ICANN by liaoxiuli

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									Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers


             Internationalization and
       Technical Stewardship of the Internet
                         8 May 2005
                         Cairo, Egypt
                       Theresa Swinehart
              General Manager, Global Partnerships
Internet Resources Management:

           The Past
THE ARPA NETWORK – SEPTEMBER 1969
             The early days of the Internet



• Network set up in the US scientific community
• Under R&D contracts to the US government
• Administered by the UCLA from Los Angeles
• Originally connected 4 universities
• Growing slowly into a larger scientific research
  network
• With increasing decentralisation and
• Involving scientists in the whole world
• Email was added in 1972, file transfer in 1973
Internet: The Mid 80’s
USENET 1986
          Internet: from R&D to commercial

• Increased use of scientific community
• Most use in US universities and R&D
  institutes
• International scientific use has
  commenced
• Domain Names System invented in 1983
• First non-scientific use is considered
• 1990: first commercial provision of Internet
  dial-up access
• 1991: www invented in CERN -
  Switzerland
                 Community values

• Ensuring a single, end-to-end interoperable
  Internet
• Bottom-up technical policy making and decision
  making
• Participation open to all who wish to do so
• Legitimacy determined by open participation and
  the value of the contribution to the joint effort,
  rather than power
• Consensus based decision making, but not full
  ‘census based’ consensus
• Cooperation, Coordination and Consultation
  among participants and groups pushing forward
  initiatives
• Yet, VERY spirited and blunt public debate
The Internet Today
      and….
 The Challenges
The political world
The telecommunications world
              The Internet Today:



• 200,000 interconnected networks
• 10,000’s of players from private sector
  providing equipment, applications,
  networks, pipes, services, research
• Academics assisting in research on
  standards and protocols
• The backbone of the digital economy
• A multi-stakeholder platform
              From the past …to the future



Small (4 university          Huge (today over 200,000
   networks, 100’s users)     networks, 1 billion users )
Scientific purpose           Multi-stakeholder purpose
US based                     Global
Scientific backbone          Global economy backbone
Single jurisdiction          Multiple jurisdictions
Regulated relations          Contractual relations
A few scientific issues      Multi-layered stack of issues
Industrialised countries     Industrialised and developing
   interest                   countries interest
ICANN and its structure
      ICANN: The Basic Challenge




An effective mechanism for
technical self-management
by the global Internet
  community serving a
  globalized economy
 Before ICANN, these stakeholders competed for influence
    over the Domain Name and IP Addressing systems


                                            ITU                                       NSI/
WIPO                                                      ccTLD        Consumers
                                          (ITU-T)                                    Verisign
                                                         registries
                      OECD                                                                       US Military
         Foreign
        Business
IETF                                Universities                       Registrars   Registries
                                                        ISPs
               IAB                                                                               UNDP
                           Intellectual
   US                        Property
 Business                                           Root
                             interests             Server
                                                                 Security           FTC
                                                                  Issues
                                                  Operators
             Developing
               World                 Regional                                                    NATO
             Governments              Internet                                   Civil
   ETSI                              Registries                                 Society
                                                                FCC
                                                                                Groups
                        OECD
                     governments
                                                    W3C
      Within ICANN, all stakeholders work collaboratively in
                      the policy structure

                                              Board of            President/
                                              Directors             CEO


        Governmental Advisory Committee
                     GAC



Address        Generic        Country        At-large     Security and   Root Server   Technical
Supporting     Names          Code Names     Advisory     Stability      System        Liaison
Organisation   Supporting     Supporting     Committee    Advisory       Advisory      Group
               Organisation   Organisation                Committee      Committee
                                                          SSAC
ASO            GNSO           ccNSO          ALAC                        RSSAC         TLG
               What is ICANN responsible for?

• ICANN is responsible for the global technical self-management of
  the Internet’s unique identifiers

• ICANN is dedicated to:
   • Preserving the operational stability of the Internet;
   • To promoting competition;
   • To achieving broad representation of global Internet
     communities;
   • And to developing policy appropriate to its mission through
     bottom-up, consensus-based processes
         What ICANN does not do

• Content on the Internet
• Spam
• Financial transactions online
• Consumer Protection Law
• Privacy Law
• Data Protection Law
• Intellectual Property Law
• E-commerce, e-education, e-government, etc.
Stability and security with open architecture



       New                     Unique                       Diverse,
    protocols                                             distributed
   and services                                          data networks
                           Domain    IP
                            Name   Number
                           System Resources

                               Protocol
                               and port
                  Secure      parameters        Stable




                              Variety of data
                            technologies and
                               applications
               PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIONS

1.   Contribute to stability and security of the unique identifiers

     system and root management

2.   Promote competition and choice for registrants and other

     users

3.   Forum for multi-stakeholder bottom-up development of

     related policy

4.   Ensuring on a global basis an opportunity for participation

     by all interested parties
                A Closer look at one area of success


• ICANN successful in changing the market structure for the
  registration of generic TLD’s

• A US$1 billion annual reduction in domain registration fees
    – Competition in the registrar business


• The market competition for generic domain name (gTLD)
  registrations established by ICANN has lowered domain name costs
  by 80%, with savings for both consumers and businesses.
                             Increasing Competition in gTLD Marketplace
                                        Registrar Market Share




          100%


          90%


          80%


          70%

  % of
COM/NET   60%
 Market

          50%


          40%


          30%


          20%


          10%


           0%
                 As of Dec 96              As of Dec 99           As of Dec 02              As of Dec 04

                 Network Solutions   Register.com   Tucows   GoDaddy   eNom      BulkRegister   Melbourne IT   Other
   Establishing and fostering
    competition and choice


                Price




    Registry                         Registrar
    functions                        functions



Increasing
choice                                     Fostering
through                 Innovative         competition through
registrar               services           market mechanisms
competition
and new
gTLDs
How stability and competition is accomplished

                      Outreach to and service
                       for all Internet users
    Developed                                   Developing
    nation Internet                             nation Internet
    communities                                 communities




                       Stability and security

                      Competition and choice

             Independent bottom-up coordination

              Global stakeholder representation
      Stakeholders in the Domain Name System


                            Business, civil
                            society and
                            academia

                   Agreed                     Responsive
                   policy                        process


Government and                                             Technical bodies
inter-government                                           and organisations
agencies                      Coordination
                              Collaboration
                              Cooperation
Stakeholders in the Domain Name System
  Government and inter-government agencies
  World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
  Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
  International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
  Inter-American Telecommunications
  Union (CITEL)
  Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
  UN Economic, Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
  New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)
  African Telecommunications Union (ATU)
  European Union (EU)
  Commonwealth Telecommunications Oragnisation
  Agence Intergouvernementale de la Francophonie
  Individual governments are also grappling with how to address new
  information society issues that cross over many government
  departments, foreign and domestic policy, cultural distinctions,
  economic development and similar public policy challenges
Stakeholders in the Domain Name System
  Business, civil society and academia
  Business organizations have an inherent interest in contributing to the
  Internet’s growth and potential
  Civil society organizations, from all parts of the world and from all
  aspects of society, remain committed to the potential of the Internet for
  the needs of civil society
  The academic community, regardless of location, has played and will
  always play an important role in the Internet
Stakeholders in the Domain Name System
  Technical bodies and organisations
  The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
  World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
  European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
  Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Forum
  Internet Society (ISOC)
  Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
  Domain name registrars
  Regional Internet number Registries (RIRs)
  Security and technical experts
  International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  ENUM Forum
  IPv6 Forum
  Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
  Space research agencies
  gTLD and ccTLD registries
  Internet Service Providers
    International multi-stakeholder representation and
                       participation


• Government Advisory Committee: about 100 governments and 5 +
  International Treaty Organisations
• At-Large Advisory Committee: 18 At-Large Structures from four
  global regions

• Board of Directors represents 14 nationalities

• ICANN Staff hail from nine different countries (Australia, Denmark,
  France, Mongolia, the Netherlands, Niger, Taiwan, the United
  Kingdom, and the United States)
               OECD Report continued



• ‘When OECD countries allocate resources they
  have certain common objectives irrespective of
  the method chosen. These can include efficient
  allocation of a resource and efficient use of that
  resource, transparency in the award of resource,
  non-discrimination, and the creation of
  appropriate conditions for market competition.
  There may also be other wider economic and
  social objectives. Through statements and
  actions it is clear that ICANN shares the ideals
  inherent in these objectives.’
  The International Multi-stakeholder Organisation of the 21st
                           Century:



• Transnational
• All stakeholders represented
  – Including governments with choice of relevant
    agency or agencies
• Flexible in organisational management
• No capture by individuals, groups, or
  organisations
• Reflective of its own regime.
• Focus on effectiveness and relevancy
For more information please see
     http://www.icann.com

      Or send an email to
 Theresa.Swinehart@icann.org

								
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