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									ICANN – how does it work, how to participate?

           Africa: On the Road to Athens
                   18th – 21st September 2006
                           Cairo, Egypt

Anne-Rachel Inné
The Domain Name System

‣ Internet started to grow after 1983

‣ Host.Txt table was unwieldy and hard to keep up to date in all hosts

‣ in 1984/5, Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel developed a distributed database
  system called the Domain Name System to accommodate much larger scale

‣ Kahn@arpa became

‣ Cerf@ucla became

‣ Tomlinson@bbn became

‣ Other top level domains:

   ‣   .GOV, .ORG, .NET (“generic”)

   ‣ and country codes: .US, .UK, .FR, .DE…

‣ The system is hierarchical and each name is unique:
The Domain Name System

‣ Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (Postel’s group at USC/ISI) managed top level

‣ Volunteers were found to manage next levels.

‣ Postel managed .edu, .US

‣ SRI managed .com, .org, .net, .mil, .gov and .int

‣ 1969 -1974 SRI manages day to day name space under direction of Postel as “numbers
  czar”, both under contract to DARPA

‣ 1975 - DCA picks up SRI Contract

‣ 1987 - NSF picks up .int, .com, .org, .net, and .edu, contracts w/SRI

‣ 1991 - DCA competes .mil, .gov and awards to Network Solutions

‣ 1993 - NSF creates “InterNIC” and awards to AT&T, CERFNet, and NSI (doing domain
  name registration for .org, .net, .com, .edu, .int - the latter two subcontracted to IANA)
The Domain Name System

‣ 1995 - NSF contract cannot cover costs of exploding .com registrations
  and allows NSI to recover costs by charging $100 for 2 year registration
  [note, NSF is a RESEARCH agency]

‣ 1998 - NSF transfers DNS responsibility to Dept of Commerce

‣ 1998 - DOC extends contract with NSI for two years (Sept 30, 2000)

‣ 1996 - Postel initiates Internet Ad Hoc Committee with support from
  Internet Society to institutionalize the IANA functions and open top level
  domains to competitive registration

‣ This proves to be very difficult with many people with differing views
  and interests. The debate doesn’t come to closure...
These stakeholders competed for influence over the
Domain Name and IP Addressing systems

                                                                 ITU                                                                     NSI/
 WIPO                                                                                                          Consumers
                                                               (ITU-T)                  ccTLD
                                       OECD                                                                                                        US military

IETF                                                     Universities


                          IAB                                                                                                                      UNDP
     US                                     property
   business                                 interests                      Root
                                                                                                    Security                     FTC

                            world                                                                                                                  NATO
                         governments                      Internet
                                                         Registries                                                          Civil
       ETSI                                                                                                                 society
                                                                                                    FCC                     groups

It’s all about money

‣ $$$.COM - Washington Post, 7/15/99
‣ Many entrepreneurs see NSI’s cash flow as a
  model for Internet business opportunities. Some
  want to create new “top level domains” (like .com),
  but the trademark community has reservations...
US Government steps in

‣ 1998 - Ira Magaziner, at the request of President
  Clinton, initiates an effort to facilitate formation of a
  neutral, industry-sponsored oversight organization to
  continue the IANA functions performed in the past
  under US Government contract in a global,
  consensus building setting.
‣ Green and White Papers developed
Creation of ICANN

‣ Nov 1998 - the USG recognizes the Internet
  Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

‣ 1999 - ICANN organizes the many components
  specified in the White Paper (Board, Supporting
  Organizations, Membership, Advisory committees…)
The functioning of the Internet:
organisational interactions and relationships



WIPO                                           W3C


         RIRs            IETF

‣   ICANN was created in 1998 by the international Internet community as a compromise between
    historical (early Internet community) and current interests (governments, business
    community). Its mandate was established by an MoU signed with the US government.


‣ Management of Internet Names and Addresses                            SUMMARY: On July 1, 1997, as part of the
    Clinton Administration's Framework for Global Electronic Commerce,(1) the President directed the Secretary of
    Commerce to privatize the domain name system (DNS) in a manner that increases competition and facilitates
    international participation in its management.

‣   Accordingly, on July 2, 1997, the Department of Commerce issued a Request for Comments (RFC) on DNS
    administration. The RFC solicited public input on issues relating to the overall framework of the DNS administration,
    the creation of new top-level domains, policies for domain name registrars, and trademark issues. During the
    comment period, more than 430 comments were received, amounting to some 1500 pages.(2)

‣   On January 30, 1998, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), an agency of the
    Department of Commerce, issued for comment, A Proposal to Improve the Technical Management of Internet Names
    and Addresses. The proposed rulemaking, or "Green Paper," was published in the Federal Register on February 20,
    1998, providing opportunity for public comment. NTIA received more than 650 comments, as of March 23, 1998, when
    the comment period closed.(3)

‣   The Green Paper proposed certain actions designed to privatize the management of Internet names and addresses in
    a manner that allows for the development of robust competition and facilitates global participation in Internet
    management. The Green Paper proposed for discussion a variety of issues relating to DNS management including
    private sector creation of a new not-for-profit corporation (the "new corporation") managed by a globally and
    functionally representative Board of Directors.
What is ICANN?
‣   The mission of The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ("ICANN") is
    to coordinate, at the overall level, the global Internet's systems of unique identifiers, and
    in particular to ensure the stable and secure operation of the Internet's unique identifier

‣   In particular, ICANN:

    1. Coordinates the allocation and assignment of the three sets of unique identifiers for
       the Internet, which are

       a) Domain names (forming a system referred to as "DNS");

       b) Internet protocol ("IP") addresses and autonomous system ("AS") numbers; and

       c) Protocol port and parameter numbers.

    2. Coordinates the operation and evolution of the DNS root name server system.

    3. Coordinates policy development reasonably and appropriately related to these
       technical functions.
ICANN and International representation

‣ ICANN Bylaws:


‣ In order to ensure broad international representation on the Board, the
  selection of Directors by the Nominating Committee and each Supporting
  Organization shall comply with all applicable diversity provisions of these
  Bylaws or of any Memorandum of Understanding referred to in these Bylaws
  concerning the Supporting Organization. One intent of these diversity
  provisions is to ensure that at all times each Geographic Region shall have at
  least one Director, and at all times no region shall have more than five
  Directors on the Board (not including the President). As used in these Bylaws,
  each of the following is considered to be a "Geographic Region": Europe;
  Asia/Australia/Pacific; Latin America/Caribbean islands; Africa; and North
  America. The specific countries included in each Geographic Region shall be
  determined by the Board, and this Section shall be reviewed by the Board
  from time to time (but at least every three years) to determine whether any
  change is appropriate, taking account of the evolution of the Internet.
ICANN in the international context

‣ ICANN is a unique and interesting structure for global governance. It is also
  an exercise in managing paradoxes, for example:

      ‣ • ICANN must work in an efficient manner in order to keep up with the
        development of the Internet, but it has to facilitate wide participation of
        various stakeholders in a bottom-up development approach which can
        be a slow and laborious process.

      ‣ • ICANN should be transparent and democratic (in order to promote
        openness, representation and due process in organisational
        deliberations), but should also accommodate specific requests by
        governments for closed sessions.

      ‣ • ICANN must be able to change fast in order to stay abreast with rapid
        developments in this field, but must also assure stability in order to
        guarantee the basic functionality of the Internet.
How ICANN’s works supports the Internet

             New                                                     Diverse,
           protocols                     Unique                  distributed data
          and services                                              networks

                                    Domain       IP
                                     Name      Number
                                    System    Resources

                                        and port
                           Secure      parameters       Stable
 Internet resources must                                         Interoperability allows the
 be consistent and                                               Internet to grow, change,
 interoperable                                                   and remain open to new
                                      Variety of data
                                    technologies and
The IANA Function
‣   The IANA function fulfills ICANN‟s mission for coordination of the Internet‟s unique resources

‣   Management of resources:

    ‣   Protocol parameter registries (in coordination with IETF/IESG/IAB):

        ‣   Internet Drafts and RFC standards process;

        ‣   Identifier registry creation and maintenance;

        ‣   Ports and Personal Enterprise Numbers (PENs) assignments.

    ‣   IPv4, IPv6 and Autonomous System Number Registries (in coordination with the Regional
        Internet Registries):

        ‣   Essential for Internet routing;

        ‣   Policies established through RIR local communities.

    ‣   Maintain .ARPA and .INT domain registrations and registries:

        ‣   Review new applications for domains;

        ‣   Maintain existing registration information.
               As we know, the DNS relies on
The DNS Tree   delegating sub-domain responsibility
               Each zone has a party responsible
The DNS Tree   for it, and for making delegations
               under it
               As operator of the root,
               ICANN/IANA is responsible for
The DNS Tree   assigning operators of top-level
ICANN policy process
The community builds policy

                                              Board of
     Ombudsman                                Directors
                                                             Governmental Advisory
                                    4        Policy debate   At-Large Advisory
          Country Code Name             2          3         Committee
          Supporting Organisation
                                                             Security and Stability
          Generic Names Supporting                           Advisory Committee
          Organisation                                       Root Server System
                                                             Advisory Committee
          Address Supporting
          Organisation                                    Technical Liaison Group
                           1 All public and private stakeholders 1
 Within ICANN, all stakeholders work
 collaboratively in the policy structure

                                           Board of
      Ombudsman                            Directors                         President/
                                        (15 voting Directors)
                                       (6 non-voting Liaisons)                  CEO
         Governmental Advisory
              Committee                                                                    Staff

               Generic Names   Country Code     At-large         Security    Root         Technical
Address                                                                      Server       Liaison
               Supporting      Names            Advisory         and
Supporting     Organisation    Supporting                                    System       Group
                                                Committee        Stability
Organisation                   Organisation                                  Advisory
               GNSO                                                          Committee
                               ccNSO                             Committee
                                                ALAC             SSAC                     TLG
ASO                                                                          RSSAC
International multi-stakeholder representation
and participation

‣ Government Advisory Committee: over 100 governments and 10
  International, Inter Governmental and Treaty Organisations

‣ At-Large Advisory Committee: approximately 22 At-Large Structures
  from five global regions

‣ Board of Directors represents 14 nationalities

‣ ICANN Staff hail from some of these countries (Australia, Denmark,
  Canada, China, Egypt, France, Italy, Japan, Mongolia, the
  Netherlands, Mexico, Niger, Palestine, Philippines, Sweden,
  Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States)
International Representation at the
Governmental Advisory Committee

‣ Chair: Mr Sharil Tarmizi, Malaysian Communications and Multimedia

‣ 21 African countries members

‣ AU, ATU, ECA are members
‣ To ensure that each country is represented within ICANN

‣ To secure public policies related to the management of the DNS,globally &

‣ To express the diversity of countries‟ views regarding Internet law and policy

‣ To gather and share the experiences of each country in DNS management

‣ To liaise with the other Interest Groups represented within ICANN
The Governmental Advisory Committee (2)
‣ GAC is an advisory body

‣ It operates as a forum for discussion

‣ Membership of the GAC is open to all national
  governments and to multinational governmental
  organisations and treaty organisations

‣ GAC meetings : monthly teleconferences and
  quarterly Face to Face meetings

‣ One Chair and 3 Vice-chairs are elected to reflect
  geographic diversity of membership
The Governmental Advisory Committee (3)
‣   Liaisons

‣   The ICANN Board: Sharil Tarmizi ( GAC Chairman )

‣   Root Server System Advisory Committee : Thomas de Haan

‣   Security Advisory Committee : Stefano Trumpy

‣   At Large Advisory Group : Carlos Valdez

‣   Technical Liaison Group : Stefano Trumpy

‣   Nominating Committee : Stefano Trumpy

‣   Liaison Groups

‣   Generic Names Supporting Organization : Suzanne Sene

‣   Country Code Name Supporting Organization : Martin Boyle (UK) , James Kilaba (Tanzania) , To be
    appointed (Japan)

‣   Address Supporting Organization : Thomas de Haan (The Netherlands) , Antenor Corrêa (Brazil) , To be
    appointed (Japan) , Palesa Banda (South Africa) , Suzanne Sene (US)
The Governmental Advisory Committee (4)

‣ Six working groups concentrating on current issues
  regarding the DNS management :
 ‣ Generic Top Level Domains (gTLDs)

 ‣ International Domain Names (IDN)

 ‣ Whois Data

 ‣ Country Code Top Level Domains (ccTLDs)

 ‣ Root Server Operation and DNS Security

 ‣ Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
What ICANN does not do
‣ Content on the Internet

‣ Spam

‣ Financial transactions online

‣ Consumer Protection Law

‣ Privacy Law

‣ Data Protection Law

‣ Intellectual Property Law

‣ E-commerce, e-education, e-government, etc.
What is ICANN trying to achieve?

‣ Transnational, global relevance

‣ All stakeholders represented

‣ Flexibility in organisational management

‣ No capture by individuals, groups, or organisations

‣ Reflective of its own regime

‣ Focus on effectiveness and relevancy
How is ICANN trying to achieve it?
‣ Completion of MoU with USG
  ‣ MoU was imposed after international consultations

  ‣ Need to meet requirements of the business model

    ‣ Financial autonomy, no capture, organisational viability, all
      stakeholders represented, contingency plans, recourse
      options, etc

‣ Continue to develop
‣ Trying to meet diverse requirements of stakeholders
‣ Constant review of performance and functioning
‣ Engagement in debate over future evolution
The essential paradigm shift…..
• Internet:
  – Decentralised control and intelligence
     • Power in the hands of the user
  – Global by design, based on private law contracts

• The “user” in the Internet:
  – Is empowered and able to take autonomous decisions
  – Can access, publish and distribute information
  – Develops new ways of interacting (email, blog, chat, Internet telephony,
    video, user applications, …)

   – But the “user” also
   – Publishes illegal and harmful content
   – Spams, hacks, phishes, spoofs, steals, etc.

• The problems with the Internet:
  – Are mostly found in its use (hacking, spamming, illegal content, phishing,
    identity theft, etc)
  – But rarely, if at all, in its technical functioning
Issues on ICANN plate
‣ IDNs

‣ New gTLDs strategy (sponsored, unsponsored, how many, added value to
  consumers, etc..)

‣ Budget issues (how to make sure ICANN has diverse budget base)

‣ Strategic planning – Plan 2006-2009 (what issues will ICANN, the DNS face in
  coming years, how to make sure ICANN as an independent organisation stick
  to its mission, is not captured by interest groups, is not subject to one
  jurisdiction, is not overseen by one country, etc.)

‣ Whois (privacy issues)

‣ Security (stability of the DNS in terms of universal resolvability, trust in the

‣ GAC: enhance multistakeholder status by having Governments resolve how
  they want to work in GAC with the whole community.
The issues surrounding ICANN

‣ Perceived US Government control, particularly over the editing of the
  root-zone file

‣ US jurisdiction (Law of California)
‣ Role of governments

‣ What is now better accepted about ICANN:
‣ The mandate and mission of the organisation
‣ Its limited but important role in the functioning of the Internet

‣ The multi-stakeholder nature of the organisation
‣ Its bottom-up consensus approach
The challenge for governments…
• to support user empowerment
• to define and develop public policy in a new
• to define their role (with private sector and civil
  society as partners)
• to (re)-define participation in the global and regional
  multi-stakeholder organisations such as ICANN,
  IETF, W3C, AfriNIC, and others
• to safeguard the trans-border nature of Internet –
  and avoid “balkanization”
Challenges for the region
• No registry
• 1 registrar accredited by ICANN out of +800
  registrars worlwide
• Almost no participation in global policy making (GAC,
  gTLDs, IPv6, IDNs, WHOIS, etc.)
• ccTLDs in majority still struggling
        •            to work well technically (about 6 managed technically out
          of country and 4 still out of country)
        •            to be adopted at home (charters and management)
        •            to participate to AfTLD and global governance – ccNSO

 • Empowerment of users, ISPs and all Internet related
   Challenge for the region…
   (ccTLD growth)

                                                           • 27M
                                                      • 8% Increase in
                                                     Base Growth YOY
                                                      • 6% Increase in
                                                        Base Growth
Source: VeriSign internal data. November 2004              QOQ
                                                     • Top 10 ccTLDs
                                                       make up 70%

     Source: VeriSign internal data. November 2004
Challenges for the region
(Domain Name Market (ccTLDs and Com Net)
                                                                •Composition Shift in total
                                                          com/net registration reliance from
                                                             NA from 68% in 2002 to 61% in
                                                            •Asia Pac increased contribution
                                                               to total com/net registrations
                                                                 from 9% - 12% in same time
                                                            •76% in 2004 – 73% of registered
                                                                      ccTLDs are European

                                                Blue = COM NET %
                                                Red = ccTLD %
Source: VeriSign internal data. November 2004
Challenge for the region…(Com Net
ICANN-accredited Registrar Locations)

Source: VeriSign internal data. November 2004
How can anybody participate right away in
    Joining Supporting Organisations and

‣ Address Supporting Organization (ASO) -
‣ Country Code Domain Name Supporting
  Organization (CCNSO) -
‣ Generic Names Supporting Organization
  (GNSO) - <>
‣ At-Large Advisory Committee -
‣ Governmental Advisory Committee -
     The Governmental Advisory Committee (5)
                Joining the GAC
‣   What does a member do ?

‣   Has one representative & 1or 2 advisers, Participates in meetings and teleconferences, Joins
    Email list and working groups, Keeps contact details up to date

‣   How to join the GAC ?

‣   Letter to Mr Mohamed Sharil Tarmizi, Chairman

‣   Contact details:

    ‣   ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC) c/o GAC Secretariat

    ‣   Room No. 1016,
        Electronics Neketan,
        6 CGO Complex,
        Lodi Road New Delhi, 110 003


‣   More information

‣   http://                             
On Post WSIS ICANN and After
‣ Participate:
  ‣   in SOs and ACs

  ‣ in new gTLD introduction discussions – how, what, when?

  ‣ in „privacy‟ related discussions in relation with WHOIS data

  ‣ In new registry services discussions

  ‣ Apply for positions a staff or board, or SOs and ACs (4 applications from
    the region for this years search)

‣ Help build ICANN as an International organisation:
  ‣ Strategic Plan

  ‣ Budget discussions

  ‣ IDNs
Thankyou for your attention!

        Anne-Rachel Inné

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