“Blood Brothers” -- Native Americans in California
1. How do we deal with people for whom historical sources
are meager or nonexistent?
2. How have the forces of history affected California’s Native
I. Ishi of the Yahi tribe
II. Addressing problems with sources
A. Archaeology, e.g. Clovis point spearheads
D. Ishi, Victoria, etc.
III. Review: Native Americans from the beginning through
the era of the Californios
IV. The Gold Rush and the Native Americans
A. Working for the Californios
1. Some participation in the great expansion of wealth
2. Natives at this time still outnumber whites 10 to 1
B. The Americans arrive
1. New diseases
2. New prejudices
3. Native population: 150,000 in 1848, 30,000 in 1860
V. Hope and Disappointment
A. Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor (1881) and
1. Reservations established, but not good land
B. Ishi and a resurgence of interest in the “Indian Problem”
1. 1930s: The “Indian New Deal” -- Respect tribal
sovereignty, provide funding for cultural development
2. 1940s: Compensation cases -- $668.51
3. 1950s: Termination and California Rancheria Act of 1958
4. 1962: California State Advisory Committee on Indian “The Snake and Rabbit” (Kumeyaay)
Affairs reports that the average lifespan for a Native
American in the state is 42 years, compared to 62 years Once upon a time, there was a rabbit who lived in
a burrow in the ground. One day he went off looking
for white Americans; average income is $2,262
for food. While he was away, a rattlesnake came along
compared to nearly $10,000 for whites. and went into his house. “I’ll wait here for the rabbit,
VI. A real resurgence and when he gets back I’ll eat him,” the rattlesnake
A. Johnson, Nixon, and economic empowerment said to himself.
1. The Indian Financing Act of 1974 After a long time, the rabbit came back home, but
he felt uneasy. Something was not right. “I think there
2. The rise of natives-only businesses like smoke shops
might be something bad inside,” he thought. “First I
3. Bingo and California v. Cabazon Indians will knock at the door. If it is quiet, then I’ll go in.”
4. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 So he knocked at the door. From deep inside came
B. Native Americans in modern California a “Hello!” The rabbit thought, “My house never talks
1. 240,000 individuals, easily largest population in U.S. to me. There must be something bad inside, all right.”
And he took off.
2. Education, infrastructure, employment and political
The snake had waited, intending to eat the rabbit,
connections but he messed it up himself.
3. Tribes have remained largely intact The end.