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					THE WORK PROGRAM OF COMPLEXITY


       John N. Warfield, Ph. D.
 Electrical Engineering, Purdue, 1952.

                                         1
               THE ROAD LESS TRAVELED
• The Meaning of “Complexity”: Two Analogies

• Two Domains for the World of Engineering

• Scientific Legacies for the Domains: Calculus and Dynamics of
       Motion versus Logic & Behavior

• The Work Program of Complexity: Processes and Infrastructure

• Relevant Literature

• Epilog (optional) Thought Leaders on Behavioral Pathologies
                                                                  2
         WATER




OXYGEN           HYDROGEN


 INCLUSION STRUCTURE #1

                            3
          AIR




OXYGEN          NITROGEN


 INCLUSION STRUCTURE #2

                           4
   DOMAIN OF ENGINEERING


DOMAIN OF
NORMALITY
                DOMAIN OF
               COMPLEXITY


   INCLUSION STRUCTURE #3
                            5
         MY PRIMARY ASSUMPTION
The world of engineering can be partitioned into
two domains:

• The Domain of Normality

• The Domain of Complexity

Most engineering takes place in the Domain of
Normality, but today’s systems engineering has
moved into the Domain of Complexity.
                                                   6
THE DOMAIN OF NORMALITY BENEFITS
FROM MANY OF ITS COMPONENTS:

• 4 Centuries of Science and Mathematics
• 2 to 3 Centuries of Engineering Experience
• Great cooperation in engineering societies
     Standards, Literature, Methodology
• A globally-accepted language
• Highly-developed algorithms and processes

                                               7
  THE DOMAIN OF NORMALITY CAN BE
    ENTERED FROM THE DOMAIN OF
  COMPLEXITY, BUT NOT TOO SOON!!!

THE WORK PROGRAM OF COMPLEXITY
LIGHTS THE WAY TO THE DOMAIN OF
NORMALITY, BY STRUCTURING A
PROBLEMATIC SITUATION SO THAT IT
CAN BE DEALT WITH IN FAMILIAR WAYS.

                                      8
THE DOMAIN OF COMPLEXITY CAN BENEFIT
GREATLY FROM TWO LEGACIES:

• 2,300 years of the study of formal logic

• One century of the study of human
    behavioral pathologies




                                             9
BEFORE GENERAL SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS
CAN BE WELL-USED, THEY MUST BE
PARTICULARIZED TO THE SPECIFIC
PROBLEMATIC SITUATION THAT IS
ENCOUNTERED. THIS IS TRUE BOTH IN
THE DOMAIN OF NORMALITY AND THE
DOMAIN OF COMPLEXITY.

                                     10
THE FINDINGS FROM THE PHYSICAL
SCIENCES HAVE REPEATEDLY BEEN
ADAPTED TO PARTICULAR ENGINEERING
SITUATIONS. BUT THE FINDINGS ABOUT
FORMAL LOGIC AND HUMAN BEHAVIORAL
PATHOLOGIES ARE SELDOM ADAPTED TO
PROBLEMATIC SITUATIONS IN THE DOMAIN
OF COMPLEXITY. IT IS MY LIFETIME GOAL
TO CHANGE THAT.

                                        11
THE PROGRAM FOR THAT CHANGE IS
WHAT I CALL THE WORK PROGRAM OF
COMPLEXITY (WPOC).

IT CONSISTS OF JUST TWO MAIN PARTS:

• DISCOVERY (of the underlying logic)

• RESOLUTION (of complexity)

                                        12
DISCOVERY HAS TWO PARTS:

• DESCRIPTION

• DIAGNOSIS

In carrying out these two parts, formal logic
and behavioral pathologies are taken into
account in preparing for a system design.

                                                13
DESCRIPTION IS DONE IN A GROUP
PROCESS.

DIAGNOSIS IS DONE BY AN EXPERIENCED
INDIVIDUAL PROFESSIONAL, WHO ITERATES
WITH THE GROUP UNTIL THE DESCRIPTION
IS FULLY UNDERSTOOD AND ACCEPTED.


                                    14
RESOLUTION (of complexity) INVOLVES
TWO PARTS ALSO:

• DESIGN

• IMPLEMENTATION (of the design)


                                      15
DESIGN IS DONE IN A GROUP PROCESS.

IMPLEMENTATION IS CARRIED OUT BY
WHATEVER MEANS THE DESIGN
SPECIFIES.




                                     16
THE DESIGN GROUP IS WELL-INFORMED
BY THE PRODUCTS OF DISCOVERY,
including the Diagnosis Report.




                                    17
IMPLEMENTATION MAY INVOLVE MANY
PEOPLE WHO WERE NOT INVOLVED IN THE
DISCOVERY AND DESIGN ACTIVITIES.

INFRASTRUCTURE OF TWO TYPES IS
NEEDED TO SUPPORT THE WPOC. ONE
TYPE SUPPORTS THE GROUP WORK. THE
OTHER SUPPORTS THE EDUCATIONAL
PROGRAM NEEDED TO GET SUITABLE
IMPLEMENTATION.
                                      18
DESIGNS OF THE TWO TYPES OF INFRA-
STRUCTURE HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED AND
TESTED.

THE FIRST TYPE IS CALLED A “SITUATION
ROOM” DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY TO
SUPPORT THE WPOC.

THE SECOND TYPE IS CALLED A
“CORPORATE OBSERVATORIUM”.
                                        19
THE SITUATION ROOM IS DESIGNED TO
SUPPORT THE GROUP WORK.

THE CORPORATE OBSERVATORIUM IS
DESIGNED TO SERVE THE NEEDS OF
EDUCATION OF IMPLEMENTERS WHO
WERE NOT PART OF THE GROUP WORK.
IMPLEMENTERS MAY INCLUDE HIGHER-
LEVEL MANAGERS AS WELL AS
TECHNICIANS, FOR EXAMPLE.
                                    20
ALL OF THE FOREGOING MATERIAL HAS
BEEN PUBLISHED IN SEVERAL BOOKS AND
NUMEROUS TECHNICAL PAPERS.

THE WPOC HAS BEEN TESTED AROUND THE
WORLD IN DIVERSE SITUATIONS.

THE PRIMARY ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
HAVE OCCURRED IN FORD MOTOR
COMPANY AND IN THE DEPARTMENT OF
DEFENSE.
                                      21
THE ALGORITHMS FOR STRUCTURING
PROBLEMATIC SITUATIONS WERE
PUBLISHED IN 1976 AS FOLLOWS:

John N. Warfield, SOCIETAL SYSTEMS:
PLANNING, POLICY, AND COMPLEXITY,
Wiley Interscience (in the Harold Chestnut
Systems Engineering Series).


                                             22
THE SCIENCE OF GENERIC DESIGN (FOR
USE WITH SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS)
WAS PUBLISHED IN 1990, WITH THE
SECOND EDITION IN 1994 AS FOLLOWS:

John N. Warfield, A SCIENCE OF GENERIC
DESIGN: MANAGING COMPLEXITY
THROUGH SYSTEM DESIGN, Ames, IA: The
Iowa State University Press

                                         23
THE PROCESS FOR CARRYING OUT
THE WORK PROGRAM OF COMPLEXITY
WAS DESCRIBED IN 1994, AND MORE
THAN A HUNDRED APPLICATIONS
TABULATED IN

JOHN N. WARFIELD AND A. ROXANA
CARDENAS, A HANDBOOK OF
INTERACTIVE MANAGEMENT, AMES, IA:
THE IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
                                    24
THE OVERVIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC
BASIS FOR ALL OF THIS WORK WAS
PUBLISHED IN 2,002, INCLUDING DETAILS
OF A VARIETY OF APPLICATIONS IN

John N. Warfield, UNDERSTANDING
COMPLEXITY: THOUGHT & BEHAVIOR
Palm Harbor, FL: AJAR Publishing Co.


                                        25
THE ESSENTIAL MATHEMATICS, FIRST
PUBLISHED IN 1976, HAVE BEEN OR
SOON WILL BE REPUBLISHED IN 2003 in

John N. Warfield, THE MATHEMATICS OF
STRUCTURE, Palm Harbor, FL: AJAR
Publishing Company.



                                       26
THE SOFTWARE PACKAGE THAT SUPPORTS
THIS WORK IS A 1997 WINDOWS VERSION, WHICH
HAS A HIGH-QUALITY USER GUIDE WRITTEN BY
PROFESSOR BEN BROOME OF THE HUGH DOWNS
SCHOOLOF HUMAN COMMUNICATION AT THE
ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY, TEMPE.

THIS VERSION WAS PLACED IN SERVICE IN 1997
BY FORD MOTOR COMPANY AND BY THE
DEFENSE SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT COLLEGE.

                                             27
AN INTEGRATED PRESENTATION OF
THE FOREGOING IN TERMS OF THE
SCIENCE BASE IS OFFERED IN THE PAPER
PUBLISHED IN 2003 IN SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE (A
Wiley Journal):

John N. Warfield, “A PROPOSAL FOR
SYSTEMS SCIENCE”.
For a reprint, email jnwarfield@aol.com
                                          28
                     THOUGHT LEADERS ON
             INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIORAL PATHOLOGIES




ROBERT F. BALES       KEN BOULDING         MICHEL FOUCAULT   GEORGE A. MILLER
   1916-*****           1910-1994              1926-1984        1920-*****




 HERBERT A. SIMON
    1916-2001       SIR GEOFFREY VICKERS
                          1894-1982


                                                                                29
                 THOUGHT LEADERS ON
             GROUP BEHAVIORAL PATHOLOGIES




 GRAHAM ALLISON    ANDRE DELBECQ       MICHEL FOUCAULT    FRIEDRICH HAYEK
    1940-****         1936-*****          1926-1984           1899-1992




                                          NO PHOTO
                                          AVAILABLE

 IRVING JANIS
   *****-*****     IANNIS KAPELOUZOS   HAROLD LASSWELL   BRUCE TUCKMAN
                       *****-*****         1902-1978        1938-*****




A. H. VAN DE VEN
     *****-*****                                                            30
       THOUGHT LEADERS ON ORGANIZATIONAL
             BEHAVIOR PATHOLOGIES



                                                  NO PHOTO
                                                  AVAILABLE


                                 ANTHONY DOWNS   HAROLD LASSWELL
CHRIS ARGYRIS   KEN BOULDING                         1902-1978
  *****-*****     1910-1994         1930-*****




 KURT LEWIN     JAMES G. MARCH
  1890-1847        *****-*****     H. A. SIMON
                                    1916-2001




                                                                   31

				
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