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The Internet and the World Wide Web Each day million of people “ surf” or explore, the information superhighway. The “information superhighway” refers to the Internet. It is compared to a highway system because it functions much like a network of interstate highways. People use the internet to research information, to shop to go to school, to communicate with family and friends, to read the daily newspaper, to make airplane and hotel reservations, and so on. Internets Impact on Society In mid-2005, over two thirds of all Americans, nearly 210 million people, use the Internet at home, work, or school. Businesses have automated record keeping task that previously required countless hours, freeing workers for more productive activities. Internet Basics Computers on the Internet communicate with each other using a set of protocol known as TCP/IP or Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. Protocol: is a standard format for transferring data between two devices or computers. The TCP protocol enables two host computers to establish a connection and exchange data. Host computer is a computer that you access Remotely from your computer. IP protocol works with the addressing scheme. It allows you to enter an address and send it to another computer; from there the TCP protocol takes over and establishes a connection between the two computers. Internet Basics World Wide Web One of the more popular services found on the internet is the World Wide Web. The web actually began in 1990, when Dr. Tim Berners-Lee , wrote a small computer program for his own personal use referred to as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): is the language that computers would use to communicate hypertext documents over the internet. Hypertext markup language (HTML): Text based programs that permitted pages to be linked through a formatting process. Clicking a linked word or image transfer you from one Web page to another or to another part of the same Web page. Web page: Is nothing more than an ordinary text page that is coded with HTML markup tags and then displayed within a browser. Markup tags consist of a set of text commands that are interpreted by the browser. Web Protocol The user inter face of the internet is called the web browser. On the Web, you can send and receive Web pages over the internet because Web servers, and browsers both understand HTTP. When you enter a Web site address in your browser, for instance, this sends an HTTP command to the Web server to tell it to locate and transmit the request Web pages. Web server: is a computer that delivers, or serves up, Web pages. By installing special software, any computer can become a Web server. Every Web server has its own IP address and most have a domain name. Web Protocol Uniform Resource Locator: This is the name of the web page address. Every web page on the internet has its own unique address. The first part of the address indicates what protocol to use, and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located. For example, in the URL https://www.mrmartinezweb.com, the http protocol indicates that this is a web page and that the domain name is mrmartinezweb.The .com at the end of the of the name indicates that this in an commercial site. Top-Level domain name abbreviation Browser Terminology and Browser Basics Understanding browser terminology is the key to using a browser effectively. Title bar: bar on top of the window, contains name. Menu bar: a horizontal menu that appears at top of the program window, provides a selection of option related to the web page. Standard button toolbar: Icons for single click access to most often used. Address bar: Contains the URL or address of the active web page, also where you type the location of the the web page you want to visit. Go button: Connects you the address displayed in the address bar. Document Window: displays the active web page. Status Bar: located at the bottom of the browser; shown the progress of Web pages connection. Access Indicator: A small picture in the upper-right corner of the browser; when animated it mean that your browser is accessing data from remote computer. Links bar: a drop down menu containing a list of linked web sites click the go button display the menu. Scroll bars: vertical and horizontal scrolls bars let you scroll vertical and horizontally if the web page is too long or too wide to fit with in one screen. Internet Explorer browser Window Toolbar and Menu Bar Back: Returns you to the previous page. Forward: Takes you to the page you viewed before clicking the back buttons. Stop: Stops the current page from loading. Refresh: Refreshes or reloads the current Web page. Home: Takes you to your home page. Search: Connects you to the Microsoft Internet search site. Favorite: Opens the favorite pane where you can store and access shortcuts to your most frequently visited Web Sites. Toolbar and Menu Bar History: Opens the history pane displaying a record of all the sites you recently have visited. Mail: Clicking the icon displays a drop-down menu with the options to read your mail, create a new message, send a page, or read news. Print: Prints the current document. Edit: Displays a drop-down menu with options to edit the Web page shown in the area. Discuss: Initiates discussion with other online users. Create Mobile favorites: Used with a pocket PC to save favorite links. Research: Displays a search panel, providing a list of reference books an research list. Messenger: Starts Window Messenger, which allows real-time communication with other people who are signed to the .Net Messenger service. Internet Explorer and toolbar Accessing the Internet Before you can begin to access the Internet, you have to be connected and become part of the network. If you connect to the Internet through an organization such as school or business, you probably are connecting through a local area network. Local Area Network (LAN): connects computers and devices within a limited geographical area. Net Work interface card (NIC): This is a special card inside your computer that allows the computer to be network to high-speed wireless connection line, most likely leased from the local telephone company. Home user generally connect to the Internet using one of the following methods: 1. Telephone line 2. Cable modem 3. Digital subscriber line 4. Fiber optic 5. Wireless History & Favorite History The back and Forward buttons takes you to sites you have visited in your current session. However, what if you want to return to that Web page you found last week and you cannot remember the URL? Then the History button is for you. Favorite The web has so much to offer that it is very likely you are going to find some Web sites you really like and want to return to often. It is just a mouse click away by adding them to you favorite list. Cleanup Time When you explore the Web, your browser keeps a record of the sites you visit. The pages are stored in temporary folders on you hard drive in your disk cashe. This process enables you to view the saved pages offline or without being connected to the Internet. If you return to a cashed Web page, that page will load faster because it is loading from a cache. This can sometimes be a problem because the page might have changed since you were last at the site. Other Internet Service Blog: Web page that serves as accessible journal or log. Blogs cover may topic. Chat rooms: You can communicate with someone through the internet through typing. Instant Messaging: Allows you to maintain a list of people with whom you wish to interact in real-time. You can send messages to any person on your list, often called a buddy list. Mailing list: Group of people whom you keep their e-mail addresses in a list. Online Conferencing: Technology that provides you with hardware and software needed to connect online to discuss issues,earn degree, or just have a reunion. Cookies: Are parcels of text sent to a server to a web browser and then sent back unchanged by the browser each time it access that server. HTTP cookies are used for authenticating, tracking and maintaining specific information about users , such as sit preference and the content of their electronic shopping cart.
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