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					                                       Model Question Paper - 2006

                         NATIONAL CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION
                                         FOR
                        ENERGY AUDITORS AND ENERGY MANAGERS



                 PAPER-2: ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THERMAL UTILITIES



General Instructions:

         Please check that this question paper contains 65 questions
         The question papers is divided into three sections
      All questions in all three sections are compulsory
      All parts of a question should be answered at one place
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Section-I : Objective Type Questions

              (i) Answer all question of this section.
              (ii) Each question carries one mark.
              (iii) Put a () tick mark on the appropriate box in the answer book.

01    The A grade coals have calorific value
      (a) Greater then 6200 kcal/kg
      (b) Less then 6200 kcal/kg
      (c) Less then 1300 kcal/kg
      (d) Greater then 1300 kcal/kg

02    The smallest size of the coal (≈75 micron) is required in
      (a) Fluidized bed firing
      (b) Pulverized coal firing
      (c) Stoker firing
      (d) Hand firing

03    Calorific value of liquid and gaseous fuels is generally measured in terms of
      (a) kcal/m3 and kcal/N m3 respectively
      (b) kcal/N m3 and kcal/ m3 respectively
      (c) kcal/kg and kcal/ m3 respectively
      (d) kcal/ m3 and kcal/kg respectively

04    Which of the following agro-residues has the lowest gross calorific value
      (a) Deoiled Bran
      (b) Paddy Husk
      (c) Saw dust
      (d) Coconut shell
05   Under optimum combustion condition of fuel oil, the percentage of oxygen in flue gas will
     range between.
     (a) 0 to 0.1%
     (b) 2 to 3%
     (c) 12 to 13%
     (d) 22 to 23%

06   Heat generated in combustion on per kg basis, is the highest for
     (a) carbon
     (b) hydrogen
     (c) sulpher
     (d) oxygen

07   Ash fusion temperature of typical Indian coal is
     (a) 500ºC
     (b) 700ºC
     (c) 900ºC
     (d) 1100ºC

08   Stoichiometric Volumetric air to fuel ratio for complete combustion of natural gas ranges
     between
     (a) 9.5 to 10
     (b) 14.5 to 15
     (c) 18.5 to 19
     (d) 22.5 to 23

09   With increase in percentage of excess air for combustion of a given fuel percentage of
     oxygen in flue gas.
     (a) increases
     (b) decreases
     (c) remains same
     (d) none of the above

10   Permissible limit of TDS in boiler
     a) increases for higher pressure boilers
     b) decreases for higher pressing boilers
     c) is independent of boiler pressure
     d) none of the above

11   Radiation losses from a boiler
     a) increase with increase in % its loading
     b) decrease with increase in % its loading
     c) are independent of % its loading
     d) none of the above.

12   An evaporation ratio (steam to fuel ratio) of an efficient oil fired boiler is in the range of___.
     a) 5 – 6
     b) 13 – 16
     c) 1-3
     d) 7 – 9
13   Name the predominant loss component for furnace oil fed boiler.
     a) losses due to radiation and convention
     b) loss due to hydrogen in fuel
     c) loss due to dry flue gas
     d) loss due to moisture in fuel

14   A rise in conductivity of boiler feed water indicates ____ .
     a) drop in the contamination of feed water
     b) greater purity of feed water
     c) rise in the contamination of feed water
     d) it has got no relation with the contamination of feed water

15   De-aeration of boiler feed water is referred to as:
     a) removal of dissolved gases
     b) removal of silica
     c) removal of scales by blow down
     d) phosphate treatment of feed water

16   F & A (From and At) rating of the boiler is the amount of steam generated from
     (a) Water at 0ºC to steam at 100ºC
     (b) Water at 27ºC to steam at 100ºC
     (c) Water at 77ºC to steam at 100ºC
     (d) Water at 100ºC to steam at 100ºC

17   Demineralization in water treatment means
     (a) removal of total salts
     (b) removal of only hardness salts
     (c) removal of alkali salts
     (d) removal of non-hardness salts

18   Chemical de-aretion of feed water with sodium sulphate as oxygen scavenger removes
     oxygen but
     (a) decreases pH of the water
     (b) decreases TDS level of the water
     (c) increases TDS level of the water
     (d) None of the above

19   For industrial process heating, the best quality of steam is:
     a) dry saturated steam
     b) superheated steam
     c) wet steam
     d) high pressure steam

20   For flash steam calculation, flash steam quantity available depends upon ___
     a) condensate pressure and flash steam pressure
     b) pressure of steam generated in boiler
     c) Steam enthalpy at atmospheric pressure
     d) Total heat of flash steam
21   Latent heat steam at critical point is
     a) Infinite
     b) 540 kcal
     c) zero
     d) none of the three

22   head loss due to flow of steam in a pipe line is proportional to
     a) velocity 4
     b) velocity –4
     c) velocity –2
     d) velocity 2

23   Failure mode of bucket steam trap is
     a) open
     b) closed
     c) none of the two

24   Chances of water hammering will be largest in
     a) down inclined steam line
     b) up inclined steam line
     c) horizontal steam line
     d) none of the above

25   The temperature maintained in forging furnaces ranges between
     a) 700-850ºC
     b) 850-1000ºC
     c) 1000-1150ºC
     d) 1150-1250ºC

26   Radiation Recuperators are used for flue gas temperature of more than
     a) 800ºC
     b) 600ºC
     c) 400ºC
     d) 200ºC

27   The pressure drop as the exhaust gases pass through recuperator is of the order of
     a) 0.5 to 1.0 mm of H2O column
     b) 1.0 to 5.0 mm of H2O column
     c) 5.0 to 10 mm of H2O column
     d) 10 to 50 mm of H2O column

28   To retain the heat stored in furnace walls it is advisable to run a batch furnace in batch for a
     given load.
     a) 48 hrs every six days
     b) 8 hrs per day
     c) 24 hrs every third day
     d) none of the above
29   In large glass industries, the equipment connected with glass melting furnace for preheating
     the air is___.
     a) recuperators
     b) regenerators
     c) shell & tube heat exchanger
     d) heat wheels

30   The temperature which separates ‘ovens’ from ‘furnaces’ is
     a) 170ºC
     b) 270ºC
     c) 370ºC
     d) 470ºC

31   The axis of the oil fired burner in a furnace should be kept:
     a) slightly inclined towards the roof
     b) more inclined towards roof
     c) slightly inclined towards the stock
     d) parallel to stock

32   Higher excess air in an oil fired furnace would result in:
     a) increased furnace temperature
     b) increased heating rate
     c) reduced flame temperature
     d) none of the above

33   Which of the following is organic insulating material
     a) Expanded Polystyrene
     b) Calcium silicate
     c) Mineral wool
     c) None of the above

34   The melting temperature of the pure refractory compounds in highest for
     a) Alumina
     b) Lime
     c) Chromite
     d) Meginisia

35   The insulation material suitable for low temperature application is
     a) Mineral fibre
     b) Fibre glass
     c) Silica
     d) Polyurethane

36   The unit for thermal conductivity of insulation and refractories is ____.
     a) K.cal/m-hr-°C
     b) K.cal/ m²-hr-°C
     c) K.cal/m²-°C
     d) K.cal/ m-°C
37   The insulation which can be used for lining furnaces operating up to 1850ºC is:
     a) Alumina
     b) Zirconia
     c) Dolomite
     d) Calcium silicate

38   The material used to control SOx in the FBC boiler is
     a) Limestone
     b) Alumina
     c) Silica
     d) All of the above

39   The velocity of fluidizing air in atmospheric fluidized bed boiler is in the range of:
     a) Higher than 4.5 m/sec
     b) 1.2 – 3.7 m/sec
     c) Less than 1.2 m/sec
     d) 4-6 m/sec

40   In FBC boiler the combustion is carried out at a temperature
     a) closer to steam temperature
     b) at adiabatic combustion temperature
     c) at and above ash fusion temperature
     d) below ash fusion temperature of fuel used

41   Residence time in fluidized bed boiler
     a) is equal to conventional grate firing boiler
     b) is less then that in conventional grate firing boiler
     c) is little more then that in conventional grate firing boiler
     d) many times more then that in conventional grate firing boiler

42   The coal size used in AFBC boiler ranges.
     a) 1 μm-10 μm
     b) 1mm- 10mm
     c) 10mm-20mm
     d) 10 μm- 100mm

43   The overall conversion efficiency of a PFBC boiler in cogeneration mode is higher by
     a) 20-25%
     b) 10-12%
     c) 5-8%
     d) 1-3%

44   An economizer is used to recover waste heat from flue gas to heat
     a) stock
     b) combustion air
     c) feed water
     d) room air
45   In a shell and tube heat exchanger, the vapour stream is
     a) flown in the tubes
     b) contained on the shell side
     c) generally not used for heat exchange
     d) none of the above.

46   Major advantage of waste heat recovery in industry is:
     a) reduction in pollution
     b) increase in efficiency
     c) both a & b
     d) none of the above

47   Ceramic recuperators can withstand temperatures up to:
     a) 600 ºC
     b) 1300 ºC
     c) 1700ºC
     d) 950ºC

48   In a combined cycle power plant consisting of gas turbine and waste heat boiler, the exhaust
     gas temperature is ____.
     a) around 150 °C
     b) around 500 °C
     c) around 300 °C
     d) around 400 °C

49   The overall efficiency of combined cycle cogeneration is of the order of:
     a) 69 – 83
     b) 90 – 95
     c) 70 – 90
     d) 55 – 60

50   Heat to power ratio of combined cycle cogeneration is in the range of-------------
     a) 4.0 – 5.0
     b) 1.0 – 1.7
     c) 2.0 – 10
     d) 1.0 – 5.0
Section II: Short Descriptive Questions

                        (i)    Answer all TEN of the following questions.
                        (ii)   Each question carries FIVE marks


S-1    Explain the significance of the ultimate analysis of the fuels from the combustion point of
       view.

S-2    Explain why stack temperature in boilers can not be reduced below 160-170ºC


S-3    List out the data required for calculation of boiler efficiency using ‘indirect method’.


S-4    List the characteristic of steam which make it most popular for carrying energy


S-5    Explain why furnaces should operate at slightly positive pressure?


S-6    List advantages of ceramic fibre insulation?


S-7    Calculate rate of heat loss from a furnace whose external surface (area 20 m2) is at
       temperature 70ºC placed in a room at 35ºC


S-8    What is the principle of CFBC (circulating fluidized bed combustion) boiler?



S-9    Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of Reciprocating engine (Internal combustion
       energy) in the cogeneration mode.


S-10   Briefly explain the principle of ‘thermo compression’.
Section III: Long Descriptive Questions

                        (i)        Answer all FIVE of the following questions.
                        (ii)       Each question carries TEN marks


L-1    List various energy conservation opportunities in a boiler.


L-2    Calculate the theoretical air requirements for CH4 on mass basis and percentage volume of
       CO2 (on dry basis) in flue gas. If the actual measured value of percentage of CO2 in flue
       gas is 10%, estimate excess air ratio


L-3    Describe various consideration involved in retrofitting of FBC systems to conventional
       system.


L-4    From the given diagram, evaluate (i) heat load on cooling tower (ii) power generation in
       MW.

                                       P=0.6MPa
                                       T=250ºC
                                       Q=5 MT/h           P=0.2 Mpa kJ/cm2
                                       h=2957.2 kJ/kg     T=150ºC
                                                          Q=50MT/h
                                                          h=2768.8 kJ/kg



                      P=4.5MPa
                      T=500ºC
                      Q=72MT/h
                      h=3439.6 kJ/kg


                                                                             P=10 kPa
                                                                             T=45.8ºC
                                                                             Q=17MT/hr
                                                                             hf=191.8 kJ/kg

                                                          CONDENSOR



L-5    What are waste heat recovery boilers? Explain their need and benefits?

				
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