Annual Radiation Safety _ DOT Training

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					Annual Radiation Safety &
     DOT Training
  General Rules for the Safe Use of
       Radioactive Materials
1. Always wear lab coats or other protective clothing in areas where radioactive
    materials are used or stored.
2. Always wear disposable waterproof gloves when handling radioactive
    materials or items that could be contaminated with radioactive materials
3. Always use syringe & vial shields when preparing, handling, & dispensing
    radioactive materials.
4. Monitor hands, clothing & shoes for radioactive contamination after each
    use, or before leaving the area with unsealed radioactive materials
5. DO NOT eat, drink, smoke, or apply cosmetics in any area where radioactive
    materials are used or stored
6. DO NOT store food, drink or personal effects
   where radioactive materials are used or stored.
7. Always transport radioactive material in appropriately shielded
8. Dispose of waste only in specially designed and shielded containers
9. Never pipette by mouth.
8. Always wear personnel monitoring devices in areas where radioactive materials
  are used or stored. Whole body badges should be worn at chest level. Rings
  should be worn on the dominant hand with the detector facing the palm.
9. Always clearly identify and label the external surface of containers that contain
   radioactive or biohazardous material. The label must include the name of the
   compound, radionuclide, date, activity & the “radioactive material” legend.
   If the material is also biohazardous, the “biohazard legend” must also appear.
10. Every vial, syringe, or capsule of photon-emitting radioactive drug will be
     assayed before distribution for use.
11. Alpha- or Beta-emitting radioactive drugs will be measured (either by direct
     measurement or a combination of measurements and calculations) before
     distribution for use in humans.
12. Never pipette by mouth.
13. Survey the areas where radioactive material is used and stored on a daily
     basis. Wipe test all areas where radioactive material is used and stored
     at least weekly.
14. Each elution of Tc-99m from a Mo-99/Tc-99m will be tested for Mo-99
     concentration before it arrives in your department. (at the pharmacy)
15. Tc-99m will not be used if the Tc-99m contains more than 0.15 uCi of
     Mo-99 per millicurie Tc-99m.
         10 CFR parts 19 & 20
         What you need to know
Posting Requirements
• Areas where RAM is used or stored must be posted
  with a “Caution Radioactive Materials” and “Caution
  Radiation Area” sign
• NRC form 3 “Notice to Employees” and/or State
  specific “Notice to Employees” must be
  conspicuously posted.
• The Radioactive Materials licenses or a notice
  stating where the radioactive materials licenses are
• Any violations found during an inspection
• Any emergency procedures.
Caution Radiation Area
 Radioactive Materials
NRC Form 3
All radiation workers must receive radiation
 safety training before assuming job duties
      and receive annual radiation safety
               refresher training
        DOT training is every 3 years

     That’s why you are reading this!
     Labeling Requirements
 All RAM containers or items contaminated
       with RAM must be labeled with a
    “Caution Radioactive Materials” label
  & information necessary for staff to take
      precautions. (nuclide, activity, etc.)
Radiopharmaceutical Syringes & Vials must
    be conspicuously labeled to identify the
               radioactive drug.
      Therefore the opposite is true.

Anything that does not contain radioactive
   materials cannot be labeled with a
       Radioactive Materials Label

That is why we have to remove, destroy, or
mark out any radioactive markings on used
         pigs and shipping boxes.
      Regulations & Licenses
    This pharmacy operates under several
                 agencies controls.
 There are rules & regulations that we all must
      follow. The pharmacy has radioactive
  materials licenses. We filed an application to
      regulatory agencies and have made a
    commitment to follow certain procedures.
The licenses and regulations as well as specific
           commitments are kept in the
         Radiation Safety Officer’s office
ALARA stands for
       As radiation workers we MUST be
    committed to continually look for ways to
          reduce exposure to Radiation.
It is every employees responsibility to follow
           all the rules and regulations.
    When we stick to the rules, we reduce
  exposure to ourselves, co-workers and our
  It is every employee’s right and
responsibility to report any unsafe
 condition or any condition which
   lead to or cause a violation of
     regulations or unnecessary
to radiation without fear of penalty.
Basic Principles of Radiation Safety



   The amount of exposure an individual
  accumulates is directly proportional to the
            time of exposure.

• Keep handling time to a minimum
• Don’t hold conversations in a high
  background area.
• Work as quickly & efficiently as possible
Exposure falls off rapidly with distance from
   the source. The relationship between
  distance & exposure follows the inverse
  square law (the intensity of the radiation
  exposure decreases in proportion to the
      inverse of the distance squared).

 If a surface reading of a source is 12,000
  mR/Hr the reading of that same source at
    50 cm would be reduced to only about

 Shielding will reduce exposure to radiation
  by keeping the Gamma & Beta rays inside
                  a container.

The materials normally used for shielding
 are Lead (Pb) and Tungsten (W).
         Examples of Time

• Don’t linger in the restricted area
• Don’t have conversations in the
  Iodine room because it’s private
• Work as quickly as possible
      Examples of Distance
• Use tongs to transfer radioactive
• Don’t sit on the waste barrels
• Try to keep the source of radiation
  away from your body
       Examples of Shielding
• Store all radioactive sources in lead (Pb) or
  tungsten (W) containers.
• Deposit any “hot” waste or gloves in a shielded
• Use syringe and vial shield
• Always draw doses behind a lead glass “L” block
  and use syringe shield
• If you are unable to completely clean a spill,
  cover the source or spill with a sheet of Lead.
  Exposure vs. Contamination
Exposure is when you are near a substance
                 or thing.
  We measure exposure to radiation with
      survey meters and dosimeters

  Contamination is when you get that
    substance on your clothes or skin.
We measure contamination with wipe tests
     (well counters or wipe counters)
        Contamination Control
• A buttoned lab coat must be worn while in the
  restricted area.
• Disposable gloves must be worn at all times when
  handling radioactive or potentially radioactive
• Gloves should be changed frequently.
• The dose preparation, storage and wrapping areas
  should be covered with absorbent paper.
 These items should be assumed to be contaminated
   unless they have been tested and found to be free
                    of contamination.
       Personnel Monitoring
• Hands and shoes must be surveyed

• At the end of the work day hands, shoes
  & clothing must be surveyed & wipe tested
  before leaving for the day.
  Dosimeters (Badges & Rings)
Two types of dosimeters are used to measure how
  much radiation exposure we receive.
• Whole Body Badge
• Extremity / Ring Badge
These dosimeters must be worn at all times during
  the working day.
When not in use the dosimeters should be stored
  in the designated low background area with the
  control badges
      How to wear Dosimeters
 Whole Body (badge)           Extremity (ring)

• Worn at the Chest or    • Worn on dominant
  Collar level              hand where the
• Legal limit for whole     greatest exposure to
  body exposure is          radiation occurs
  5000mrem/year           • The ring must be
                            worn facing the palm.
                          • Legal exposure limit
                            is 50000 mrem/year.
           Do’s and Don’ts
• Never bring your rings or badges home
• Never store you badges in a vehicle
• Do not get the body badges wet
• Try not to lose your if you do lose a badge
  notify the RSO as soon as possible and
  wear a spare badge.
• Never wear another person’s badge.
          Exposure Reports

• You will be asked to review and initial your
  exposure reports as necessary.
• Your exposure will be reviewed with you at
  least on an annual basis.
• Your RSO reviews all exposure reports
  and investigated all overexposures.
• Only authorized visitors are allowed into the
  restricted area
• Visitors must sign in on the visitor’s log if they go
  into the restricted area
• Visitors must be assigned a pocket dosimeter
  and a lab coat if they go into the restricted area
• Visitors MUST BE ESCORTED at all times.
• Visitors must be at least 18 years old to enter
  the restricted area.
   Potential Hazardous Effects of
        Radiation Exposure
At the relatively low levels of occupational
      radiation exposure in the US, it is
    difficult to demonstrate a relationship
   between exposure & effect. High dose
        effects can easily be seen and
Therefore, estimates of risk at low doses
 must be derived from high dose data.
          Low Dose Effects
The three possible effects of concern from
 Low Doses of radiation are:

• Carcinogenic
• Genetic
• In Utero
                   Risks of Effects
       Carcinogenic                                   Genetic
Normal Incidence = 20%                     Normal Incidence = 11%
Increase if exposed to 2000 mrem           Increase if exposed to 2000 mrem
   over an adult life span =                  over a lifetime = + 0.01%
   +0.04%                                  No new type mutations

                          In-Utero Effects
   •1000 mrad during pre-implantation period gives a 5/1000 risk of death
   with Normal survivors.
   •>10,000 mrad at 0-3 month of gestation stands a risk of developmental
   •>100,000 mrad at 0-3 month of gestation has a 43% chance of mental
   • No developmental effects have been observed at doses at or below
   the 5000mrem occupational dose limit.
 Pregnancy & Radiation Exposure
The maximum permissible dose to the fetus
     is 0.5 rem (500mrem) during the entire
               tern of pregnancy.
      Make sure to review the U.S.N.R.C.
        Regulatory Guide 8.13 (Instruction
 Concerning Prenatal Radiation Exposure)
  if you haven’t already or if you are unsure
                 of it’s contents.
          Pregnant Workers
If you are pregnant, it is your choice to declare
        your pregnancy. If you declare your
    pregnancy, the lower dose limit will apply to
       you. This declaration must be made in
   writing. This may mean that you may not be
      able to perform some of your normal job
Make sure to contact the RSO if you are
  pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant.
Security of Radioactive Material
• Entrance to the restricted area must be
  secure and limited to employees and
  authorized visitors
• Visitors MUST BE ESCORTED in the
  restricted area at all times.
            Vehicle Security
 When Radioactive Materials are present, vehicles
     must be locked and windows up at all times if
If you forget something after you have loaded your
       vehicle, or if you leave the vehicle for any
      reason, you must turn the car off and lock it
    before walking away from the vehicle. This
     includes making deliveries and sitting in the
                 pharmacy parking lot.
       Vehicle Security (cont)
• You may not leave the vehicle keys with
  anyone. (i.e. parking attendants or security
• You must legally park your vehicle. If a
  vehicle gets towed with radioactive
  materials inside, it is considered “loss of
  control of radioactive material” and we can
  be fined.
          Pharmacy Security
• The doors to the pharmacy MUST BE CLOSED
  AND LOCKED at all times.
• If you are loading your vehicle, the door may be
  left open while you are standing there.
• If for any reason you must leave the area, (like
  parking or retrieving a vehicle) the doors to the
            Survey Meters
Before using a survey meter you must check
  three things:
• The calibration sticker - to make sure the
  calibration date is within 1 year and to see
  what the check source is supposed to
• The Battery Check
• The check source reading.
  If ANY of the three checks fail

If only the battery check failed, try
       changing the batteries.
      Using the Survey Meter
• Put the meter on the most sensitive setting
• The F/S switch should be on “F” (fast)
• Hold the face of the probe parallel to the
  surface being scanned & as close to the
  surface as possible without touching it (to
  avoid contamination)
• Move to probe slowly back and forth over the
• Compare readings to applicable action levels.
  Wipe Tests for Contamination
Wipe tests are used to determine the amount of
  removable contamination, but will likely not
  detect all the contamination that is present.
• Put on Gloves
• Applying moderate pressure drag a piece of filter
  paper or swab across the area being tested.
• Count a background sample along with the test
  sample in the well counter
• Compare net counts (sample-bkg) to action
       Frequency of Wipes Tests
              & Surveys
         Surveys                      Wipe Tests

Restricted area must have     Restricted areas must be
  at least 1 documented         wipe tested at least
  survey for each day that      once/week & when
  RAM is handled, stored        contamination is
  or dispensed.                 suspected
Unrestricted area must be     Unrestricted areas must be
  surveyed at least weekly.     wipe tested at least
                                once/month & when
                                contamination is
              Dose Calibrators
          Daily                Annually
• Constancy / Accuracy   • Accuracy
• Channel Check

       Quarterly           Installation & Post
• Linearity
                         • Geometry
         Testing Frequency
• Inventory = Quarterly
• Leak Test = Semi-annually

Well Counters / Scalers
• Efficiency = Quarterly
• Chi Square = Quarterly
              Spill Response
• If you suspect a spill, Do Not Move. Call for Help.
  If you move you take a chance of spreading the
• Notify all persons in the area & limit access to the
• Prevent the spread of contamination by covering the
  spill with plastic backed absorbent paper
• Use a survey meter to assess spill
• Wipe test the area for removable contamination.
• Call the RSO or Pharmacist in charge.
• Decontaminate &/or Shield area.
• All staff in the spill area should wear booties
  & 2 pair of gloves
• Using paper towels and cleaners, begin at
  the edge of the spill and work towards the
• Survey/wipe test the area to evaluate the
  effectiveness of the decontamination
• Continue cleaning until no more
  contamination can be removed.
• If the area still surveys hot. Shield with lead.
As with anything we do, prepare a detailed
  report of what actions taken to clean up
  the spill.
Also help the RSO investigate the cause of
  the spill and ways to prevent it from
  occurring in the future.
Also document any corrective actions taken
 Transporting Radioactive Material
• Always carry radioactive material in a
  closed shielded container to prevent spills.

• Use a cart to transport multiple doses.

• Always pack delivery cases according to
  tested D.O.T. configurations
 Hazardous Materials Regulations

Hazardous Materials Regulations
 (HMR) are a subsection of the DOT
The primary goal of the HMR is the
 safety of the public and individuals
 whose jobs include the handling and
 transportation of hazmat.
          What is HAZMAT
The D.O.T. defines hazmat as:
Any substance or material that is capable
of posing an unreasonable risk to health,
safety, and property when transported
in commerce.

This includes radioactive materials and
 blood products delivered to and from
 Nuclear Medicine departments.
      What is Needed to Transport

•   Package
•   Labeling
•   Shipping papers
•   Vehicles
•   Training
•   Communication
            Package Testing
Every container used to transport hazardous
material has been tested in a certain package
configuration. Packages must withstand normal
transport wear and tear without leaking, spilling, or
breaking open. This is to make sure that the
radioactive material in the pigs remains safe and
secure during transport.
The results of these tests and certification of
packing configuration are kept on file.
What needs to be considered when
       sending a package

•   Hazard Class / UN Number
•   Package type
•   Package testing
•   Level of Radioactive Exposure
•   Amount of Radioactivity in the package
  The D.O.T. requires that all hazardous
  materials being shipped or transported
 be placed in packages displaying correct
               hazard labels

The Hazard Class used to identify packages
     containing radioactive material is
              Hazard Class 7
There are 4 types of labels used for
       radioactive materials
Radioactive White I
     Radioactive Yellow II
         Radioactive Yellow III
                    Limited Quantity
          These labels indicate the
    level coming from the surface of the
To Properly Label a DOT Package
Measure the radiation levels on the outside
  of each package with a survey meter.
  Remember to:
• Take readings in a low background area.
• Move SLOWLY over all 6 sides of the
• Use the reading from the HOTTEST (most
  radioactive) side of the package to
  determine which DOT labels to use.
The Transportation Index of a package is:

The exposure level of the Hottest side of
the package at a distance of one meter.
                   White I

• Surface Reading of
  <0.5 mR/hr
• And a Transportation
  Index of 0
Yellow II

     Radiation Level at the
        surface is equal to
        or greater than 0.5
       mR/Hr and less than
             50 mR/Hr
     Transportation Index =
               Yellow III
  Package surface
  reading equal to or
    greater than 50
 mR/Hr but less than
     200 mR/Hr
Transportation Index
     1.0 and 10
If you need to placard a package, each
package must have:

A shipping paper
A security seal
Shipper’s Name & Address
Consignee’s Name & Address
Two (2) Identical D.O.T. Labels on the 2
 largest sides of the box.

The information on the shipping paper
MUST match the information on the DOT
         Return Packages
  Only pick up packages that are closed
         have flipped DOT cards.

We are not permitted to pick up packages
that are open, are closed without both cards
    flipped, are closed with no DOT card
          Shipping Papers
Shipping papers, also known as manifests,
 are used to identify placarded HAZMAT in
     case of a transportation emergency
 They identify the amount of Radioactive
 Material contained in a package as well as
   a certification that all required package
 packing and testing regulations have been
 Before Leaving the Pharmacy
• Make sure the shipping paper is
  completely filled out.
• Make sure the information on the shipping
  papers match the delivery cases for your
Remember, you are the person responsible
  for what is in your vehicle if you get
  stopped or inspected.
How to Handle Shipping Papers
1.   When placarded packages are being delivered, shipping
     papers must be kept on the outside of the clipboard on the
     passenger seat.
2.   After making the delivery place the shipping paper inside the
     clipboard. Each clipboard has notification that shipping papers
     inside are delivered not in vehicle. This is an important step. In
     case of an accident the police/emergency personnel will
     assume that any shipping paper in the outside of the clipboard
     (whether loose or attached) goes with a delivery case in the
     vehicle. If that delivery case is not in the vehicle, they will
     continue to search for that can, when in fact, it has already
     been delivered.
3.   At the pharmacy, place the returned shipping papers in the
     designated box
Before opening or removing anything from
  the delivery case, perform a survey and
                   wipe test.
    If the survey exposure rate is over
 0.5 mR/Hr or if the wipe test is over 2X
 background, STOP and inform the RSO
                or Pharmacist.
         Box breakdown (cont)
• Once the case passes the survey and wipe test, the
  placards and magnets may be removed.
• Open the delivery case and remove the pigs.
• Visually inspect the inside of the case for any papers,
  vials or any other objects. Remove anything that doesn’t
• Survey the inside of the case. If the exposure reading is
  over background place the case in the designated area
  until the exposure reading is at background levels.
• Now survey the foam inserts from the can. If the
  exposure reading is over background, place the foam in
  the designated area.
           Pig Breakdown
After removing the pigs from the can, sort by
   color. The white pigs contain 99mTc. The
   Blue pigs contain I-131, and the Red pigs
      contain pretty much everything else
        (Tl-201, Ga-67, I-123, Sm-153)
            Pig Color Key
 The waste from these pigs must be placed
          in different areas or barrels.
• The Blue pigs are placed in the I-131 fume
• The contents of the White pigs go into the
  Left hand barrel(s)
• The contents of the Red pigs go into the
  right hand barrel.
            Multidose Pigs

• You must read the label on the outside of
  the multidose pig to determine which
  barrel to put the waste.

• If you see anything unusual STOP and ask
  the RSO or Pharmacist what to do.
After you have dumped the contents of the pigs you must now
Survey them with a survey meter. Any hot pig must be placed in the
designated area for decay.
White pigs:
 If the White pigs are “cold” they must be placed in the dishwasher
 racks. Pigs go in with the opening up.
 Lids go in with the opening Down
Red Pigs:
  All red pigs must be placed into a designated bin so that they
  can be internally wipe tested later.
Blue Pigs:
  All blue pigs and their contents MUST be placed in the I-131 Hood

Multi Dose Pigs:
 If multi-dose pigs are cold, they are placed back into service.