XMM-Newton Surveys by malj

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 44

									        XMM-Newton Surveys


                   Xavier Barcons




CAHA, 5 Feb 2005     XMM-Newton Surveys
               Acknowledgements
• The XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC), especially
  Mike Watson, Christian Motch, Francisco Carrera, Axel
  Schwope and Mat Page among others
• The Lockman Hole team, especially Günther Hasinger and
  Andy Fabian
• The X-ray Astronomy group at my Institute (IFCA), the only
  (and best) one in Spain
• The Spanish National Space Programme (project ESP2003-
  00812)
• The whole XMM-Newton project for support and making
  things happen, including SOC, SSC, instrument teams, Users
  Group and more.

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005       XMM-Newton Surveys
                   Index
• What do X-rays tell us about the Universe?
• The XMM-Newton X-ray space observatory
• The XMM-Newton serendipitous X-ray
  survey
• The XMM catalogue
• Extragalactic Surveys
• Surveying the Galactic Plane
• The future of XMM-Newton surveys
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
        Physical processes that
            produce X-rays
• Plasmas (ionised gases) at temperatures of
  millions of degrees (bremsstrahlung and line
  emission)
• Very energetic electrons in strong magnetic fields
  (synchrotron radiation)
• Inverse Compton scattering on high energy
  electrons.
• Matter falling towards compact objects or black
  holes (accretion)
• Electron-positron pair cascades
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005    XMM-Newton Surveys
                                                      OVIII
                          N132D SNR

                                            Fe line



                   OVII




CAHA, 5 Feb 2005           XMM-Newton Surveys
                   SNRs and Pulsars
                                Pulsar
   The Crab nebula




CAHA, 5 Feb 2005       XMM-Newton Surveys   Chandra
   The magnetic field of isolated
          neutron stars
First unambiguous                                 Cyclotron lines
  detection of cyclotron
  absorption lines in the
  X-ray spectrum of an
  isolated neutron star:
  direct measurement of
  the magnetic field
  strength.
     Bignami, Caraveo,                         1E1207.4–5209
     De Luca & Mereghetti 2003
B~8 x 1010 Gauss
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005          XMM-Newton Surveys
          The Galactic centre in
                 X-rays




CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
             Clusters of galaxies
          Coma                          Sérsic 159-03




CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
        The X-ray view of Active
            Galactic Nuclei




                   C. Done, Durham U


             (Chris Done, Univ of Durham)
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005       XMM-Newton Surveys
       The X-ray spectrum of AGN

Radiation from the accretion disk,
reprocessed by a corona of hot
electrons
Refection (Fe line and Compton
recoil)
Absorption by surrounding material
Soft excess (direct radiation from
the accretion disk)


     CAHA, 5 Feb 2005             XMM-Newton Surveys
    The importance of absorption in AGN:
        the Cosmic X-ray background
•   The spectral energy
    distribution peaks at ~30 keV
•   Unified model: The right
    mixture of absorbed and
    unabsorbed AGN produces the
    spectrum of the Cosmic X-ray
    background
•   Predictions:
     – The majority of X-rays in
        the Universe are produced               Gilli et al 2000
        in absorbed objects
     – Many absorbed quasars
        should be found


CAHA, 5 Feb 2005           XMM-Newton Surveys
  The new X-ray observatories




                           XMM-Newton (ESA)
Chandra (NASA)             December 1999
July 1999

 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
How does an X-ray telescope
          work?




CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
                       XMM-Newton
•   Spatially resolved (15“) low-
    resolution spectroscopy
    (E/E~20-50)
•   Intermediate resolution
    dispersive spectrometry (0.03-
    0.06 Ang, E/E~200-500)


• EPIC: (3) CCD spectroscopic
  imaging cameras 0.1-12 keV
• (2) Reflection Grating
  Spectrometers (RGS): 0.05-
  3 keV
• (1) Optical monitor (OM):
  Optical/UV imaging and grism
  spectroscopy.


    CAHA, 5 Feb 2005           XMM-Newton Surveys
       A new window: Hard X-ray
               energies
  Sensitivity to hard X-ray
  energies (up to 12 keV                    XMM/Chandra
    with XMM-Newton)                       Rosat


                                           log NH=




                                            Absorbed sources can be seen!



CAHA, 5 Feb 2005              XMM-Newton Surveys
           The XMM-Newton
        serendipitous sky survey
• Every new XMM-
  Newton pointing (with
  EPIC in full window
  mode) discovers ~30-
  150 serendipitous X-
  ray sources.
• About 30,000 new X-
  ray sources/year, with
  positional and X-ray
  spectral information
  CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
 The XMM-Newton catalogue
• Compiled by the SSC
• All EPIC detected sources, flags and
  large amount of information
• Accessible through XSA, LUX, CDS
• 1XMM released April 2003 (30,000
  sources)
• 2XMM released 2005 (100,000-
  150,000 sources)
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
        1XMM: Sky distribution




CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
      1XMM: The X-ray population
 B1=0.2-0.5 keV
 B2=0.5-2.0 keV
 B3=2.0-4.5 keV
 B4=4.5-7.5 keV
 B5=7.5-12 keV



HR1=(B2-B1)/(B2+B1)

HR2=(B3-B2)/(B3+B2)

HR3=(B4-B3)/(B4+B3)




     CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
                      1XMM



                                           Hard sources




Soft sources




   CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
      The Survey Science Centre
       identification programme
• Core programme (~1000 sources/sample):
   – High b faint sample (10-15 erg cm-2 s-1)
   – High b medium sample (10-14 erg cm-2 s-1)
   – High b bright sample (10-13 erg cm-2 s-1)
   – Galactic Plane Sample
• Imaging programme (u,g’,r’,i’,Z,H)
• Statistical identifications based on X-
  ray properties & imaging programme.
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
Sy 2
z=0.238



                                            NGC 4291
                                            z=0.0058




  QSO                                                  QSO
  z=0.565                                              z=2.649




                                                   Sy 1
     dMe Star                                      z=0.330
    CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
   The XMM-Newton Medium
      Sensitivity Survey




CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
       The XMM-Newton Medium
       Sensitivity Survey (XMS)
                      Sources              Number         %
                      BLAGN                    150        75
• 25 XMM fields
• XID:0.5-4.5         NELGs                     23        12
  keV                 ALG&Clus                   6         3
• SXID>210-14cgs     Stars                     20        10
• Ω=3.5 deg2          BLLac                      1         0
• 298 sources         TOTAL                    200       100
• 200 identified
  (67%)                                    Barcons et al 2002
                                           Carrera et al 2005
   CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
       Identification strategy

• Deep (~23mag) optical/NIR imaging of full
  EPIC field of view (La Palma, ESO)
• Search for candidate counterparts
• Optical spectroscopy (fibre+long slit)
     – AXIS (An XMM-Newton International Survey)
       international programme at La Palma (April
       2000- April 2002)
     – Calar Alto, 3.5m telescope with MOSCA (2003-
       2005)
http://www.ifca.unican.es/~xray/AXIS
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005     XMM-Newton Surveys
              XMS spectroscopic
               identifications
      Search for candidate counterparts
      i’-band sources within either:
             5 (statistical) or
             5 arcsec


95% of the X-ray sources have a potential optical candidate
counterpart
In > 75% of these cases, the candidate counterpart is unique


CAHA, 5 Feb 2005          XMM-Newton Surveys
                             XMS: Luminosity vs. redshift
                             46


                             45
log L (0.5-4.5 keV, erg/s)




                             44


                             43
                                                  BLAGN noXabs
                                                  BLAGN Xabs
                             42                   NELG noXabs
                                                  NELG Xabs

                             41         NGC4291   Gal noXabs
                                                  Gal Xabs

                             40
                                  0.0       0.5     1.0      1.5        2.0    2.5   3.0   3.5
                                                                    z

                             CAHA, 5 Feb 2005             XMM-Newton Surveys
                               XMS: Optical colours
  • 228 sources have all both g.r, r-i
    colours: 60 UnID, 168 ID
      2.5
                                 QSOs     Early-type galaxies
        2

                                                                          BLAGN noXabs
      1.5                                                                         Xabs
                                                                          BLAGN noXabs
                                                                          NELG noXabs
                                                                          BLAGN Xabs
        1                                                                        Xabs
                                                                          NELG noXabs
r-i




                                                                          Gal noXabs
                                                                          NELG Xabs
      0.5                                                                     Xabs
                                                                          Gal noXabs
                                                                          Stars
                                                                          Gal Xabs
        0                                                                 UnID
                                                                          Stars noXabs
                                                                          UnID Xabs
                                NGC4291
      -0.5


       -1
             -1         -0.5         0       0.5         1      1.5   2
                                             g-r
             CAHA, 5 Feb 2005             XMM-Newton Surveys
                            XMS: fXID/fopt vs. HR2

               3

               2

               1

               0
log(fX/fopt)




               -1
                                                   BLAGN noXabs
                                    Star/AGN       BLAGN Xabs
                                                   BLAGN Xabs
                                   separation
               -2                                  NELG noXabs
                                                   NELG noXabs
                                                   NELG Xabs
               -3                                  Gal noXabs
                                                   NELG Xabs
                                NGC4291            Gal Xabs
                                                   Gal noXabs
                                                   Stars
               -4                                  Gal Xabs
                                                   UnID noXabs
                                                   Stars Xabs
                                                   UnID
               -5
                    -1          -0.8       -0.6       -0.4            -0.2   0   0.2   0.4
                                                                HR2

                     CAHA, 5 Feb 2005             XMM-Newton Surveys
    “Empty” sources and EROs



                                      Most of these sources are
                                      Extremely Red Objects
                                           (EROs) with
                                               R-K>5


   Fiore et al 2003

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005      XMM-Newton Surveys
     Extremely Red Objects and
          obscured AGNs




                                        Brusa, Comastri
                                        et al (2004)
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
                                    Absorption in
                                    AGN




Rotating supermassive
Black Holes

                           Distant galaxy
                           cluster (z=1.2)




The deepest XMM-Newton observation in the
  CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Hole
                   LockmanSurveys
                         Lockman Hole
                      800 ks XMM-Newton observation
Average rest-frame spectra show relativistic Fe-lines
  type-1 AGN                                        type-2 AGN
  EW~500eV                                          EW~400eV




                                                        Streblyanskaya et al., 2004

Average line profile calls for BH rotation
   CAHA, 5 Feb 2005            XMM-Newton Surveys
Determination of Fe abundance and
 redshift in a very distant cluster
                                                    Abundance independent of z




                    Best X-ray spectrum of
                              a z>1 cluster
                                 kT~5 keV
                XMM
                800 ks



                                                   Elements formed at z>1.3!


                                                     Hashimoto et al 2004
 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005             XMM-Newton Surveys
        Photoelectric absorption
Medium Survey (XMS)                               Deep Survey (Lockman Hole)
                                                  Slim(0.5-4.5 keV)~10-14 erg cm-2 s-1
Slim(0.5-4.5   keV)~10-14   erg   cm-2   s-1
                                                  •15% (<30% at 3) of type 1 AGN
•10% of type 1 AGN are absorbed
                                                  are absorbed (with NH<1022 cm-2)
(with NH<=1022 cm-2)
                                                  •80% (>50% at 3) of type 2 AGN
•40% of type 2 AGN are absorbed
                                                  are absorbed. But 5/28 are unabsorbed


                                                                    Mateos et al (2005)




                Mateos et al (2004)

  CAHA, 5 Feb 2005                       XMM-Newton Surveys
      Type 1 AGN (moderately)
         absorbed in X-rays
                                                        XMMU J061515.2+710204
S 0.5-4.5 keV= 7.2 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1
                                                                    XMM
    z=0.872           NH   =2.81021 cm-2
           L 2-10=3.21044 erg s-1


                            WHT/ISIS

                 Broad-Line AGN




   CAHA, 5 Feb 2005                XMM-Newton Surveys
      A type 1.9 AGN with no absorption
H1320+551, z=0.0653                             XMM-Newton:
Seyfert 1.8/1.9                                 Disk + reprocessing
H/H>27                                        Absorption<1020 cm-2
Expected absorption: >1022 cm-2




                                                Barcons, Carrera & Ceballos 2003
 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005          XMM-Newton Surveys
       X-ray/optical mismatches: variability?
   Simultaneous XMM-Newton and 3.5m/CAHA spectroscopy of
   Mkn 993; z=0.0155 (Changing type Seyfert)

   3.5m/TWIN
                                                           XMM


                      Optical: Seyfert 1.8
                      Balmer decrement=9
                      (NH~ 5 1021 cm-2)


                      X-ray: weak absorption
                      (NH~ 7 1020 cm-2)


                       Optical spectral type
                         intrinsic to BLR,
                       not due to absorption

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005         XMM-Newton Surveys
       More type 1.8-2 AGN with no X-ray
                   absorption
                       ESO 602-G031                                 UGC 12138
                            (Sy 1.8)                                  (Sy 1.8)



   soft component                              soft component




z=0.0337                                  z=0.0250
                                                  MRK 702
                                                   (Sy 1.9)
                                                                No or very
                                                                low intrinsic
                         soft component
                                                                absorption !!!
   CAHA, 5 Feb 2005              XMM-Newton Surveys             Lehmann et al 04
                      z=0.0356
Type 2 AGN without absorption
 (Lockman Hole deep survey)
                                        Type 2 AGN
                                        (narrow lines only)

                                        z=0.711
                                        =1.8
                                        NH=0




                                        Mateos et al 2005
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005   XMM-Newton Surveys
   Type-2 Radio-Quiet QSOs
                                 z=2.978 (Ly, CIV, CIII])
                   XMM           X-ray flux (2-10 keV) = 8 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1
                                 Intrinsic X-ray luminosity = 4 1044 erg s-1



                                                           AAT/2dF
                                                           (Mat Page)



  NH~5 1022 cm-2




CAHA, 5 Feb 2005         XMM-Newton Surveys
   Optically dull, X-ray luminous
              galaxies
                        z=0.044
                      LX=1042 erg/s

                                                TNG

                   Severgnini et al (2003)

XMM

                        =1.7
                     NH=2 1023 cm-2
                                                      Subaru


CAHA, 5 Feb 2005           XMM-Newton Surveys
     Optically dull, X-ray luminous
         galaxies (“Fiore 3”)
                    R=18, z=0.15
                   Early type galaxy

                   Flux (2-10 keV)=
                   3 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1




                                           Comastri et al 2002
CAHA, 5 Feb 2005      XMM-Newton Surveys

								
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