 % and 14,5 % in 1980 and 1997 respectively .
        These figures shows the relative share of agricultural sector in national economy is
decreasing . Agricultural sector was consisted of 57 % of total export value of Turkiye in 1980.
The share of agriculture in total export revenues was about 18,3 % 1991 present share of total
export revenues is about 10,3 % . This share has diminished over time as a results of the gradual
transformation of economy into industry based one.
        The share of food industry in total export revenues is 12% . The share of population
employed by agricultural sector in total employment is decreasing as 62,5 % and 42 % in 1980
and 1997 respectively . In spite of decreasing rate of relative shares of agriculture in GDP and
total exports revenues agriculture still plays important role in due to having the high potential at
employment and population in economy . Agriculture also plays a key role in suppling raw
materials to the industry in addition it has contributed and still does to the evolution of the
industry which supply basic input for agriculture such as fertilizes , pesticides and machinery .
This high capacity for production and the ability to have a rich cropping pattern have enabled
Turkiye to meet the domestic demand for food since the beginning of hen history.
        The relative shares of sub sectors in the national agricultural incomes are as falows crops
54,3% Animal production 35,1 % aquatic products 4,2 % and forestry 6,4 % as of 1990 data.
        Agricultural sector is expected to continue transferring labour force to other sector mainly
industry and services in line with the higher growth targets set forth in the current development
plans for these sectors.
        The present number of Agricultural holdings is 4,2 million and 96,4 of these holdings
has both crop and anual production . The only 3,6 of total agricultural holding has animal

1
  Assoc. Prof. Dr. Trakya University Tekirdağ Agriculture Faculty , Dept. of Agricultural Economy,
Turkiye
2
  Prof. Dr. Trakya University Tekirdağ Agriculture Faculty, Dept. of Animal Science, Turkiye
production only (3,4,5,).The share of having animals above 10 head Per operations in the
agricultural holding as only dealing with animal production is only 6,6 % . These figures is highly
lower than the other EU countries . Turkiye ranks eighth in the world , third in OECD countries in
spite of productivity Per animals is very low (5,6,).
         The latest data shows that 15,7 of total cattle population is exotic western breeds . The
42,6 and 41,7 % of total cattle population is consisted of crossbreeds and native breeds
respectively (5,7). The distribution of improved westerns cattle breeds varies among the
differences region of the country. Aegean region , Thrace region , Mediterranean region and west
part of Turkey has more exotic improved westerns cattle breeds than other regions of country .
         Animal husbandry has play major role in either agricultural sector or in national economy
. The shares of animal husbandry in agriculture and GDP are 41,2 and 8,5 % respectively (5,9).

        Table 1. GDP by Sectors, 1985-1990 (%) At Current Prices
                   1985     1986      1987     1988     1989      1990    2001
Agriculture        18.8     18.5      18.0     17.5     16.6      18.7    12.9
Industry           31.6     31.9      31.8     32.4     31.3      30.7    25.9
Services           49.6     49.6      50.2     50.1     52.1      50.6    61.8
GDP                100      100       100      100      100       100     100
(at Factor cost)
        Source : State Planning Organization , Main Economic Indicator, January 1991,
www.dpt.gov.tr
        Cited by An Overview of Turkish Agriculture Republic of Turkiye Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Affairs (MARA) General Directorate of Agricultural Production and Development.

        Table 2. Growth in GDP by Sectors, 1985-1990 (In percent Per annum at constant
prices of 1968)
                      1985     1986      1987     1988       1989      1990     2001
Agriculture           2.4      7.9       2.1      8.0        -11.5     11.5     -6.1
Industry              6.3      8.7       9.6      3.1        3.1       7.9      -7.5
Services              4.0      6.4       6.8      4.1        4.0       6.7      -7.6
GDP                   4.2      7.3       6.5      4.7        0.4       8.0
(at Factor cost)
GNP                   5.1      8.1       7.4      3.6        1.6       9.2      -9.4
(at market prices)
        Source : State Planning Organization , Main Economic Indicator, January 1991,
www.dpt.gov.tr
        Cited by An Overview of Turkish Agriculture Republic of Turkiye Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Affairs (MARA) General Directorate of Agricultural Production and Development.

         Table 3. Employment by Sectors, 1979-1990 (Million)
Sector              1979 -%     1984 -%      1989- %       1990- %
Agriculture         9.5-62.5     9.4-59.9       9.1-54.7    9.4-50.8
Industry            1.8-11.8     2.0-12.7       2.8-13.9    2.5-13.6
All Services        3.9-25.7     4.4-27.4       6.6-31.4    6.6-35.6
(Inc Construction)
Total               15.2-100     15.8-100       18.4-100    18.5-100
Source : State Planning Organization , Sixth Five Development Plan, 1990-1995
        Table 4. Demographic Characteristics (In Thousand)
                     1980     1983       1985       1990/1         2001
Population           44.737   47.471     50.645     56.570         67.853
Rural-Urban
Distribution
Rural                25.995   26.062     26.945     27.832         23.753
Urban/2              18.742   21.409     23.700     28.738         44.099
Ages 0-14 years      17.162   17.811     18.800     20.260         -----
Ages 15-64 years     25.513   26.611     29.800     33.939         -----
Ages 65 and over     2.062    2.049      2.045      2.371          -----
/1= Provisional
/2= Places over 20.000 people are accepted as urban
         Table 5. Imports by Main Sectors, 1985-1990 (USD Million)
Sector           1985        1986       1987        1988       1989          1990
Agriculture      375.3      457.3        782.3       499.3        1041.3      1318.3
and Livestock
Mining and       3226.3     2145.4       3034.0      2857.0       2902.5      3989.3
Quarrying
Industrial       7341.8     8502.1       10341.5     10979.0      11848.4     16994.6
Products
Total            11343.4    11104.8      14157.8     14335.3      15792.2     22302.2
        Source : Undersecratariat for Treasury and Foreign Trade , Office Records
Table 6. Imports by Main Agricultural Commodities , 1985-1990 (USD Million)
Commodities       1985      1986         1987        1988         1989        1990
Cereals          182.5       149.5       78.6        56.4          570.2     560.6
Industrial Crops 19.7        55.0        200.6       81.0          148.0     189.0
Oil seeds        30.6        20.8        28.4        13.6          25.1      32.6
Wool             63.3        58.8        79.6        97.0          83.0      84.0
Leather          31.9        70.6        136.0       78.0          100.0     129.0
Cleaned Wool     26.0        58.4        118.0       109.0         64.0      126.0
Seeds            3.4         7.3         12.1        4.0           2.0       13.0
Live Animals     4.1         12.5        99.9        34.3          21.9      109.0
Others           13.8        24.4        29.0        26.0          27.0      75.0
Total            375.3       457.3       782.3       499.3         1041.21   1318.2
Source : Under secratariat for Treasury and Foreign Trade , Office Records
Table 7. Exports by Main Sectors, 1985-1990 (USD Million)
Sector          1985         1986        1987        1988          1989      1990
Agriculture     1719.4       1885.6      1852.5      2341.4        21255.5   2347.0
and Livestock
Mining and      243.8        246.9       272.3       377.2         412.9     331.5
Quarrying
Industrial      5994.8       5324.2      8065.2      8943.4        9086.3    10280.8
Products
Total           7958.0       7456.7      10190.0     11662.0       11624.7   12959.3
Source : Under secratariat for Treasury and Foreign Trade , Office Records

Table 8. Exports by Main Agricultural Commodities , 1985-1990 (USD Million)
Commodities       1985       1986         1987       1988         1989       1990
Cereals          63.0        3.0         32.0        241.6         83.3      11.2
Pulses           171.4       242.7       234.0       371.0         210.0     292.0
Oil seeds        6.8         5.1         7.8         10.7          7.4       7.4
Industrial Crops 560.6       461.5       395.2       472.0         686.0     655.0
Fruits           527.5       694.0       704.3       769.0         687.0     956.0
Vegatables       96.0        126.0       95.7        98.0          89.0      109.0
Seeds            13.4        9.5         10.9        3.3           4.4       3.9
Live Animals     175.9       231.2       244.5       250.8         253.4     204.5
Wool             16.5        9.4         22.2        18.8          15.9      3.8
Other Animal 50.0            44.7        44.1        17.2          7.1       8.2
Products
Aquacultural     20.9        39.7        44.6        51.0          52.0      57.0
Products
Other            17.4        18.8        17.2        38.0          30.0      39.0
Total            1719.4      1885.6      1852.5      2341.4        2125.5    2347.0
Source : Under secratariat for Treasury and Foreign Trade , Office Records

Table 9. Number of Agricultural Holdings by Size (1980 Census of Agriculture , Household
Surveys)
                          (000)       %
1Ha                            575         15.8
1-2 Ha                         527         14.5
2-5 Ha                         1.165       31.9
5-10 Ha                        738         20.2
10-20Ha                        421         11.5
20-50Ha                        194         5.3
50-100 Ha                      26          0.7
100- + Ha                      3           0.1
                   Total       3.649       100
Source : SIS, Statistical Yearbook of Turkey, 1989

Table 10. Distribution and number of animals in animal husbandry operations
Number of        Number of       %               Number of      Number of      %
cattle           operation                       small head     operation
                                                 animal
0                832452          22.80           0              1952291        53.47
1-4              1681714         46.00           1-19           662329         18.15
5-9              797846          21.05           20-49          553962         15.17
10-19            281676          7.70            50-99          302502         8.23
20-49            54634           1.50            100-249        167676         4.59
50-99            2976            0.08            250-499        11878          0.32
100-100+         211             0.01            500-500+       272            0.01
Total            3650910         100.00                         3650910        100.00
Source: Soysal, M.İ. 1997. Animal Breeding and Genetic Improvement of Farm Animals
Table 11 Distribution of Cultivated Area and Forest Area ( Thousand Hectares)
             Area Cultivated                                       Area of
Year         Area Sown Fallow         Vegetable       Vineyards Fruit     Olive             Forests
                         Land         Area                      Trees     Groves
1970         15.591      8.705        448             845       1.019     731               18.273
1980         16.372      8.188        596             820       1.386     813               20.199
1986         18.149      5.771        638             600       1.490     835               20.199
1987         18.781      5.574        609             590       1.517     856               20.199
1989         18.744      5.234        610             597       1.568     857               20.199
1990         19.023      5.324        635             580       1.586     867               20.199
2003
Source: SIS, Summary of Agricultural Statistics , 1990

            Figure 1. Distribution of Cultivated Area by Use
                       and Forest Area 1990 (% )                             1    2
                                    %1
                                 %6
                                                                             3    4
                             %11
                                             %42

                                                                             5
                              %40




1;Forest, 2: Area Sown, 3: Fallow Land, 4: Fruit Vineyards Olive Graves, 5: Vegetable Area



         2. Crop Production
         As mentioned before having a large agricultural land Turkiye is increased with range of
different agro ecological conditions whom enable her to grow various mediterranean , temperate
zone and sub tropical crops.
         According to the data of 2000 year 47,1 million hectar land of Turkiye is comered with
agricultural cultivated area and forest 56 % of total cultivated area and forest area has crop
production capacity ( Area sown, vegatables area , area of fruit trees , olive groves ). The
remaining 44 % of area is area of forest.
         The distribution of cultivated area and forest area by years shoved that the share of sown
area in total areas is increased. Date of cultivated and forest area was 5.6 %.
         Due to common usage of fertilizers and demand for crop productions has lead to the
decreasing rate of fallow land was 16.8 % . The area cultivated for vegetable has increasing by
years of 1970-1980 as 33 % and averaged 21.5 % . Unfortunately area for vineyards is decreasing
averagely as 13.3 % . The area for fruit trees is increasing by years of 1970-1980 36 % and
averaged 13.3 % Area for olive growers is increased in 1970-1980 by 11.2% but decreased in
1990-2000 by 30.7 % as averaged 4.3 % decreasing . Areas for forestry increasing averagely 6.5
%
Table 12: Distribution of cultivated area and forest area (Thousand Hectares)
                                                                                  Average
                                     1970       1980          1990         2000 Change (%)
Area Sown                           15591      16362         18868        18207
   Change (%)                                     4,9          15,3         -3,5         5,6
Fallow Land                          8705       8188          5324         4826
   Change (%)                                    -5,9         -35,0         -9,4       -16,8
Vegetables Area                      448         596            635          793
   Change (%)                                    33,0            6,5        24,9        21,5
Vineyards                            845         820            580          535
   Change (%)                                    -3,0         -29,3         -7,8       -13,3
Area of Fruit Trees                  1019       1386          1583         1418
   Change (%)                                    36,0          14,2        -10,4        13,3
Area of Olive Groves                 731         813            866          600
   Change (%)                                    11,2            6,5       -30,7        -4,3
Area of Forest                      17273      20199         20199        20703
   Change (%)                                    16,9            0,0          2,5        6,5

        Major crops in crop production area industrial crops , oil seed and cereal. According to
the 2000 data total 14.2 million hectares are used for ten sort of cereals 1.4 million and 1.3
million hectare areas were used for industrial crops an oil seeds respectively. Wheat and barley
conslets of 66.2 and 25.6 % of total cereal production respectively . The productivity of wheat
was 2234 kg/ hectares . The barley , rice , corn productivity Per hectares are 2204 , 3620, 4144
kg respectively. General features of crop production can be seen in table


Table 13: The Production of cereal , industrial crops and oil seed in Turkiye (2000 )
                                                                         Production
Crops                                                        %           (kg/hektar)

Cereals (N = 14.2 million hektar)
         Wheat                                               66.2                 2234
         Barley                                              25,6                 2204
         Corn                                               0,004                 4144
         Rice                                                 0,4                 3620
         Other                                                6,0                    --

Industry Crops (N =1.4 million hektar)
        Cotton                                                47,9                1314
        Sugar Beet                                            29,5               39128
        Tabocco                                               17,0                 993
        Other                                                  5,6                   --

Oil seed (N = 1.3 million hektar)
        Lint                                                  49,8                1980
        Sun flower                                            41,3                1476
        Other                                                  8,9                   --
Table.14. Production area for some agricultural production resources(x 1000) hectares
                                                                                                       Average
                                                                                                        Change
Years                 1993    1994      1995       1996      1997       1998       1999       2000         (%)
                    1419829 1414455    1381647    1394603    1397247    1407470    1392574     1396263
Cereal (total)            5        0          0          0          3          0          3           8
Cereal (% change)               -0,4       -2,3        0,9        0,2        0,7       -1,1         0,3    -0,2
    Wheat           9800000 9800000    9400000    9350000    9340000    9400000    9380000     9400000
Wheat (% change)                 0,0       -4,1       -0,5       -0,1        0,6       -0,2         0,2    -0,6
    Barley          3485000 3500000    3525000    3650000    3700000    3750000    3650000     3629000
Barley (% change)                0,4        0,7        3,5        1,4        1,4       -2,7        -0,6     0,6
    Corn             550000 485000      515000     550000     545000     550000     518000      555000
Corn (% change)                -11,8        6,2        6,8       -0,9        0,9       -5,8         7,1     0,4
    Rice              44850   40500      50000      54850      55000      60000      65000       58000
Rice (%change)                  -9,7       23,5        9,7        0,3        9,1        8,3       -10,8     4,3
    Other           8478145 8370050    8506470    8850880    8932473    9034700    8778743     8804638
Other (% change)                -1,3        1,6        4,0        0,9        1,1       -2,8         0,3     0,6
Leguminasae
(total)             2018107 1881498    1870383 1875095 1750155 1667770 1582795 1542107
Leguminasae (%
change)                         -6,8       -0,6        0,3       -6,7       -4,7       -5,1        -2,6    -3,7
Industrial crop
(total)             1406407 1316356    1401116 1475624 1573605 1661095 1555639 1387919
Industry crop (%
change)                         -6,4       6,4        5,3        6,6        5,6        -6,3      -10,8     0,1
    Cotton           567852 581491      756694     743775     721723     756566     719729     654177
Cotton (%
change)                          2,4       30,1       -1,7       -3,0       4,8        -4,9       -9,1     2,7
    Sugar Beet       423234 412018      312251     422486     472689     504493     423234     410023
Sugar Beet (%
change)                         -2,7      -24,2       35,3       11,9       6,7       -16,1       -3,1     1,1
    Tobacco          339856 227113      209919     236620     288976     274617     258701     236569
Tobacco (%                                                                                                 -3,6
change)                        -33,2       -7,6    12,7    22,1    -5,0    -5,8    -8,6
    Other             75465   95734     122252   72743   90217 125419 153975     87150
Other (% change)                26,9       27,7   -40,5    24,0    39,0    22,8   -43,4                    8,1
Oil Seeds (total)   1312454 1340763    1521850 1462105 1432443 1520083 1505654 1319247
Oil Seeds (%
change)                          2,2       13,5       -3,9       -2,0       6,1        -0,9      -12,4     0,4
    Sunflower        597000 586000      585000     575000     560000     586000     595000     542000
Sunflower (%
change)                         -1,8       -0,2       -1,7       -2,6        4,6        1,5       -8,9     -1,3
    Lint             567852 581491      741407     743775     721723     756566     719294     654177
Lint (% change)                  2,4       27,5        0,3       -3,0        4,8       -4,9       -9,1     2,6
    Other            147602 173272      195443     143330     150720     177517     191360     123070
Other (% change)                17,4       12,8      -26,7        5,2       17,8        7,8      -35,7     -0,2
Root, Bulb, (total) 289050 293300       355300     321400     330000     321600     347300     319450
Root, Bulb (%
Change)                          1,5       21,1       -9,5        2,7       -2,5        8,0        -8,0    1,9
        The biggest share in the industrial crop production is for cotton as 47.9% and sugar beet
29.5 % and tobacco 17 % . The productivity of cotton , sugar beet and tobacco Per hectares are
1314, 39128 and 9933 kg respectively.
        Cotton /Lint has share of 49.8 % in total oil seed followed by sunflower ( 41.3 %) . The
productivity of cotton ( lint) and sunflower Per hectares are 1980 and 1476 kg respectively.


Table 15. Genotypic trend in cattle population of Turkiye by years (%)
               Native Breeds      Western         Crossbreed
 Years                            Breeds
 1975          88.01              0.80            10.21
 1980          81.68              2.37            15.74
 1985          69.70              6.10            24.20
 1990          58.84              8.90            32.26
 1995          49.12              12.70           38.18

Source : State Planning Organization , Main Economic Indicator, January 1991, www.dpt.gov.tr
        Cited by An Overview of Turkish Agriculture Republic of Turkiye Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Affairs (MARA) General Directorate of Agricultural Production and Development.


Table 16. Distribution number of sheep, goat in Turkiye by years(  1000 head)
                YEARS

 Species        1980     1988    1990     1992     1994     1995
 Sheep          48.630 45.384 40.553 39.416 35.646 33.791
 Hair Goat      15.385 10.972 9.698 9.440 8.767 8.397
 Mohair         3.658 1.942 1.279 1.014 979                 714
 Goat
Source : State Planning Organization , Main Economic Indicator, January 1991, www.dpt.gov.tr
        Cited by An Overview of Turkish Agriculture Republic of Turkiye Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Affairs (MARA) General Directorate of Agricultural Production and Development.

       Animal Production
         Turkiye has great potential for animal production and topographic and climate conditions
are favorable for animal husbandry in general. Eventhough Turkiye is among the leading
countries in the numbers of some of livestock the animal productionity sometimes can be quite
low due to high number of low productivity improved native animals. Various measures have
been taken to increase animal production through improvemets in productionery . The policy
aiming to improve productivity has two instruments animal breeding for improvement in genetic
capacity of the population and exporison in the supply of feeds made available at low cost.
         In improving the genetic capacity of the population 287000 improved pure breed heifer
were imported until 1987.
         As regards of expansion in the supply of feeds efforts are being made to improve the
management of pastoral and meddows as well as to lowest the cost of animal feeds by entriching
nutritive value of resources and materials at hand.
        At the results of these efforts soybean , maize, sun flower production are increased
according to the 2002 cencus the number of different animals are as follows.
        Total cattle 14 928 459 ( pure breed 655027, cross breed 95016, native breed 10 580 280 ,
buffalos 702985, sheep 48 442305 , ordinary goats 13 554 346, Angora Goat 3 115074 ) . The
concentrate feed product of Turkey by years given as below.

Table 17 Mixed Feed Production (000Ton)
Year                  Poultry Feed      Livestock Feed       Other Feed            Total
1985                  1168              1849                 26                    3043
1986                  1238              1607                 24                    2869
1987                  1196              2349                 31                    3576
1988                  1401              2610                 20                    4031
1989                  1324              2937                 22                    4283
1990                  1416              2537                 23                    3976
Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs ; General directorate of feed industry and
statistical yearbook of Turkey, 2001

        The policy proving genetic capacity of the population consisted of mainly crossbreeding
of these low producing native animals with high producing modern breeds such as Black and
White or Brown Swiss cattle . The newly (1997) established Black and White cattle breeders
union is trying to establish progeny testing program in country scale.
        Typical characteristics of the Turkish dairy cattle husbandry is being as a family scale
operation rather than a larger scale operation suited to the needs of dairy industry . Average
number animal Per operation is (5) head and (14) heads for Black and White breeding unions
member.
        Modern dairy cattle accounted for almost 50% of present cattle population. According to
FAO (2000) data Turkiye is ranking as the number one in sheep and goat population in Europe.
        Over 95 % of goat and sheep population are consisted of native breeds. Although their
milk and meat production are rather low they are adapted may well to the local conditions .
Turkiye is source of farm animal genetic sources by her location between Asia and Europe.
        Poultry industry is highly developed in Turkiye . Especially after 1990 the number of
modern integrated companies incorporate parent stock , hatcheries , modern slaughter,
processing and rendering plants and feed will and these 85 % of total broiler production and
processing comparies represent almost virtually all broiler grown out under taken by contraction .
Turkiye 's chicken meat production is 580,000 metric ton . Egg production has also rapidly
developing . Present egg production is estimates as 10080 million . annual egg consumption of
Turkiye is 8.15 kg/person in Turkiye.

       Meat Production
       According to the data of 2000 491 497 ton red meat is produced in Turkiye. 72,2 % of
meat production comes from cattle . The remaining 22.6% ; 4.4 % are belong to the sheep, Lamp
and Goat , respectively. The production figure are given in table 17.
Table 18: Meat Production by species in Turkiye (2000)
 Species                                    Meat Production (ton)                            %
 cattle, calf                                               354633                        72,2
 sheep,lamb                                                 111138                        22,6
 goat                                                        21394                         4,4
 other                                                        4332                         0,9
 Total                                                      491497                       100,0
Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs ; General directorate of feed industry and
statistical yearbook of Turkey, 2001
          As its seem in table the general trend is increased meat production by years
Table 19. The meat production distribution by years (tone) in Turkiye
                                                                                                            Avera
                                                                                                            ge
                                                                                                            Chang
                                                                                                            e
                                                                                                            (%)
                           1993      1994    1995    1996     1997     1998           1999         2000
 Cattle                  154570 161475 150270 146205 190014 181892                  186443       176253
 Change (%)                            4,5    -6,9    -2,7     30,0     -4,3             2,5        -5,5      2,5
 Calf                    141425 155110 142180 155630 189528 177381                  163238       178363
 Change (%)                            9,7    -8,3      9,5    21,8     -6,4           -8,0           9,3     3,9
 Sheep                    70000 78665 68360         56640    65361    87841          84420        61945
 Change(%)                            12,4   -13,1   -17,1     15,4     34,4           -3,9        -26,6      0,2
 Lamb                     42800 47785 33755         41485    50743    56862          48056        49159
 Change (%)                           11,6   -29,4    22,9     22,3     12,1          -15,5           2,3     3,8
 Hair Goat and kids       15245 14390 13635         11795    15142    22775          22741        20931
 Change (%)                           -5,6    -5,2   -13,5     28,4     50,4           -0,1         -8,0      6,6
 Angora Goat and kids       890       495      490     485      450      665            953          463
 Change (%)                         -44,4     -1,0    -1,0      -7,2    47,8           43,3        -51,4      -2,0
 Other                     7250      8270    6550    4575     5708     5088           5446         4383
 Change (%)                           14,1   -20,8   -30,2     24,8    -10,9             7,0       -19,5      -5,1
 Total                   432180 466190 415240 416815 516946 532504                  511297       491497
 Change (%)                            7,9   -10,9      0,4    24,0       3,0          -4,0         -3,9      2,4
Source: State Planning Organization, Annual Programmes/1:Provisional.

         Milk Production
         The milk production by sources is given table 19.
Table 20: Milk Production in Turkiye (2000 year)
                              Number (                             Production
                                Million)                 %        (x 1000 mt)                   %
 Cattle                            5280                21,1              8732                 89,2
 Buffaloes                            70                0,3                  67                0,7
 Sheep                            15920                63,5                774                 7,9
 Hair Goat                         3605                14,4                216                 2,2
 Angora Goat                        188                 0,8                   4               0,04
 Total                            25063               100.0              9793                100,0
Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs ; General directorate of feed industry and
statistical yearbook of Turkey, 2001
        According to the year 2000 total 25 million head animal produces milk . The 63.5 and
21.1 % of milks source from cow , and sheep respectively . But production point of view 89.2 %
of milk comes from cow . The number of animal and milk production by years is given below.

Table 21: Number of animal on milk production of Turkiye by years
                                                                                                          average
                                                                                                           change
                       1993      1994       1995      1996       1997      1998       1999        2000        (%)
  Number of cow        6032      6082       5886      5968       5594      5489       5538        5280
  change (%)                      0,8        -3,2      1,4        -6,3      -1,9       0,9         -4,7      -1,8
  Milk (000 ton)        8904     9129       9275      9466       8914      8832       8965        8732
  change (%)                      2,5         1,6      2,1        -5,8      -0,9       1,5         -2,6      -0,2
  Number of
  Bufola                 148        150      122        114         92         85         80        70
  change (%)                        1,4    -18,7       -6,6      -19,3       -7,6       -5,9     -12,5       -9,9
  Milk (000 ton)         140        144      115        108         87         80         75        67
  change (%)                        2,9    -20,1       -6,1      -19,4       -8,0       -6,3     -10,7       -9,7
  Number of
  sheep                21532     20508    19263      18890      17169      16776      16473      15920
  change (%)                       -4,8      -6,1      -1,9       -9,1       -2,3       -1,8       -3,4      -4,2
  Milk (000 ton)        1047        992      934        922        826        813       805        774
  change (%)                       -5,3      -5,8      -1,3      -10,4       -1,6       -1,0       -3,9      -4,2
  Number of hair
  goat                  4991      4769     4545       4379       4111       3989       3843       3605
  change (%)                       -4,4      -4,7      -3,7       -6,1       -3,0       -3,7       -6,2      -4,5
  Milk (000 ton)         304        289      270        258        243        240       231        216
  change (%)                       -4,9      -6,6      -4,4       -5,8       -1,2       -3,8       -6,5      -4,7
  Number of
  Angora goat            472        393      363        347        296        258       243         188
  change (%)                      -16,7      -7,6      -4,4      -14,7      -12,8       -5,8      -22,6     -12,1
  Milk (000 ton)          10          8         8          7         6          5          5          4
  change (%)                      -20,0       0,0     -12,5      -14,3      -16,7        0,0      -20,0     -11,9
  Total Number         33175     31902    30179      29698      27262      26597      26177      25063
  change (%)                       -3,8      -5,4      -1,6       -8,2       -2,4       -1,6       -4,3      -3,9
  Total milk
  (000 ton)            10405     10562    10602      10761      10076       9970      10081       9793
  change (%)                        1,5       0,4        1,5      -6,4       -1,1        1,1       -2,9      -0,8
Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs ; General directorate of feed industry and
statistical yearbook of Turkey, 2001
.
        The development of poultry can be seem in table 21. Number of poultry is increasing
annually as averaged 7.4 %.
  Table 22: Development of poultry production in Turkey (x 1000 head)
                                                                                                            average
                                                                                                             change
                         1993      1994       1995      1996      1997       1998      1999         2000        (%)
   Total number
   of poultry         178260     183684    129015    152957     166273    236997     239748       258168
                                     3,0     -29,8      18,6        8,7      42,5       1,2           7,7       7,4
     Broiler          120081     125842     71690     99074     104871    167275     167863       193459
   change (%)                        4,8     -43,0      38,2        5,9      59,5       0,4          15,2      11,6
     Layers             58179     57842     57325     53883      61402     69722      71885        64709
   change (%)                       -0,6      -0,9      -6,0       14,0      13,6       3,1         -10,0       1,9

   Turkey                 3340      3442     3291        3064      5328       3805      3763      3682
   change (%)                        3,1      -4,4        -6,9      73,9      -28,6      -1,1      -2,2         4,8
   Duck                   1172      1187     1200        1094      1829       1339      1295      1104
   change (%)                        1,3       1,1        -8,8      67,2      -26,8      -3,3     -14,7         2,3
   Goose                  1688      1720     1745        1642      1795       1771      1671      1497
   change (%)                        1,9       1,5        -5,9       9,3       -1,3      -5,6     -10,4        -1,5
  Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs ; General directorate of feed industry and
  statistical yearbook of Turkey, 2001
     Table 23. The development of meat, milk poultry , apiculture and silk worm keeping in Turkey
                                                                                                            average
                                                                                                             change
                            1993       1994     1995      1996       1997       1998      1999        2000       (%)
Meat (000 ton)            432180     466190 415240 416815 516946 532504 511297                      491497
change (%)                               7,9    -10,9       0,4       24,0        3,0      -4,0        -3,9       2,4
Milk (000 ton)              13759     13845    13809     13944     13148       13026     13121       12787
change (%)                               0,6      -0,3      1,0       -5,7       -0,9       0,7        -2,5     -1,0
Poultry (000 head)         178260 183684 129015 152957 166273 236997 239748                         258168
change (%)                               3,0    -29,8      18,6        8,7       42,5       1,2         7,7       7,4
Number of Bee hives          3686      3786     3916      3965       4002       4199      4322        4268
change (%)                               2,7       3,4      1,3        0,9        4,9       2,9        -1,2       2,1
Silk worn box number        25884     17953     9702      7529       5741       4543      4964        3147
change (%)                             -30,6    -46,0     -22,4     -23,7       -20,9       9,3       -36,6    -24,4
  Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs ; General directorate of feed industry and
  statistical yearbook of Turkey, 2001
  Table 24. Mixed feed Production (.000 ton)
  Year                 Poultry Feed        Livestock Feed       Other Feed           Total
  1985                 1168                1849                 26                   3043
  1986                 1238                1607                 24                   2869
  1987                 1196                2349                 31                   3576
  1988                 1401                2610                 20                   4031
  1989                 1324                2937                 22                   4283
  1990                 1416                2537                 23                   3976
Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs , General Directorate of Feed Industry.
        Table 25. Poultry Meat and Egg Production (.000Ton)
Years         1985         1986         1987          1988                          1989             1990/1
Poultry and 285            315          350           380                           390              415
Meat Eggs     340          355          370           386                           395              411

Source: State Planning Organization, Annual Programmes/1:Provisional.



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