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Principles of Science Notes Outline

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					Environmental Science notes outline                                                   September 8, 2009


                               Chapter 3 – Principles of Science
    1. Science assumes that the world is ______________________.

    2. Science seeks to…

            a.

            b.

            c.

    3. Scientists work (alone / together).

    4. Give two examples of how scientists collaborate:

            a.

            b.

            c.

    5. Define pseudoscience –


    6. Give examples of pseudoscience throughout history:

            a.

            b.

            c.

            d.

            e.

            f.

Scientific Design

    7. Define reproducibility –




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Environmental Science notes outline                                                   September 8, 2009

    8. Controlled studies make comparisons between _______________ and _____________
       populations.

    9. Fill in the steps of the scientific method below:




    10. Define observation –

            a. Give the observation in the example




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Environmental Science notes outline                                                   September 8, 2009



    11. Define hypothesis –


            a. A hypothesis can be _______________, but ___________________________.

            b. Give an example:

    12. Define prediction –


            a. Give an example:

    13. Define each of these parts of an experiment and give the example:

            a. Variable –

            b. Experimental Group –

            c. Control Group –

    14. What does data analysis involve?



    15. The conclusion compares the __________________ with the ___________________.

    16. How are the results communicated?




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Environmental Science notes outline                                                   September 8, 2009



Scientific Design

    17. Blind Experiment –



    18. Double Blind -



    19. Modeling –


            a. Pro:


            b. Con:


    20. Natural Experiments –


            a. Pro:


            b. Con:



    21. What disease did John Snow study:

            a. What were the symptoms of this?



            b. How did he conduct this study?




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Environmental Science notes outline                                                   September 8, 2009




Other Factors Affecting Experiments

    22. Define probability –


            a. What is the probability of getting tails on a coin flip?


            b. What is the probability of getting tails twice in a row?


    23. Define sample size –


            a. Why is it good to have a high sample size?


Principles of Matter and Energy

    24. Define matter –

            a. The three phases of matter are:

                    i. ___________________

                    ii. ___________________

                   iii. ___________________

    25. The Law of Conservation of Matter states that…_______________________________

        _______________________________________________________________________.


    26. Define energy –

            a. Kinetic energy is found in ________________________.

            b. Potential energy is ____________________.

    27. Define heat –


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Environmental Science notes outline                                                   September 8, 2009




    28. First Law of Thermodynamics:



    29. Second Law of Thermodynamics:



            a. Can something be 100% efficient?


    30. Define atom –


            a. Protons:


            b. Electrons:


            c. Neutrons:


    31. Draw a carbon atom below:




    32. Define molecule –

            a. Give two examples:

    33. Define compound –




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Environmental Science notes outline                                                   September 8, 2009



    34. Given each of the following molecules, label as Element or Compound.

            a. Hydrogen:

            b. Oxygen:

            c. Nitrogen:

            d. Hydrogen chloride

            e. Water

            f. Carbon dioxide

            g. Sulfur dioxide

            h. Nitrogen dioxide

            i. Methane

    35. Define acid –

    36. Define base –

    37. The pH scale runs from ____ to _____.

            a. The strongest acid would be a __________.

            b. Neutral would be a _____________.

            c. The strongest base would be a __________.

    38. Examples of acids and bases:

            a. Name a strong acid:

            b. Name a weak acid:

            c. Name a strong base:

            d. Name a weak base:




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Description: This is an outline for students to fill out to accompany my lecture Powerpoint, also available through my DocStoc page. www.docstoc.com/profile/jamesdauray