Docstoc

lars_taxen

Document Sample
lars_taxen Powered By Docstoc
					Ontologies at Ericsson
         Why and How



         Lars Taxén, PhD
  Department of Science and Technology,
 Campus Norrköping, Linköping University
  lars.taxen@telia.com, +46 73 0977864




                                   EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
 Background Lars Taxén

• M.Sc. KTH 1968
• Ericsson 1968 - 2003
   – Development methods for hardware and software
   – Global information system support for coordination
• Doctoral studies Linköping University 1998 - 2003
   – ―A Framework for the Coordination of Complex Systems’ Development‖
• Now researcher and consultant


 “There is nothing so practical as a good theory.‖ (Kurt Lewin)




                                                EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Outline

• Definitions of ontology
• Telecommunication systems
• “Pragmatic” ontologies at Ericsson - why and how
• “Formal” ontologies in the literature
• Comparison
• Discussion
• Conclusions




                                      EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Ontology in philosophy



―Ontology studies being or existence as well as the basic
categories thereof—trying to find out what entities and
what types of entities exist. Ontology has strong
implications for the conceptions of reality.‖




                                        EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Definition



―Ontologies are content theories about the sorts of objects,
properties of objects, and relations between objects that are
possible in a specified domain of knowledge. ‖
Chandrasekaran et al. (1999) ―What Are Ontologies, and Why Do We Need Them?‖
IEEE Intelligent Systems, Jan/Feb 1999




                                                         EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Two types of ontologies

• “Pragmatic” ontologies
  – ―Context models‖ at Ericsson
  – Used to coordinate complex development projects
  – Social action theories (Activity Theory, Structuration Theory,
    Actor Network Theory, etc.)
• “Formal” ontologies
  – Origin in the AI community
  – Currently ―hot topic‖ in the Semantic Web
  – First-order logic




                                                EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Telecom background




               EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
The telecom network

                                                                          Network Access
                                  LAN                                     Points


                                                 Wide-band
                                                 Backbone




                                                                 Exchange
   Exchange           Router




                      Service
                      Providers
                                                                            LAN

                                        EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Developing a node




 Drivers                           Issues
 •   Market push                   •   Development lead-times
 •   Shorter time to market        •   Coordination and dependencies
 •   More competitors              •   Progress follow-up
 •   Less margins                  •   Culture - disciplines
 •   Shorter product life cycles   •   Geographical distribution
 •   Technological complexity      •   Commitments and responsibilities
 •   Standardization               •   Competence
 •   Change                        •   Quality

                                               EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Development of 3G mobile systems


                           Development centers
                           • S-domain (Stockholm)
                           • A-domain (Aachen)
                           • L-domain (Linköping)
                           • C-domain (Stockholm)




                                 EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     AX E par. &                                                                                                                                                                                               Basic Call wi th AX E MGW:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2F                                                                                                                                                       Des ign bas e on
 Title: AXE Anatomy fo r 2.0                                                                                                                                                                                             U2G HO                        20               DSA                                                                                                                                                                                              2 or more servers ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                         2F                                                                                                                                                                                                  functi onal level, not                                      using BI CC, using only A XE MGWs,                                                                                                   2DA       Announceme                                             2E
                                                                                                          Handov er                                                                                      13              for CSD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         UMTS-to-UMTS mobile s peech c all,                                                                                                                                                                    01
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              nec ess arily on produc t                                                                                                                                      Announcement                      11       nt changes II
 2/0062-FCP W 101 50             PA51                                                                                                                                Cause of no                                         a) CA PC                  01-10-22              a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                        UMTS-to-GSM mobile s peec h call,                               01-09-20                                                                                             01-10-08
                                                                                                           improv e.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   level                                                                                                                               2DA                  changes
                                                                                                                                       2F                                CLI                        01-10-08                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             GSM-t o-UM TS mobile s peec h call,
                                                                                                          a) CA PC                                01-07-30                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Des ign Base                                                                             GSM-t o-GSM mobil e speec h call                                                   03                 a) CA PC                                     b) CNCP                                                            2E
 Edi tor: EED/X /D Stefan Berg                                                             01-11-05                                    45                             a) CA PC                                           d) 1/AP T                                       d) 1/AP T                   LPT Tes t calls                                                                1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     01-10-08                                     02
                                                                                                           d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 01-09-10                                                       GPRS+SM S
 Date: 2002-04-11                                                                                                                                         2F            d) 1/AP T                                                                        SE QS                             21           a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               b) CNCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2F
                                                                                                                                                          16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BI CC drop 4               2DA                               f) GDB
 PRA-Date: 2001-11-15(RFA 28.02. )                                                                                                                                                                                                                     a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                01                                                                                                                                                                                                                       SMS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      01-09-10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             AP M & Comp.                 10
                                                          DES mark                                                                                                                                                                 01-10-22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              01-07-26                        MTP 3B long                                                                                                                                  a) CA PC
                                               2F                                                                                        2F             UMTS pos itioni ng                                             2F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Handling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2A                                                                                                                                                                                  mess ages              01-08-13
                                               47                                                                                        26                                                                            09
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      01                                                                                                  Outgoing (+incoming)                                                             support                                                                 01-10-08                                                           d) 1/AP T
                                                           d) 1/AP T                                                                                          a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          a) CA PC                                                       01-10-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MTP 3B long                                                                                                                                                             AA L2 connect ions ,
                                                                                                 Satelit e page load                                                                                                                                                                              mess ages STC
                                       01-11-05            a) CA PC                  2F              balancing                                                                                                                 HO Charging                                                                                    01-05-21                                                                                                                                       I. trunk (ALI FW)                     Basic Call                              a) CA PC                                                                                                                                   f) GDB
                                                                                                                                      01-11-05                d) 1/AP T                                       01-07-02                                                                             CB int erfac e                                         MGW S elec tion (Simple):             01-07-10                                                                    Res et proc edures
                                                                                     12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with AXE
                   Kc over MA P                                                                                                                                                                                                   a) CA PC                                                 2B                                                               - only for AXE MGW                                                                                                     a) CA PC                                                                b) CNCP
         2F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A
                                                                                                                                                               f) GDB                                                                                                                      01          a) CA PC                                                 - internal OIP                                                                                                                                                                                                              BI CC drop 3              2DA
         46                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                X
                                                                               01-08-13                                                                                                    CALEA + GS                             d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                    - only basic c all                                                          E                                      b) CNCP                                                                         2DA                     special servic es            08                                                                  2E
                     d) 1/AP T                                                                        d) 1/AP T                                                          2F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                01-07-16                                                                                                                                                                                              01-10-15
                                                              2F                                                                      Satelit e bac kward                08                  support                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               07                                                                                                                      04
                                                                              2F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   a) CA PC                                                                M
  01-11-05                                                    17                                                                        compatibilit y                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     G                                                                                                                                                                        01-09-24                                                                   GPRS
                                                                              02                                                                                                                  a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                     01-07-02                                    W                                                                                            2DA                                                    a) CA PC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     BI CC drop 2                                                                                                                             charging
                                    Verific at ion of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                              04                                                                                                                              01-10-08
                                                                                                                                            a) CA PC                    01-10-22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     compl. bas ic                                                                                                                         charac terist ics
                                    UMTS AMR                                                                           01-08-13                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  New Servi ces P latform                                                    T
                                                          01-12-03                                                                                                                                d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 r                                                                                                             call
                                       modes                              AMR f or GSM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         01-07-16                                                                             2E
                                                                                                   01-09-10                                 d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                   2B                                                                                  a                                                                                                                                                  BI CC drop 3                                                                                     f) GDB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            c                                                                                                                                                                                                                       05
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        04                                                      01-07-10                                                                                                                                 a) CA PC
                                      c) CSP P                                d) 1/AP T                                2F                                                                   2F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              k                                                                                                                                   2DA
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Satelit e CI P tone                                                                                                                      MTP 3B long                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SS
                                                                                                                       07                                                                   31                                                                                                                   BI CC CS1 --                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    05                                                                                    RONAS SSP
                                                                                                                                       2F                                                                          + CSD                                                                                          - basic c all                      mess ages MTP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     01-07-30                     01-10-08
                                                         2F                                 2F         TRAMif ication of               38        TRAMif ication of                                               a) CA PC                                                                                                                             CB interface                                                                                                                                                                                                                              a) CA PC
                                                         27                                 18                                                                                                                                                                                                  2B                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a) CA PC
                        Sec urity                                                                      TSS (2.0 s cope)                          TSS (2.0 s cope)                        01-09-10                                                                                                                  a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MGW S elec tion
             2F         Contex t                                                                                                                                                                                 d) 1/AP T                                                                      03                                                        a) CA PC               01-07-02                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2E
                                                                                                            Part I                               Part II : Russ an,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2DA             at re-routing
             36                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     06
                                                                                                                                                   1.5 s pillov er                                2F                                                   Shared Netw.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   09
                                                    SMS Waiting                                                                                                                                                                               2F
                       d) 1/AP T                                          01-10-08                          a) CA PC                                 a) CA PC                                     30                                          32                                            01-07-02                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     a) CA PC
   01-10-22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    01-07-30
                                                                                          01-10-08                                                                                                                                                       d) 1/AP T                                                                    New Archi tecture Pl atform                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ATI
                                                        f) GDB                                                                        01-11-05          d) 1/AP T                                      Iur                           01-10-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      01-10-22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01-09-10
                                                                                                         2F                                                                                   d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Advanced call
                                                           2F                                                                                         TRAMif ication of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Basic Call wi th Cel lo:                                                                                                                                                                                          g) SCP-T
                       RAB Mod.                                                                          23                        02-02-04                                                                                         2F                                                                                                                                                                                                               2 or more servers ,                                                                      cases with
              2F                                           22                                                                                         TSS (2.0 s cope)
                                                                                                                                     CN-I                                                     a) CA PC                              33                                                                                                     GCP TRACK                                                                                                 using BI CC, using 1 MGW                                                                  AXE/ Cell o
              37                                                                                                                                       Part II I: I srael                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            UMTS-to-UMTS mobile s peech c all
                        d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                        & French
                                                                                                      OP / SQN         01-10-22                                                                                             New OI P P ac k.
    01-10-22                                             ANSI 41 NP                                                                                      a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CAME L Ph 3 / IN
                                                                              01-10-22                                                                                                   2F
                                                          a) CA PC                                                                          2F                                                                                                         01-10-08
                                                                                                      f) GDB                                                                             34                                    d) 1/AP T
                                                                                                                                            40                                                                                                                                                       2CA
                                                                                                                            2F




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              01-08-13
                                                          f) GDB                                                                                                                                                                                                            01-09-20                 01                                                                                                         2CA
                                                                                                                            29                                              MAP v3 M T-                                                                                                                                                                                                                          04
                        Loc al                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                01-07-26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           MNP f unc tions
             2F                                                                                  2F                                                                            SMS                     01-10-22
                     subsc ript ion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MGW + MGC cold                                              Sim ple Call               01-07-16                                                                                                                          2CA
             39                                                                                  28                         MONCO                02-02-15                                                                      a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                       OMS                  01-07-16
                                                                     TLV merge                                                                     CN-I                                                                                                                                              st art                                      - c ontex t/ term . handling                                                                                                                                          06                                                                                                             a) CA PC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          - c all pat h                          Server Rec ov ery &                                                                                                                                                01-08-13                                     01-08-20
                       d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                               f) GDB                                                                                                      - O&M for MGW st art
                                                                                                                            a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                        for c al ls                                     tracing                                 MGW node                                  Multiple MGW
   01-10-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               - Cont ex t/ term .                              - basic prot oc ol handling                                                                           rec overy                                                                                                                                                                       d) 1/AP T
                                                                      a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     support
                                                                                                                            b) CNCP                     2F                                                          Int ra-MSC                                                 01-07-02      handling for MGW                                             a) CA PC                                        a) CA PC                                    b) CNCP                                                                                                                                                         2K
                                                                                                                                                        35                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  - NRM impac ts f or                                                                                                       01
    2F                                         01-09-10                                                                                                                                                              G2U HO                                                                          st art
    24                                                                d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               multiple MGWs
                                                                                                                                                                                              01-07-02               a) CA PC                                                                     a) CA PC                                                b) CNCP                                         b) CNCP                                     a) CA PC                                                            01-08-13                                                                                               Number portabil ity
                                                                                                                                      Can. Meter Puls                                                                                                                           01-07-10
 UMTS auth.                                                                                                                                                         01-11-05                                                                                                                         b) CNCP                                              d) 1/AP T                                                           2CA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                       d) 1/AP T
 redundancy                                                                                                                                 a) CA PC                                          2G                                                                                                                                                                                                                               05
                      01-10-08                                                                                                                                                                03
    enha.                                                                        RMP                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               b) CNCP
                                                                               Servic e              01-08-27                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2CA                                                                2C
                                                                2H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Basic Call wi th Cel lo                                                                  04          periodic audit
    f) GDB                                      2H                            Int erfac e                                                                                                           Int er-MSC                                                                                                                                  02
                                                                01            b) CNCP                                                                                                                G2U HO                                                               2C               BI CC ++                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         GOH                      01-11-15
                                                02                                                                                          d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2M
                                                                                                                                                                                                     a) CA PC                                                             01                                                                                       Rec ept ion of bearer          01-10-08                        a) CA PC            01-10-08
                                                                                                              01-09-20                                                                                                                      01-09-30                                                                                                                                                                                                  01-11-05                                                                                                                                                                                                                03
   2F                                                                                                                                                                        01-09-10                                                                                                 - MGW v alidat ion                                                           release i ndicat ions          01-11-05        2C                                                                                             2C
   41                                                                                                                                                                                                  d) 1/AP T                                                                         - AX E-Cello                                                                  (call releas e)                            06             b) CNCP                                                load control             05                                                                                                                                                                                     AP                  2M
                                          Servic e Us er                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  01-10-22
                           01-09-10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        interwork                                                                                                                                                                                      a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                   Comm unic .            11
                                                                                       Servic e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               01-10-08                                                                                                                                    b) CNCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Subsequent HO                              01-08-13                                                                                              a) CA PC                                                                                                                           01-11-05
TRAMif ication                              a) CA PC                                 User, A NS I                                                                                 2G                                                                                                       a) CA PC                                                                                                           periodic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               01-10-22
                     01-11-05                                                                             Servic e Us er         01-09-10                                         01                                     cas es & c harging          01-10-22                                                                                                                                                                                                                            b) CNCP
   of PBX                                                                               TSS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      audit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           b) CNCP                                                                         b) CNCP                                               02-02-04                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             b) CNCP
                                                                    01-10-22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cl ean-up                                                                                                                                                                                                                               STS
                                                                                                              d) 1/AP T                                                                                                         a) CA PC                                                                                                             2C                                                                                                                                  d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                      2M
  a) CA PC                                                                            a) CA PC                                                                                                                   2G                                                                                                                                                                                          b) CNCP                                                                                                      Sp eech via GCP
                                                          Servic e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   03                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 05
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 02                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               a) CA PC
                                                                            Traffic                                                                                                                                             d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AP IO
                                      01-09-10           User, I N                                                     2H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        01-12-17
                                                           calls            Based                2H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2M
        2F                                                                                                             04                                                                                                                                                                                                                           GCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  enhanced traff ic cases : depending on                                                                                                            BICC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  enhanced traff ic cases : depending on
                                                                            Pri ci ng            06                                                                                                                G2U HO                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           01-10-22                            12
        42
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     b) CNCP
                                          2H             a) CA PC
    EA c leanup                           05                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              FORLOP P
                        01-11-05                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Test c all s (v ia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           MGW s elec tion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                improv em .                          FORLOP P
                                                                                                         2S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            GCP )                                                                                                                                                                                                               01-10-22                            2M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PRA calls                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21230/33                            improv em .
     a) CA PC                                                                                            09                                                                                                                                                                    01-10-08                                                                                                                                                                                                      MGW s elec tion                                    EC proc edures                                                                                                 09                                    2M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           b) CNCP                              21220/25                            SP oE             2M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              for I N calls                                       b) CNCP                                                                                                                                            18
                                                                                                                                                                            FNR file I /O                                                                                                       a) CA PC                                                                            01-10-08                                          2F                                         01-08-13                                                                                                                                                                                       b) CNCP                                               02
     d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      01-11-05
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    01-11-05         b) CNCP                          11                                                                                                                                01-09-10                                                                                                                                  a) CA PC
                                                                           01-09-10               C-HSSL                                                   01-08-13                                                                                                                                                     10                                                                                                                                                                         a) CA PC                                         c) CSPP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2Q                                                                                                                                                                    01-12-17
                                                                                                                                                                              f) GDB                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2F
         2F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          a) CA PC                                                                                                             03            06
         44                                                                                      a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2Q                                                                                      a) CA PC                                                                                                            2M                                        b) CNCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TTC C7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Res tart
                                                                                                                                                               2W                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           01                                          2Q                                                                                                                                                              07
                                                                                                                                                               01                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2L                                                                                           04                                                                                                                                           reas on
           PRA                                                                                   b) CNCP                                                                                                                                 01-09-10                                                                                                                                                                                                                            digit s ending (via
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2W                                                                                                                                                                                                     01                                                                                                  digit receiv ing (v ia                                                                                              01-10-22                                                                RPS FC
         monitoring                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2O                                                                                     2P                                                                       LI for new                                        GCP ), t ones                                                                                         configurat ion,
                            01-12-17                                                                                                                                    01-09-15                    02                d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GCP )                                                                                                                        b) CNCP                                                                      2M
           CN-I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               01                                                                                     02                                                                                                                            d) 1/AP T                                                  01-11-05
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          arc hitect ure (v ia                                                                                                                                           bloc king/                                                                                       01-10-22         b) CNCP               06
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    UMTS CSD c alls                                                                   Int er-Sys tem,                                                            GCP )                                                                                                                                  2T              deblock ing
         a) CA PC                                                                                             lif t S MAC into 2. 0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      01-10-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       vi a GCP                                                                         intra-MS C                                                             d) 1/AP T                                          b) CNCP                                                                               01
                                                                                                                    (inc l. drop 2)                                                 Jap an Specific                                           01-09-20                                                                                                                                                                                                   02-02-18                                                     b) CNCP                                                                                                                              Sec urity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  01-10-22                                                             01-10-22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2M                     AP G40
   2F                                                                                                                 a) CA PC                               2S                                                                                                                                                                                       Handov er (v ia                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           01-09-10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          b) CNCP                                                 02-02-18                                                             02-02-18               b) CNCP                                             a) CA PC                                                                                                a) CA PC                                                                             13                     charg.
   48                                                                                                                                                        06                                                                                                                                                                                             GCP )                                                                                                                                                     a) CA PC                                                                                                                            a) CA PC
                                                 01-07-02           early Shock ley                                 b) CNCP                                                                                                                        01-09-10                                                                                              b) CNCP                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          01-10-22                                                                          2M
  MONT f ix                                       CSPP :                                                                                                                                                                                           01-11-05               a) CA PC                                                                                                                                            a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                    b) CNCP                                                                                                    g) SCP-T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          b) CNCP                   01-10-08                                10
                                                 01-07-16              a) CA PC                                                                           01-10-22                                                                                                                                                       2P                               a) CA PC
                                                                                                                    c) CSP P                                                                                                                                                                                             01                                                                                                                                  01-10-30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 a) CA PC
   a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Timer                       2Q
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2P                                                                                                                                             05                                            Traf fic handling
                                                                       b) CNCP                                      d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           improv em ent s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      01-10-22             SRNC                                                          03                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MTA P
   d) 1/AP T                                        2S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                02-02-18                                                                                                                                                                                            b) CNCP                                                       2T                                                                                                                                            2M
                        2F                          05                                                                                                                                                                                                   2O                                                          reallocat ion (v ia                                                                                                                                                01-11-05                                                                        02                                                                                                                      improv ment s         14
                                                                       c) CSP P                                      f) GDB
                        49                                                                                                                                                   2U                                                                          02                                                            GCP ; same                              Int er-Sys tem, inter-                                                                                                                                                           periodic audit                            a) CA PC               01-10-08
                                                                                                                                                                             02                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                             01-10-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MGW)                                   MSC Handov er                                                                                                                                                                   & test c alls                                                   01-11-05
   CAI & CARI                                                   2S                                                h) SMA C part                                                                                                                                CSD calls v ia                                           b) CNCP                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a) CA PC
                         01-12-17                                             ALI-                                                                                                                                                            01-09-10                                                                                                                (via GCP)                                                                                                                                                       2T                                                  b) CNCP                                                                                                   b) CNCP
                                                                08                                                                                                                   half rat e                UMTS&GS M                                         GCP ++                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               04                                                                                                                          SW record               2M
                                                    2F                    Beaom on                                                                                01-06-18                                                                    01-11-05                                                                                                               + c harging
     a) CA PC                                                                                                                    2S                                                 rem ov al                   term. FTM              2U                                                                                                                                                      02-02-18                                                                                   Int eract ive                          01-10-22         b) CNCP                                                                                                                                 15
                                                    43                      interw.                         ECP101                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               01-11-19                                                                                          01-10-30
                                                                                                                                 10                                                                                                    04                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                mess ageing
                                                         01-10-22         b) CNCP                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rec ov ery on                                 01-10-22
                             Iran CAS                                                                                                                                             d) 1/AP T                       f) GDB                                           a) CA PC                                                                     2P                                                                                                                                      (des ign base)                                                                                                                                                                                               Single Cl.
                                                    01-12-17                                                c) CSP P                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              01-10-22                                                                            terminat ion,                                                                                                         2M
                                                                                                                                 02-01-22                 H.324                                                                                                                                                                                 06                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  b) CNCP                            Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    01-10-22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      02-02-18                                                                        terminat ion group                                                                                                        16
                                                                                                                                                         fallback                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           a) CA PC                                                                                                                           01-10-22
                             a) CA PC                                                                                                                                          2U
                                                                                                                                                                               01                                                                                  CSD                                                                                                                                                           LI                                         2Q                                                                                                                      and MGW level              01-11-19                                              01-10-22         a) CA PC
                                                                                                                                                                                          UMTS&GS M                                                                                                    02-01-28            G2U HO,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2T
                                                                                                                                      01-07-30          d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                 01-11-12                                                                                  02              b) CNCP                                                                                                     a) CA PC                                        FTP v irt ual
                                                                                                                                                                                           term. FTM                                                                                                                   arc hitect ure s pl it                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             03                                                                                  2M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2U                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               root                                       b) CNCP
                                                                                                   new HW                                                                                   a) CA PC                                                                                                                   tes t cases (test                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17
                                                                                                                                                                          01-09-10                                        03                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            b) CNCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              only !)                                                                                                                                                              IN
 02-04-30         CALEA for CMS40                                                                                                                                                                                                     FTM clean up                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      01-10-22         a) CA PC
                                                                                                                                                             01-09-20                         d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 R-TDM
   CN-I               a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                          a) CA PC                                                                             d) 1/AP T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2U                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    b) CNCP
                      b) CNCP                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      05/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         d) 1/AP T                 06
        2F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HO for CSD c alls v ia
                      d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                       01-11-05
        50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 f) GDB                                                                                                       GCP                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FT ready;                                                                         APG40 / APZ 11.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 01-x x-xx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      b) CNCP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2P                                                                                                                        MPT Y,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 05                                                                                                                   IN c onf erence,               01-11-05                                                                                      1. date: d el ivery of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a) CA PC                                                                                                                      02-03-15                                                                                                                                               Del ivered to LSV , FT d one
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    O&M moni toring, LI                                   CH, CW                    2R                                             all products except
                                                                                                                                                                                                        new CSD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     01                                              GACON; al l FT that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        conferenc e                                       b) CNCP                                                                                                                           Del ivered to LSV , FT n ot co mpl .eted
                                                                   GT Mod. for             01-09-10                                                                                                                                                                                                                           01-11-05                 d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                   can be do ne without
                             MAP S CCP                                                                    Long RANAP                                                                                                                                                                                                          02-03-15                                                                                                     2R
                                                         2J        Connec tion                                                                            Long RANAP
                            Segment at ion                                                                 mess ages              01-10-08                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 02             b) CNCP                                         a) CA PC                                             01-x x-xx             GACON is ready!
                                                         04         less t raff ic                                                                        mess ages, CO              01-11-05                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  01-y y-yy                                                                    Under desi gn or FT, not del ivered to LS V,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 U2G HO + SRNS Rel o.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       requires maj or management attention
                              a) CA PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a) CA PC                                        d) 1/A PT              01-11-05                                           2. date : FT ready,
               01-10-22                                              a) CA PC                                 a) CA PC                                        a) CA PC
                                                                                                 2J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SS                                                                                         in cl udin g GACON
                                                                                                                                                 2J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Under desi gn or F, not d el ivered to L SV, some
                              d) 1/AP T                                                          05                                              06                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 test cases. INDUS
                                                                                                              d) 1/AP T                                       d) 1/AP T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     issues req uire attention
                      2J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            can start to use i t.
                      01
                                                                   01-10-30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Under desi gn or F, not d el ivered to L SV, no
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dependency
                                                                                      C7 fun ctio ns                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        probl em .


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Coordination
• “The management of dependencies btw activities”
   – Malone & Crowston, 1994
• Communal meaning about how to coordinate
   –   requirements
   –   engineering change orders
   –   products
   –   documents describing products
   –   test cases
   –   integrations
   –   baselines
   –   milestones
   –   deliveries
   –   ...
• Information system support
                                       EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
“Pragmatic” ontologies at Ericsson
         - a historical Odyssey




                            EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
 From waterfall to integration centric development



Plan      Analysis               Design   Verification                  Integrate
                                                                           ―Big Bang‖




                                                          Integrate
   Plan
                                          Integrate



                     Increment

                                              EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
     Method development




           1996
S-domain




    Incremental
    Development
    Method Package




                          EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
       Context model S-domain 1996
                                                                                                                                                 Assignment
                                                                                                                                                 Specification


                                         System                 AD                                                           Constr.
           Project                                                                             AD plan                                                 Project
                                          Issue               package                                                         plan



                                                                                     Incr                           Proj
                                                  Increment                                         MCI
                                                                                    MS def                         MS def


                                                                               Incr. Task
                                                                              Specification


            New                 Set of          Increment                                                                   Function
Customer
           Feature              req’s          Specification                                                                Anatomy
                                                                     Test         Test
                                                                                                    Function
                                                                    Object        Case

                                                                                                           Characte-                       Incr dep.
                                                                                             Interface
           Design                                                                                           ristics                         matrix
            Base


                                                   Design                 AXE
                     Baseline            MCI                                                      Specification
                                                    Item                 System


                                                  Document



                                           Project        Product        System                                                        New categories
                                                                                                 Implementation
                                          Document       Document         Issue




                                                                                                                  EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
     Information system support




           1996        1997
S-domain




    Incremental
    Development
    Method Package


              Information system (IS)
              introduced




                                        EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Context model S-domain 1997

                                                                    System
                                                                                         Project          Project MS
                                                                     Issue



                  Customer             Set of                        AD
   Customer                                                                             AD Task             AD MS
                   Feature             Req’s                       Package


                 IS
                                   Tech. Feature                     Feature            Increment
                                                                                                           Inc. MS
                                     Inc Spec                      Increment            Task Spec
                 IP
                                                                                     Increment
                                                Functional
                                                                    Impact          Responsible              Individual
                 FF                              Anatomy


                                                                                        Resource
                                                Function                                                       Teaml

                          Design                                    Design
                           Base                                      Item                                       LDC


                                                                                                            Sub projectl

                                                         Product             Document
                                                                                                              Project


         New categories                ...      ANT    CNT    CAA            FS    FD       TS      ...




                                                                                              EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
IS support for the context model S-domain 1997




                                EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
     First project




           1996        1997         1998       1999
S-domain




    Incremental                  1st sharp   1st sharp
    Development                  project     project up
    Method Package               prototype   and running


              Information system (IS)
              in pilot projects




                                                           EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
          Context model S-domain 1999
                                                                                        Test Case
                     Req Issuer                                                                                               PROJ. ITEMS
                                                                      TEST ITEM
                                                                                                                                                  Project MS
Parent_Child                                                   TestedBy                                                       MILESTONE
                      Input Req                      Needs,
                                                     Impacts                                                                                     Increment MS
  REQUIREMENT                                                                                                                  Project
                                    Alloca                                                              Includes
                    Detailed Req             DESIGN ITEM
                                    tedTo

                                                                          Includes                  DELIVERY
                         IP
                                                                                                               System Issue


                                                                                  Consists                     AD Package
                   TECH INCR SPEC                          Function               _Of
                                                                                                                  Package
                                                           Use Case
                                                                                                               INCREMENT
                                                                  Consists
                     Baseline                                     _Of

                                                           PRODUCT                   Design Base

                    Change Request

                                                           DOCUMENT
                                                                                                                            Role
    CR Comment
                                                                PROJECT
    CCB Meeting                                                DOCUMENT
                                                                PRODUCT
    CCB Decision                                               DOCUMENT
                                                                                                    Requirement                 Configuration   Project
                                                                                                                   Designer
                                                                                                    Coordinator                   Manager       Manager
                                                                                                      EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
     Expansion

                                                                        A-domain




           1996        1997         1998       1999          2000        2001
S-domain




    Incremental                  1st sharp   1st sharp
    Development                  project     project up
    Method Package               prototype   and running
                                                                             L-domain

              Information system (IS)                      Two more
              in pilot projects                            domains created




                                                                                 EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
      Context model A-domain 2001

                          ARS, CRS, MRS
 High-level RS
                              Feature Groups
                                                                                                  DependsOn
             DescribedIn*           Feature Group
 Features                                                          toAnatomy
                        Has
                 prio                                                                    (s)WPG


                                                                                      Holds
            Feature       DescribedIn
                                            RS_IP          IP_FF             FF_WP
                                   RS                 IP             FF                      WP
DependsOn          Tagged                 RS_SIP
                 (H)RS Item                                                                                IncludedIn
                                                       SIP_IP
                                                                                 Impacts
                                                SIP
                                  Detailed RS
                                                                                          Product                 LSV




                                                                    EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
     Expansion

                                                                        A-domain




           1996        1997         1998       1999          2000        2001
S-domain




    Incremental                  1st sharp   1st sharp
    Development                  project     project up
    Method Package               prototype   and running
                                                                             L-domain

              Information system (IS)                      Two more
              in pilot projects                            domains created
                                                           Two more IS
                                                           applications




                                                                                 EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Context model S-domain 2001

                                                            Tested_by      TEST_ITEM


  Requirement Issuer

                                                    Depends_on


         has                                                            Included_In
                                          ANATOMY_ITEM                                      INTEGRATION_ITEM


                                                      Work Package                                           LSV
               Directed_To
            (fulfillment-status)
                                                    Feature Increment                                     AD-package
                                                                                Impacts
                                                                              (man-hours)

                              !
           REQUIREMENT                                                      DESIGN_ITEM




                                                                                                PRODUCT

                                   PROGRESS_CONTROL_ITEM
                                                                                               PROD_DOC
                                                     Baseline

                                                   MILESTONE


                                   CHANGE_PROPOSAL_ITEM

                                                    CR
                                                    TR



                                                                                      EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
 Centralization

                                                                                                                      A-domain
                                                                                                                          ?



     1996        1997         1998       1999          2000        2001       2002            2003             2004
                                                                                                         X            S-domain



Incremental                1st sharp   1st sharp                                                                    C-domain
Development                project     project up
Method Package             prototype   and running
                                                                                                         X          L-domain
        Information system (IS)                      Two more
        in pilot projects                            domains created
                                                                              Ericsson common          One common
                                                                              domain serving           Ericsson domain
                                                                              the other domains




                                                                          EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Context model C-domain 2003




                              EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Context model evolution



                                                                                         A-domain
                                                                                             ?



   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001       2002            2003             2004
                                                                           X             S-domain




                                                                                       C-domain


                                                                            X          L-domain




                                             EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Construction of context models




                     EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
A detail in the context model
                                To be defined...
                                • Entities
                                • Relations
                                • Names, icons
                                •   Types of requirements
                                •   Life cycle of requirements
                                •   Attributes on requirements
                                •   Attributes on relations
                                •   Cardinalities on relations
                                •   Revision stepping rules
                                •   Actor roles
                                •   Access rights for roles
                                •   ...



                                     EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Constructing communal meaning the key issue




We also had major discussion about the attributes for
each and every object, what do they really mean and
how are they to be used. That was also something that
caused quite a lot of time.

(Project Manager 3G)




                                       EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Construction process

           Req. mgr   Proj. mgr   IS vendor   Architect




             Individual           Communal
              meaning              meaning



                        Meaningful
                         artifacts




                                              EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
                 A comparison
- between context models at Ericsson and ontologies in
                   the literature




                                     EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
       Properties of ontologies from the literature
                                                          •     There are objects in the world
                                                          •     Objects have properties or attributes
                                                                that can take values
                                                          •     Objects can exist in various relations
                                                                with each other
                                                          •     Objects can have parts
                                                          •     Properties and relations can change
                                                                over time
                                                          •     There are events that occur at
                                                                different time instants
                                                          •     There are processes in which objects
                                                                participate and that occur over time
                                                          •     The world and its objects can be in
                                                                different states
                                                          •     Events can cause other events or
                                                                states as effects
Example adapted after Edgington et al. (2004) ―Adopting       Chandrasekaran et al. (1999) ―What Are Ontologies,
Ontology to Facilitate Knowledge Sharing‖,                    and Why Do We Need Them?‖

                                                                           EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Properties of context models at Ericsson
                          •   There are objects in the world
                          •   Objects have properties or attributes
                              that can take values
                          •   Objects can exist in various relations
                              with each other
                          •   Objects can have parts
                          •   Properties and relations can change
                              over time
                          •   There are events that occur at
                              different time instants
                          •   There are processes in which objects
                              participate and that occur over time
                          •   The world and its objects can be in
                              different states
                          •   Events can cause other events or
                              states as effects




                                       EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
“Formal” Ontologies
- related to the Semantic Web




                        EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Formally defined


―...The only languages [to describe the entities involved
and the relationships between them] that are likely to fit
the bill are mathematical, and the prime contenders are
understandable in terms of first-order logic.‖




                                        EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Conceptions of knowledge



―… knowledge is a collection of facts about a domain.‖

―…encoding knowledge in terms of the concepts and relations.‖

―Ontological analysis clarifies the structure of knowledge‖




                                            EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Meaning




―Ontologies will provide the necessary meaning to web
content therefore enabling software agents to understand
and retrieve information in relevant contexts.‖




                                      EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Separation of ontology and knowledge



 ―An ontology provides a set of concepts and terms for
 describing some domain, while a knowledge base uses
 those terms to represent what is true about some real or
 hypothetical world.‖




                                       EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Stability




  ―Ontology, ... is supposed to reflect ... the well
  established knowledge of a given area... It should be
  stable and throughout used.




                                        EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Commonality




 ―Communication between distinct groups using different
 vocabularies creates the need to create common
 vocabularies, which optimally suit all involved‖




                                     EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Machine processing



―We have presented an automated approach to
unifying heterogeneous information models based on
machine-processable metadata specifications.‖




                                      EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Discussion




             EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Basic tenets “formal” ontologies

• Knowledge
  –   A collection of facts that are true
  –   Can be managed
  –   Is discovered
  –   Ontologies separate from knowledge
• Ontologies
  –   Give meaning
  –   Describe some part of the ―real‖ world
  –   External to the worlds they describe
  –   Stable
  –   Formally defined
  –   Can be machine processed
  –   Validated according to compliance with facts, truth

                                                EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Basic tenets “pragmatic” ontologies

• Knowledge
  –   Intrinsic to humans, knowledge is what a knower knows
  –   Constructed in action
  –   Not a commodity
  –   Ontologies are inseparable from knowledge
• Ontologies
  –   Instruments for constructing communal meaning
  –   Domain specific
  –   Provide a communal language in the domain
  –   In constant evolution
  –   Informally described - easy to interpret for humans
  –   Machine processing not a prerequisite
  –   Validated for usefulness in the domain

                                                EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
  “Formal” versus “pragmatic” ontologies

    “Formal”                                 “Pragmatic”
  • Commodity          Knowledge          • Inherently human
  • Inherent            Meaning           • Constructed
  • Description          Usage            • Action
  • Stable              Change            • Evolution
  • Formal               Model            • Significant
  • Truth              Validation         • Usability
  • Uniform           Commonality         • Multitude
  • External           Existence          • Internal

On the surface formal and pragmatic ontologies look the same
     Fundamentally different conceptions of knowledge
                                        EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Issues
• Ontology for ontologies
   –   Knowledge for description or action?
   –   Is knowledge equal to facts?
   –   Can knowledge be managed?
   –   Are ontologies external to the world it describes?
• Meaning
   – Do ontologies encode meaning?
• Unification
   – Is it possible to define ―one size fits all‖ ontology?
• Validation
   – Usefulness or truth?
• Development
   – Stable or dynamic world?


                                                  EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Activity Domain Theory
• Focus on communal meaning
• Activity Modalities
   –   Spatialization
   –   Temporalization
   –   Technologization
   –   Stabilization
   –   Contextualization
   –   Transition
   –   Pragmatic communication
• Ontology is one modality - spatialization
   – Other modalities need to be considered in ontology construction




                                              EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén
Further reading

Taxén L (2003) A Framework for the Coordination of Complex Systems’ Development.
Dissertation No. 800. Linköping University, Dep. of Computer &Information Science, 2003.
Retrieved from http://www.ep.liu.se/diss/science_technology/08/00/index.html (Nov 2004)


Taxén L (2004): Articulating Coordination of Human Activity - the Activity Domain Theory. In
Proceedings of the 2nd International workshop on Action in Language, Organisations and
Information Systems (ALOIS-2004), Linköping University. Retrieved from
http://www.vits.org/konferenser/alois2004/proceedings.asp (Dec 2005).


Taxén L (2005) Categorizing Objective Meaning in Activity Systems, in Whymark G, Hasan H
(Eds.), Activity as the Focus of Information Systems Research, Eveleigh, Australia: Knowledge
Creation Press, pp. 169-192


Taxén L (2005) An Integrated Approach for the Coordination of Distributed Software
Development Projects, Information and Software Technology, (in press).




                                                                 EAFT / Nordterm workshop, Vasa, 2006 - Lars Taxén