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					European Commission
Enlargement of the EU
Previous enlargements
                        1951 ECSC:
                        France,Italy, Germany, Belgium,
                        The Netherlands, Luxembourg

                        Denmark, Ireland, and UK


                        Spain and Portugal

                        Austria, Finland and Sweden

                        Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,
                        Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia,

                        Romania and Bulgaria

The European Union on the map
                       New Member States (2007)
                       Bulgaria, Romania

                       Candidate Countries
                       Croatia; FYROM (Former Yugoslav Republic of
                       Macedonia) - Negotiations not yet started; Turkey

                       Potential Candidate Countries
                       Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro,
                       Serbia (including Kosovo under UNSCR 1244)

Conditions for Membership

Treaty of the European Union (TEU)
Article 49 of the TEU:
Any European State which respects the principles set out in Article
6(1) may apply to become a member of the Union.

Article 6 of the TEU:
The Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy,
respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule
of law, principles which are common to the Member States.

Conditions for membership
Copenhagen - June, 1993
1) Political criteria (enshrined in the TEU, article 6)
The applicant country must have achieved stability of its institutions guaranteeing
democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of
2) Economic criteria
      Functioning market economy
      Capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the

3) Acquis adoption and implementation criteria
 Ability to take on the obligations related to membership, including adherence to
the aims of political, economic and monetary union, and to implement them
efficiently and effectively.

 The EU’s capacity to absorb new members.

The 2004 Enlargement
The 2004 enlargement

 On1st May 2004, after 15 years of reforms, 10 new
  countries became members of the European Union.
    Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia;
    Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania;
    Slovenia;
    Cyprus and Malta.
 This enlargement added 75 million new citizens to the EU
  increasing its population to 450 million.
 It is the symbol of Europe reconciliation after nearly
  50 years of being torn apart.

Benefits of the 2004 Enlargement (1)

 Extended the zone of peace, stability and prosperity
  and set durably stable democracies in Europe

 75 million new potential consumers and producers
  in rapidly growing economies

 Growth rates at least twice as high.
  (2005 Growth rate of the EU15 = 2,1 Vs 4,6 for the new MS)

 Positive trade balance for EU 15 =
  jobs maintained or created

Benefits of the 2004 Enlargement (2)

Great impacts :

 Level playing field for economic operators extended

 Same EU rules and standards across the 25 countries

 Goods, services, capital and people circulate freely
  (transitional periods on the free movement of workers)

 Improved environment and food safety as new members
  have adopted EU environment and food safety policies

Q&A about the 2004 enlargement

Was it expensive?
 A cup of coffee a month is the price of that each citizen of
  the old member states has paid for helping to reunite
Is there a flood of migration?
 Labour migration was limited (Maximum 7 years).
  Positive economic impact where labour markets opened.
Did it go too fast ?
 15 years of reforms before enlargement took place.
 Widening and deepening always went together!

Accession of Bulgaria and Romania - 2007

Completes 2004 enlargement.
With the accession of Bulgaria and Romania,

The Europe of 27 is :

 Total population:          493 million

 GDP per inhabitant : EUR 21,503 (2004)

 Geographical Area (in 1,000 Km²):

     Europe 25 : Approx. 4,000
     Bulgaria    110,9
     Romania 238,4

    Sources: Eurostat

Turkey / Croatia / FYROM Negotiation process
Accession Negotiations: the process

 Opening of chapters to the negotiations:
    Screening
    If negative: fulfillment of contractual obligations
    EU-27 unanimous decision (Intergovernmental conference)

 For each chapter to be opened:
    Negotiating position by candidate country
    Draft Common Position by Commission to the Member States
    EU common position adopted by MS unanimously ---- Next step

 Acquis, if not negotiable?
    Transitional measures may be negotiated : limited in time and scope.
        Ex: free movement of workers environment

Monitoring of the accession process

 Annual Progress reports by the Commission

 Accession Partnership : Set the priorities for reforms

 Peer reviews : Cover the issues mentioned in the reports

Negotiation procedure


    common              Candidate
    positions            Country

   27 Member

Accession negotiations: Chapters
1.    Free movement of goods               19.   Social policy and employment
2.    Freedom of movement for workers      20.   Enterprise and industrial policy
3.    Right of establishment and freedom   21.   Trans-European Networks
      to provide services                  22.   Regional policy and coordination
4.    Free movement of capital                   of structural instruments
5.    Public procurement                   23.   Judiciary and fundamental rights
6.    Company law                          24.   Justice, freedom and security
7.    Intellectual property law            25.   Science and research
8.    Competition policy                   26.   Education and culture
9.    Financial services                   27.   Environment
10.   Information society and media        28.   Consumers and health protection
11.   Agriculture                          29.   Customs union
12.   Food safety, veterinary and          30.   External relations
      phytosanitary policy                 31.   Foreign security and defence policy
13.   Fisheries                            32.   Financial control
14.   Transport policy                     33.   Financial and budgetary provisions
15.   Energy                               34.   Institutions
16.   Taxation                             35.   Other issues
17.   Economic and monetary policy
18.   Statistics

Candidate countries

 Under negotiation
    Croatia
     opening of accession negotiations October 3 , 2005
    Turkey
     opening of accession negotiations October 3 , 2005

 Candidate status
    The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia:
     (European Council, December 2005)

Pre-accession Assistance


Turkey               €1050 M

Croatia ( 1 )        €326 M

FYROM ( 1 )          €144M

(1) Croatia and FYROM benefit also of part of CARDS regional cooperation
assistance for Western Balkans .

The long road to Accession Negotiations
Association Agreement (Ankara)
Membership application
Customs Union
European Council Helsinki: candidate country status
Since 2002
successive “Reform packages”
Turkey supports UNSG Annan plan for the reunification
of Cyprus

Turkey: Start of the Negotiation

December 2004
European Council :formal opening of negotiations, subject to additional
legislative reforms + signature of Protocol to the Ankara Agreement.
(TK “sufficiently” fulfils political criteria).
July 2005
Signature of Protocol to Ankara Agreement extending
the Customs Union to all Members States
3 October 2005
Adoption of the negotiation framework and opening of accession
June 2006
Opening and provisional closure of negotiations
of Science and Research chapter

“Three pillars” strategy for Turkey

 Political reforms:
     Accession Partnership + Regular Reports to monitor the process
     Increased financial assistance from 2004 to promote reforms.
     Continuous efforts needed i.a. on democracy and human rights, freedom
      of expression, freedom of religion, women’s rights, of minorities,
      and structural and market reforms.

 Negotiation scheme: IGC UE-25 – Turkey
     Unanimity required. Benchmarking before opening of negotiations, eg.
      implementation of Protocol to Ankara Agreement
     Negotiations to be closed not before 2014, (new financial perspectives).
     Possibility to suspend negotiations in case of violations of Political Criteria.

 Civil Society Dialogue:
     strengthening links EU-Turkey. Civil Society
      (Communication in June 2005).

Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) signed.
February 2005
SAA in force.
March 2004
Positive Commission opinion.
June 2004
Positive opinion endorsed by European Council.
December 2004
European Council decides opening of negotiations for March 2005,
subject to full cooperation with ICTY.
Negotiations postponed:
Full cooperation with ICTY not achieved.
3 October 2005
Negotiations opened after full cooperation with ICTY.
June 2006
Opening and provisional closure
of Science and Research chapter.

The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia (FYROM)
April 2001
Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) signed
March 2004
Application for membership
April 2004
Entry into force of the SAA
November 2005
Commission’s opinion: recommends “candidate status”
+ further progress in reform process before negotiations
can be opened
December 2005
European Council agrees → «candidate» status granted.

Other Western Balkan countries
The potential candidates:
Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro
 European vocation’ confirmed at European Council
  of March 2006, following Thessaloniki Agenda of 2003.

 Continuation of the Stabilization and Association Process (SAP) :
  the overall EU policy framework for the Western Balkans.
  Main SAP instruments:
     Stabilization and Association Agreements (SAA)

     trade measures

     financial assistance (CARDS program)

     Regional cooperation

 Close monitoring:
  annual Progress reports + European Partnerships.

EU- Western Balkan relations (May 2006)

               Status of negotiations
Albania        SAA agreement signed in February 2006
Bosnia and     Ongoing negotiations for an SAA
Kosovo under   Future status negotiated under United Nations
UNSCR 1244
Montenegro     New mandate for an SAA has been adapted after
Serbia         SAA negotiations frozen until full cooperation
               with ICTY. SAA mandate has been adapted after
               split with Montenegro

Financial Assistance for Western Balkan
Countries: from CARDS to IPA
 CARDS 2005 -2006

    Provides financial assistance to potential candidate

    Priority sectors for 2005-2006:
         • Administrative capacity building

         • democratic stabilisation

         • justice and home affairs

         • economic and social development

         • environment and natural resources

 IPA from 2007 onwards:
  All candidates and potential candidate countries will be eligible to the
  new financial instrument (IPA)

Useful Internet Addresses

 Financial Pre-Accession Assistance:

 Documents

 Delegation of the European Commission to Japan