Focus on Engendering 11th Plan from the Perspectives of Indigenous
Status of Indigenous women in the ‘decade’ and gender differences
The index of gender equality measuring the attainments in human development indicators for
females as a proportion of that of males has improved, but only marginally, during and after the
eighties. At the national level, Gender Equality Index increased from 62% in the early eighties to
67.6% in the early nineties. This implies that on an average the attainments of women on human
development indicators were only two-thirds of those of men. At the state level, gender equality
was the highest for Kerala followed by Himachal Pradesh. In the nineties, Himachal Pradesh had
the highest equality in absolute terms over the earlier period. In general, women were better off
in the southern India than in the Indo-Gangetic plains comprising mainly the state of Andhra
Pradesh in the south have made considerable progress in improving the status of women vis-à-
vis men on the human development indicators. States that have done well in improving their
female literacy levels are also the ones that have substantially improved their gender equality. On
the whole, gender disparities across the states have declined over the period.
The gender issues in tribal societies are basically different from caste society. The tribal society is
basically an equalitarian. In this society, there is not much marked division of labor based on
gender. Very little is found about gender relations among the tribal. At most, they describe the
status of women in tribal society. This status was high, equal or low. But the kind of
discrimination in gender relation which has become a gender issue in present society was absent
in medieval or modern. Gender issues emerged out of the present feminization, which
characterizes our present decade.
Gender and the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007)
Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) has special significance in the context to mainstream
Gender Perspectives to Eliminate Gender Discrimination;
This is because it follows the announcement of the National Policy on Empowerment of
Women, 2001. The Plan has been looked upon by women as an instrument that could
translate the Policy into action. The major need is mainstreaming a gender perspective to
remove gender discrimination wherever it exists and establishes gender equality by ushering
in a change in the social mindset;
The main goal is to achieve gender equality
Analysis of the Policy
The process of mainstreaming gender does not seem to have received adequate
attention in the various National Policies announced in last decade.
Some of the important Policies in the last decade - like the National Population Policy,
2000, the National Agriculture Policy, 2000, The National Health Policy, 2000, The
National Education Policy, 1986 (revised in 1992), did see the need to incorporate
measures to impact women and men distinctly, to realize their contributions to achieve
the goals of these policies.
But their declaration to achieve goals for changing the differential social status accorded
to men and women seem to be weak. This is particularly significant in the case of the
National Health Policy and National Agriculture Policy.
The Tenth Plan therefore had to give a greater thrust to incorporate gender perspectives
in all sectors for greater social and economic development.
Gender Budgeting in context of indigenous women in the Decade
The Government has announced its intention to gradually introduce the concept of “gender
budgeting” in line with the basic principles of governance to which the Central Government is
committed under the National Common Minimum Program (NCMP), which includes the
empowerment of women. This means that the budget data will in due course be presented in a
manner that highlights the gender sensitivities in the budgetary allocations. ( V.P. Prabhakar
Monday January 2, 2006 The Tribune).
The practice of analyzing the annual budget from a gender perspective has now become a
regular feature since last years.
The proportion of allocation for programs specifically targeted at women was 0.84% in 2003-
04 at Rs. 3,665 crores.
Higher budgetary allocation does not necessarily translate into higher expenditure on women.
The actual expenditure is much less than the initial allocation and sometimes lesser than the
revised decreased allocation.
Next table brings out the proportion of allocation for specifically targeted programs for
women under each Ministry/Department as also the actual expenditure which is
proportionately less than the allocation
Specifically Targeted Programs for Women
Share in Total Expenditure of the Ministry/Department and Proportion of Expenditure against
Share of specifically targeted Proportion of
Ministry/Department programs for women in total expenditure
expenditure of various against budget
Ministries/Departments (%) allocation (%)
2002-03 2003-04 2002-03
Women & Child Dev 0.95
Women & Child Development 17.05 17.73 0.90
Health 2.61 2.72 0.93
Family Welfare 12.23 15.89 0.57
Education 0.24 0.64 0.24
Labor 9.08 0.00 0.00
Tribal Affairs 0.69 1.10 0.58
Social Justice & Empowerment 1.56 1.36 1.00
Source: Department of Statistics
Government of India
The budget analysis worked out the pro-women allocations at Rs.9, 259 cores for 2003-04 in
The analysis observes a decreasing proportion of such allocations from 1995-96 at 3.89% of
the total Central Government expenditure to 2.19% in 2003-04.
Trends in Public Expenditure with Pro-Women Allocations in India from 1995-96 to 2003-04-
shows that there was a declining trend from 3.89 % in 1995-96 to 2.95 % in 1998-99. It
stood up to 3.05 % in 1999-2000, and then again, there was a declining trend up to 2.19 %
in 2003-04. (Source: Department of Statistics, Government of India)
The first and foremost step ahead is to strengthen the gender-based database within the
tribal population within relevant Departments/Ministries.
Given the significant gender disparities in India, it is important that budgets of government
should provide some idea of how much of the budgetary allocation is earmarked for the
benefit of women. This helps in their re-appropriation for other purposes.
Sectoral analysis of budgetary allocations and their impact on women needs to be
undertaken. The important sectors to be covered should include education, health, forestry