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Annual Radiation Safety & DOT Training General Rules for the Safe Use of Radioactive Materials 1. Always wear lab coats or other protective clothing in areas where radioactive materials are used or stored. 2. Always wear disposable waterproof gloves when handling radioactive materials or items that could be contaminated with radioactive materials 3. Always use syringe & vial shields when preparing, handling, & dispensing radioactive materials. 4. Monitor hands, clothing & shoes for radioactive contamination after each use, or before leaving the area with unsealed radioactive materials 5. DO NOT eat, drink, smoke, or apply cosmetics in any area where radioactive materials are used or stored 6. DO NOT store food, drink or personal effects where radioactive materials are used or stored. 7. Always transport radioactive material in appropriately shielded containers 8. Dispose of waste only in specially designed and shielded containers 9. Never pipette by mouth. 8. Always wear personnel monitoring devices in areas where radioactive materials are used or stored. Whole body badges should be worn at chest level. Rings should be worn on the dominant hand with the detector facing the palm. 9. Always clearly identify and label the external surface of containers that contain radioactive or biohazardous material. The label must include the name of the compound, radionuclide, date, activity & the “radioactive material” legend. If the material is also biohazardous, the “biohazard legend” must also appear. 10. Every vial, syringe, or capsule of photon-emitting radioactive drug will be assayed before distribution for use. 11. Alpha- or Beta-emitting radioactive drugs will be measured (either by direct measurement or a combination of measurements and calculations) before distribution for use in humans. 12. Never pipette by mouth. 13. Survey the areas where radioactive material is used and stored on a daily basis. Wipe test all areas where radioactive material is used and stored at least weekly. 14. Each elution of Tc-99m from a Mo-99/Tc-99m will be tested for Mo-99 concentration before it arrives in your department. (at the pharmacy) 15. Tc-99m will not be used if the Tc-99m contains more than 0.15 uCi of Mo-99 per millicurie Tc-99m. 10 CFR parts 19 & 20 What you need to know Posting Requirements • Areas where RAM is used or stored must be posted with a “Caution Radioactive Materials” and “Caution Radiation Area” sign • NRC form 3 “Notice to Employees” and/or State specific “Notice to Employees” must be conspicuously posted. • The Radioactive Materials licenses or a notice stating where the radioactive materials licenses are located. • Any violations found during an inspection • Any emergency procedures. Caution Radiation Area Radioactive Materials NRC Form 3 Training All radiation workers must receive radiation safety training before assuming job duties and receive annual radiation safety refresher training DOT training is every 3 years That’s why you are reading this! Labeling Requirements All RAM containers or items contaminated with RAM must be labeled with a “Caution Radioactive Materials” label & information necessary for staff to take precautions. (nuclide, activity, etc.) Radiopharmaceutical Syringes & Vials must be conspicuously labeled to identify the radioactive drug. Therefore the opposite is true. Anything that does not contain radioactive materials cannot be labeled with a Radioactive Materials Label That is why we have to remove, destroy, or mark out any radioactive markings on used pigs and shipping boxes. Regulations & Licenses This pharmacy operates under several agencies controls. (The USNRC, NJDEP, USDOT, NJBOP) There are rules & regulations that we all must follow. The pharmacy has radioactive materials licenses. We filed an application to regulatory agencies and have made a commitment to follow certain procedures. The licenses and regulations as well as specific commitments are kept in the Radiation Safety Officer’s office ALARA PRINCIPLE ALARA stands for As Low As Reasonably Achievable As radiation workers we MUST be committed to continually look for ways to reduce exposure to Radiation. It is every employees responsibility to follow all the rules and regulations. When we stick to the rules, we reduce exposure to ourselves, co-workers and our families. It is every employee’s right and responsibility to report any unsafe condition or any condition which may lead to or cause a violation of regulations or unnecessary exposure to radiation without fear of penalty. Basic Principles of Radiation Safety Time Distance Shielding Time The amount of exposure an individual accumulates is directly proportional to the time of exposure. • Keep handling time to a minimum • Don’t hold conversations in a high background area. • Work as quickly & efficiently as possible Distance Exposure falls off rapidly with distance from the source. The relationship between distance & exposure follows the inverse square law (the intensity of the radiation exposure decreases in proportion to the inverse of the distance squared). If a surface reading of a source is 12,000 mR/Hr the reading of that same source at 50 cm would be reduced to only about 5mR/Hr. Shielding Shielding will reduce exposure to radiation by keeping the Gamma & Beta rays inside a container. The materials normally used for shielding are Lead (Pb) and Tungsten (W). Examples of Time • Don’t linger in the restricted area • Don’t have conversations in the Iodine room because it’s private • Work as quickly as possible Examples of Distance • Use tongs to transfer radioactive sources • Don’t sit on the waste barrels • Try to keep the source of radiation away from your body Examples of Shielding • Store all radioactive sources in lead (Pb) or tungsten (W) containers. • Deposit any “hot” waste or gloves in a shielded container. • Use syringe and vial shield • Always draw doses behind a lead glass “L” block and use syringe shield • If you are unable to completely clean a spill, cover the source or spill with a sheet of Lead. Exposure vs. Contamination Exposure is when you are near a substance or thing. We measure exposure to radiation with survey meters and dosimeters Contamination is when you get that substance on your clothes or skin. We measure contamination with wipe tests (well counters or wipe counters) Contamination Control • A buttoned lab coat must be worn while in the restricted area. • Disposable gloves must be worn at all times when handling radioactive or potentially radioactive materials. • Gloves should be changed frequently. • The dose preparation, storage and wrapping areas should be covered with absorbent paper. These items should be assumed to be contaminated unless they have been tested and found to be free of contamination. Personnel Monitoring • Hands and shoes must be surveyed EVERY TIME YOU LEAVE THE RESTRICTED AREA. • At the end of the work day hands, shoes & clothing must be surveyed & wipe tested before leaving for the day. Dosimeters (Badges & Rings) Two types of dosimeters are used to measure how much radiation exposure we receive. • Whole Body Badge • Extremity / Ring Badge These dosimeters must be worn at all times during the working day. When not in use the dosimeters should be stored in the designated low background area with the control badges How to wear Dosimeters Whole Body (badge) Extremity (ring) • Worn at the Chest or • Worn on dominant Collar level hand where the • Legal limit for whole greatest exposure to body exposure is radiation occurs 5000mrem/year • The ring must be worn facing the palm. • Legal exposure limit is 50000 mrem/year. Do’s and Don’ts • Never bring your rings or badges home • Never store you badges in a vehicle • Do not get the body badges wet • Try not to lose your if you do lose a badge notify the RSO as soon as possible and wear a spare badge. • Never wear another person’s badge. Exposure Reports • You will be asked to review and initial your exposure reports as necessary. • Your exposure will be reviewed with you at least on an annual basis. • Your RSO reviews all exposure reports and investigated all overexposures. Visitors • Only authorized visitors are allowed into the restricted area • Visitors must sign in on the visitor’s log if they go into the restricted area • Visitors must be assigned a pocket dosimeter and a lab coat if they go into the restricted area • Visitors MUST BE ESCORTED at all times. • Visitors must be at least 18 years old to enter the restricted area. Potential Hazardous Effects of Radiation Exposure At the relatively low levels of occupational radiation exposure in the US, it is difficult to demonstrate a relationship between exposure & effect. High dose effects can easily be seen and observed. Therefore, estimates of risk at low doses must be derived from high dose data. Low Dose Effects The three possible effects of concern from Low Doses of radiation are: • Carcinogenic • Genetic • In Utero Risks of Effects Carcinogenic Genetic Normal Incidence = 20% Normal Incidence = 11% Increase if exposed to 2000 mrem Increase if exposed to 2000 mrem over an adult life span = over a lifetime = + 0.01% +0.04% No new type mutations In-Utero Effects •1000 mrad during pre-implantation period gives a 5/1000 risk of death with Normal survivors. •>10,000 mrad at 0-3 month of gestation stands a risk of developmental abnormalities •>100,000 mrad at 0-3 month of gestation has a 43% chance of mental retardation. • No developmental effects have been observed at doses at or below the 5000mrem occupational dose limit. Pregnancy & Radiation Exposure The maximum permissible dose to the fetus is 0.5 rem (500mrem) during the entire tern of pregnancy. Make sure to review the U.S.N.R.C. Regulatory Guide 8.13 (Instruction Concerning Prenatal Radiation Exposure) if you haven’t already or if you are unsure of it’s contents. Pregnant Workers If you are pregnant, it is your choice to declare your pregnancy. If you declare your pregnancy, the lower dose limit will apply to you. This declaration must be made in writing. This may mean that you may not be able to perform some of your normal job functions. Make sure to contact the RSO if you are pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant. Security of Radioactive Material • DOORS MUST BE LOCKED when unattended. • Entrance to the restricted area must be secure and limited to employees and authorized visitors • Visitors MUST BE ESCORTED in the restricted area at all times. Vehicle Security When Radioactive Materials are present, vehicles must be locked and windows up at all times if unattended. If you forget something after you have loaded your vehicle, or if you leave the vehicle for any reason, you must turn the car off and lock it before walking away from the vehicle. This includes making deliveries and sitting in the pharmacy parking lot. Vehicle Security (cont) • You may not leave the vehicle keys with anyone. (i.e. parking attendants or security guards) • You must legally park your vehicle. If a vehicle gets towed with radioactive materials inside, it is considered “loss of control of radioactive material” and we can be fined. Pharmacy Security • The doors to the pharmacy MUST BE CLOSED AND LOCKED at all times. • If you are loading your vehicle, the door may be left open while you are standing there. • If for any reason you must leave the area, (like parking or retrieving a vehicle) the doors to the pharmacy MUST BE CLOSED AND LOCKED BEFORE YOU WALK AWAY. Survey Meters Before using a survey meter you must check three things: • The calibration sticker - to make sure the calibration date is within 1 year and to see what the check source is supposed to read. • The Battery Check • The check source reading. If ANY of the three checks fail STOP!!! DO NOT USE THE METER!!! If only the battery check failed, try changing the batteries. Using the Survey Meter • Put the meter on the most sensitive setting (X.1) • The F/S switch should be on “F” (fast) position • Hold the face of the probe parallel to the surface being scanned & as close to the surface as possible without touching it (to avoid contamination) • Move to probe slowly back and forth over the area • Compare readings to applicable action levels. Wipe Tests for Contamination Wipe tests are used to determine the amount of removable contamination, but will likely not detect all the contamination that is present. • Put on Gloves • Applying moderate pressure drag a piece of filter paper or swab across the area being tested. • Count a background sample along with the test sample in the well counter • Compare net counts (sample-bkg) to action levels. Frequency of Wipes Tests & Surveys Surveys Wipe Tests Restricted area must have Restricted areas must be at least 1 documented wipe tested at least survey for each day that once/week & when RAM is handled, stored contamination is or dispensed. suspected Unrestricted area must be Unrestricted areas must be surveyed at least weekly. wipe tested at least once/month & when contamination is suspected Dose Calibrators Daily Annually • Constancy / Accuracy • Accuracy • Channel Check Quarterly Installation & Post Repair • Linearity • Geometry Testing Frequency Sources • Inventory = Quarterly • Leak Test = Semi-annually Well Counters / Scalers • Efficiency = Quarterly • Chi Square = Quarterly Spill Response • If you suspect a spill, Do Not Move. Call for Help. If you move you take a chance of spreading the contamination • Notify all persons in the area & limit access to the area. • Prevent the spread of contamination by covering the spill with plastic backed absorbent paper • Use a survey meter to assess spill • Wipe test the area for removable contamination. • Call the RSO or Pharmacist in charge. • Decontaminate &/or Shield area. Decontamination • All staff in the spill area should wear booties & 2 pair of gloves • Using paper towels and cleaners, begin at the edge of the spill and work towards the center. • Survey/wipe test the area to evaluate the effectiveness of the decontamination • Continue cleaning until no more contamination can be removed. • If the area still surveys hot. Shield with lead. Documentation As with anything we do, prepare a detailed report of what actions taken to clean up the spill. Also help the RSO investigate the cause of the spill and ways to prevent it from occurring in the future. Also document any corrective actions taken Transporting Radioactive Material • Always carry radioactive material in a closed shielded container to prevent spills. • Use a cart to transport multiple doses. • Always pack delivery cases according to tested D.O.T. configurations Hazardous Materials Regulations Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) are a subsection of the DOT regulations. The primary goal of the HMR is the safety of the public and individuals whose jobs include the handling and transportation of hazmat. What is HAZMAT The D.O.T. defines hazmat as: Any substance or material that is capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce. This includes radioactive materials and blood products delivered to and from Nuclear Medicine departments. What is Needed to Transport HAZMAT • Package • Labeling • Shipping papers • Vehicles • Training • Communication Package Testing Every container used to transport hazardous material has been tested in a certain package configuration. Packages must withstand normal transport wear and tear without leaking, spilling, or breaking open. This is to make sure that the radioactive material in the pigs remains safe and secure during transport. The results of these tests and certification of packing configuration are kept on file. What needs to be considered when sending a package • Hazard Class / UN Number • Package type • Package testing • Level of Radioactive Exposure • Amount of Radioactivity in the package LABELING The D.O.T. requires that all hazardous materials being shipped or transported be placed in packages displaying correct hazard labels The Hazard Class used to identify packages containing radioactive material is Hazard Class 7 There are 4 types of labels used for radioactive materials Radioactive White I Radioactive Yellow II Radioactive Yellow III Limited Quantity These labels indicate the RADIATION EXPOSURE level coming from the surface of the package To Properly Label a DOT Package Measure the radiation levels on the outside of each package with a survey meter. Remember to: • Take readings in a low background area. • Move SLOWLY over all 6 sides of the package • Use the reading from the HOTTEST (most radioactive) side of the package to determine which DOT labels to use. The Transportation Index of a package is: The exposure level of the Hottest side of the package at a distance of one meter. White I • Surface Reading of <0.5 mR/hr • And a Transportation Index of 0 Yellow II Radiation Level at the surface is equal to or greater than 0.5 mR/Hr and less than 50 mR/Hr and/or Transportation Index = 0.1-1.0 Yellow III Package surface reading equal to or greater than 50 mR/Hr but less than 200 mR/Hr and/or Transportation Index between 1.0 and 10 If you need to placard a package, each package must have: A shipping paper A security seal Shipper’s Name & Address Consignee’s Name & Address Two (2) Identical D.O.T. Labels on the 2 largest sides of the box. The information on the shipping paper MUST match the information on the DOT labels Return Packages Only pick up packages that are closed AND have flipped DOT cards. We are not permitted to pick up packages that are open, are closed without both cards flipped, are closed with no DOT card Shipping Papers Shipping papers, also known as manifests, are used to identify placarded HAZMAT in case of a transportation emergency They identify the amount of Radioactive Material contained in a package as well as a certification that all required package packing and testing regulations have been performed Before Leaving the Pharmacy • Make sure the shipping paper is completely filled out. • Make sure the information on the shipping papers match the delivery cases for your run. Remember, you are the person responsible for what is in your vehicle if you get stopped or inspected. How to Handle Shipping Papers 1. When placarded packages are being delivered, shipping papers must be kept on the outside of the clipboard on the passenger seat. 2. After making the delivery place the shipping paper inside the clipboard. Each clipboard has notification that shipping papers inside are delivered not in vehicle. This is an important step. In case of an accident the police/emergency personnel will assume that any shipping paper in the outside of the clipboard (whether loose or attached) goes with a delivery case in the vehicle. If that delivery case is not in the vehicle, they will continue to search for that can, when in fact, it has already been delivered. 3. At the pharmacy, place the returned shipping papers in the designated box BOX BREAKDOWN Before opening or removing anything from the delivery case, perform a survey and wipe test. If the survey exposure rate is over 0.5 mR/Hr or if the wipe test is over 2X background, STOP and inform the RSO or Pharmacist. Box breakdown (cont) • Once the case passes the survey and wipe test, the placards and magnets may be removed. • Open the delivery case and remove the pigs. • Visually inspect the inside of the case for any papers, vials or any other objects. Remove anything that doesn’t belong • Survey the inside of the case. If the exposure reading is over background place the case in the designated area until the exposure reading is at background levels. • Now survey the foam inserts from the can. If the exposure reading is over background, place the foam in the designated area. Pig Breakdown After removing the pigs from the can, sort by color. The white pigs contain 99mTc. The Blue pigs contain I-131, and the Red pigs contain pretty much everything else (Tl-201, Ga-67, I-123, Sm-153) Pig Color Key The waste from these pigs must be placed in different areas or barrels. • The Blue pigs are placed in the I-131 fume hood • The contents of the White pigs go into the Left hand barrel(s) • The contents of the Red pigs go into the right hand barrel. Multidose Pigs • You must read the label on the outside of the multidose pig to determine which barrel to put the waste. • If you see anything unusual STOP and ask the RSO or Pharmacist what to do. After you have dumped the contents of the pigs you must now Survey them with a survey meter. Any hot pig must be placed in the designated area for decay. White pigs: If the White pigs are “cold” they must be placed in the dishwasher racks. Pigs go in with the opening up. Lids go in with the opening Down Red Pigs: All red pigs must be placed into a designated bin so that they can be internally wipe tested later. Blue Pigs: All blue pigs and their contents MUST be placed in the I-131 Hood Multi Dose Pigs: If multi-dose pigs are cold, they are placed back into service. THE END Aloha!
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