The Internet and the World Wide Web by liaoxiuli


									The Internet and
the World Wide Web
Each day million of people “ surf” or explore, the
  information superhighway. The “information
  superhighway” refers to the Internet. It is
  compared to a highway system because it
  functions much like a network of interstate
  highways. People use the internet to research
  information, to shop to go to school, to
  communicate with family and friends, to read
  the daily newspaper, to make airplane and
  hotel reservations, and so on.
Internets Impact on
  In mid-2005, over two thirds of all
   Americans, nearly 210 million people,
   use the Internet at home, work, or school.
   Businesses have automated record
   keeping task that previously required
   countless hours, freeing workers for more
   productive activities.
Internet Basics
  Computers on the Internet communicate with each
    other using a set of protocol known as TCP/IP or
    Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol.
 Protocol: is a standard format for transferring data
    between two devices or computers.
 The TCP protocol enables two host computers to
    establish a connection and exchange data.
 Host computer is a computer that you access Remotely
    from your computer.
 IP protocol works with the addressing scheme. It allows
    you to enter an address and send it to another
    computer; from there the TCP protocol takes over and
    establishes a connection between the two computers.
Internet Basics
World Wide Web
  One of the more popular services found on the internet is the
   World Wide Web.
  The web actually began in 1990, when Dr. Tim Berners-Lee ,
   wrote a small computer program for his own personal use referred
   to as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): is the language that
   computers would use to communicate hypertext documents over
   the internet.
  Hypertext markup language (HTML): Text based programs that
   permitted pages to be linked through a formatting process.
   Clicking a linked word or image transfer you from one Web page
   to another or to another part of the same Web page.
  Web page: Is nothing more than an ordinary text page that is
   coded with HTML markup tags and then displayed within a
   browser. Markup tags consist of a set of text commands that are
   interpreted by the browser.
Web Protocol
  The user inter face of the internet is called the web
  On the Web, you can send and receive Web pages
   over the internet because Web servers, and browsers
   both understand HTTP. When you enter a Web site
   address in your browser, for instance, this sends an
   HTTP command to the Web server to tell it to locate
   and transmit the request Web pages.
  Web server: is a computer that delivers, or serves up,
   Web pages.
  By installing special software, any computer can
   become a Web server. Every Web server has its own
   IP address and most have a domain name.
Web Protocol
  Uniform Resource Locator: This is the name of
   the web page address.
  Every web page on the internet has its own
   unique address. The first part of the address
   indicates what protocol to use, and the second
   part specifies the IP address or the domain
   name where the resource is located. For
   example, in the URL, the http
   protocol indicates that this is a web page and
   that the domain name is mrmartinezweb.The
   .com at the end of the of the name indicates
   that this in an commercial site.
Top-Level domain name
Browser Terminology and
Browser Basics

 Understanding browser terminology is the key to using a browser effectively.
  Title bar: bar on top of the window, contains name.
  Menu bar: a horizontal menu that appears at top of the program window, provides
    a selection of option related to the web page.
  Standard button toolbar: Icons for single click access to most often used.
  Address bar: Contains the URL or address of the active web page, also where you
    type the location of the the web page you want to visit.
  Go button: Connects you the address displayed in the address bar.
  Document Window: displays the active web page.
  Status Bar: located at the bottom of the browser; shown the progress of Web
    pages connection.
  Access Indicator: A small picture in the upper-right corner of the browser; when
    animated it mean that your browser is accessing data from remote computer.
  Links bar: a drop down menu containing a list of linked web sites click the go
    button display the menu.
  Scroll bars: vertical and horizontal scrolls bars let you scroll vertical and
    horizontally if the web page is too long or too wide to fit with in one screen.
Internet Explorer browser Window
Toolbar and Menu Bar
  Back: Returns you to the previous page.
  Forward: Takes you to the page you viewed before
   clicking the back buttons.
  Stop: Stops the current page from loading.
  Refresh: Refreshes or reloads the current Web page.
  Home: Takes you to your home page.
  Search: Connects you to the Microsoft Internet search
  Favorite: Opens the favorite pane where you can store
   and access shortcuts to your most frequently visited
   Web Sites.
Toolbar and Menu Bar
    History: Opens the history pane displaying a record of all the sites you
     recently have visited.
    Mail: Clicking the icon displays a drop-down menu with the options to
     read your mail, create a new message, send a page, or read news.
    Print: Prints the current document.
    Edit: Displays a drop-down menu with options to edit the Web page
     shown in the area.
    Discuss: Initiates discussion with other online users.
    Create Mobile favorites: Used with a pocket PC to save favorite links.
    Research: Displays a search panel, providing a list of reference books an
     research list.
    Messenger: Starts Window Messenger, which allows real-time
     communication with other people who are signed to the .Net Messenger
Internet Explorer and
Accessing the Internet
     Before you can begin to access the Internet, you have to be connected
      and become part of the network. If you connect to the Internet through an
      organization such as school or business, you probably are connecting
      through a local area network.
     Local Area Network (LAN): connects computers and devices within a
      limited geographical area.
     Net Work interface card (NIC): This is a special card inside your computer
      that allows the computer to be network to high-speed wireless connection
      line, most likely leased from the local telephone company.

     Home user generally connect to the Internet using one of the following
 1.   Telephone line
 2.   Cable modem
 3.   Digital subscriber line
 4.   Fiber optic
 5.   Wireless
History & Favorite
 The back and Forward buttons takes you to sites you
   have visited in your current session. However, what if
   you want to return to that Web page you found last
   week and you cannot remember the URL? Then the
   History button is for you.

 The web has so much to offer that it is very likely you are
   going to find some Web sites you really like and want
   to return to often. It is just a mouse click away by
   adding them to you favorite list.
Cleanup Time
      When you explore the Web, your browser
  keeps a record of the sites you visit. The pages
  are stored in temporary folders on you hard
  drive in your disk cashe. This process enables
  you to view the saved pages offline or without
  being connected to the Internet.
      If you return to a cashed Web page, that
  page will load faster because it is loading from
  a cache. This can sometimes be a problem
  because the page might have changed since
  you were last at the site.
Other Internet Service
  Blog: Web page that serves as accessible journal or log. Blogs
   cover may topic.
  Chat rooms: You can communicate with someone through the
   internet through typing.
  Instant Messaging: Allows you to maintain a list of people with
   whom you wish to interact in real-time. You can send messages to
   any person on your list, often called a buddy list.
  Mailing list: Group of people whom you keep their e-mail
   addresses in a list.
  Online Conferencing: Technology that provides you with hardware
   and software needed to connect online to discuss issues,earn
   degree, or just have a reunion.
 Cookies: Are parcels of text sent to a
  server to a web browser and then sent
  back unchanged by the browser each
  time it access that server. HTTP cookies
  are used for authenticating, tracking and
  maintaining specific information about
  users , such as sit preference and the
  content of their electronic shopping cart.

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