Protective Clothing Classes--Chemical Protective

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					  Protective Clothing: Classes
           Chemical Protective

Construction materials:

     •   neoprene        •   TyvekTM




     •   PVC             •   Saranex   TM




     •   CPE             •   Chemrel   TM




     •   butyl           •   nitrile


Not designed for use in flammable atmospheres
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     Protective Clothing: Classes
           Chemical Protective

 Fabric limitations:
 •   PVA is soluble in water
 •   neoprene reacts with acids
 •   viton reacts with some hydrocarbons
 •   duct tape reacts with oxidizers



Not designed for use in flammable atmospheres
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        Protective Clothing: Classes
                  Chemical Protective



Remember: If a fabric is
not compatible with a
given chemical, it will not
protect the wearer from
contact with that chemical


  Always check manufacturer’s compatibility charts before using!
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  Protective Clothing: Classes
         Chemical Protective



Three terms common to the protective
clothing industry relative to the degree
of chemical resistance:
    – permeation
    – penetration
    – degradation


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      Protective Clothing: Classes
              Chemical Protective


Permeation is the term
    used to describe a
   chemical's ability to
  actually work its way
through the fabric on a
       molecular level



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       Protective Clothing: Classes
              Chemical Protective


Different fabrics have
different resistance to
chemical permeation
and all will absorb
chemicals, although at
widely varying rates



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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective


                    Penetration is the
                    term used to
                    describe a
                    chemicals ability to
                    leak through
                    openings in the
                    garment, such as a
                    zipper

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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective




It is important to remember to
secure sleeves and pant legs
over gloves and boots ...to
prevent liquids from draining
into boots or gloves


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Protective Clothing: Classes
      Chemical Protective




This should be done using adjustable
     Velcro straps, not duct tape
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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective


                Some chemicals
                may actually
                dissolve, cause to
                turn brittle, swell, or
                crack a fabric
                This is referred to as
                degradation


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Protective Clothing: Classes
      Chemical Protective


Degradation:
 • can be caused from
   ultraviolet light
 • is a visible process
 • increases the rates of
   permeation and penetration

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   Protective Clothing: Classes
            Chemical Protective




Abrasion can cause breaching of a protective suit
 under routine conditions - stay off your knees!
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 Protective Clothing: Classes
        Chemical Protective


There are three types of chemical
protective clothing:
• fully-encapsulating suits
• non-encapsulating suits
• aprons



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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective

      Fully-encapsulating Suits
         One-piece garments which
         provide chemical protection
         for the entire body
         Boots and gloves may be an
         integral part of the suit;
         attached, yet replaceable; or
         separate

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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective

        Fully-encapsulating Suits
         These suits require the use of
         an SCBA or SAR with an
         escape bottle
         They are intended to provide
         an integrated, sealed "micro-
         environment" which cannot
         be entered by a contaminant


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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective

        Non-encapsulating Suits
         Commonly consist of a
         two-piece or a one-piece
         coverall
         They are frequently used
         when gas-tight body
         protection is not required



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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective

        Non-encapsulating Suits
         Provide excellent protection
         against splashes, dust, and other
         materials which cannot migrate
         between the overlaps of the
         various layers
         Note Velcro bands




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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective

                Aprons


         Many operations may focus on the
         primary exposure of the worker to
         the chest and forearms




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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective


                 Sleeved aprons, when
                 worn with disposable
                 gloves or worn with
                 overgloves, can be
                 quite useful when the
                 possibility of total
                 body contact is small




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   Protective Clothing: Classes
          Chemical Protective

Limitations
 CPE is a necessity for all hazardous
 materials work
 While CPE affords the worker
 protection from the chemical
 hazards in the work site, it may also
 increase the risk of other hazards
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    Protective Clothing: Classes
                   Chemical Protective

              •   induces thermal stress
              •   restricts user’s movement
LIMITATIONS

              •   restricts user’s vision
              •   restricts user’s hearing
              •   interferes with communications
              •   increases claustrophobia
              •   provides no thermal protection
              •   requires constant inspection


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   Protective Clothing: Classes
           Chemical Protective

        1) induces thermal stress

Heat-related illness
 – is the major problem associated with
   protective clothing usage

 – may include heat rash, heat cramps, heat
   stress, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke



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    Protective Clothing: Classes
           Chemical Protective




Cooling the entry and back-up teams prior to
entry can help to prevent heat-related illness
 REMEMBER to hydrate prior to suiting up!
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      Protective Clothing: Classes
               Chemical Protective




Cold-related illness is a problem that can be associated
  with protective clothing usage in excessively cold
environments and using unheated water during decon

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Protective Clothing: Classes
       Chemical Protective

  2) restricts user’s movement




Decreased worker agility can be a major
     problem on some operations
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   Protective Clothing: Classes
            Chemical Protective



A worker loses a
great deal of agility
when wearing
some protective
equipment



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       Protective Clothing: Classes
                 Chemical Protective


Tasks requiring good hand
agility are very difficult (if not
impossible) when wearing
protective gloves
Additionally, workers are
often required to wear more
than one pair of gloves




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  Protective Clothing: Classes
           Chemical Protective




   Workers have a decreased sense of balance,
requiring extra time for completion of simple tasks
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Protective Clothing: Classes
      Chemical Protective

    3) restricts user’s vision


                   Workers wearing
                   protective suits
                   and SCBA have a
                   decreased field of
                   vision



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Protective Clothing: Classes
      Chemical Protective

   4) restricts user’s hearing

                   Hoods, breathing
                   apparatus, and
                   hearing protectors
                   decrease the
                   worker's ability to
                   hear


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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective



                 This can interfere
                 with communication
                 and present
                 increased risks as
                 with decreased
                 vision


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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective

  5) restricts communications

                  Communication
                  may be very
                  difficult when
                  wearing protective
                  equipment such as
                  encapsulating suits
                  and SCBAs

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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective

                Special radios may be
                necessary
                Communication
                systems are available
                which are integrated
                directly into the
                protective suit or
                breathing apparatus


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Protective Clothing: Classes
     Chemical Protective

  6) increases claustrophobia

              Some workers suffer
              from claustrophobia
              when subjected to
              wearing CPE such as
              fully encapsulating
              suits or respirators


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Protective Clothing: Classes
       Chemical Protective

7) provides no thermal protection

                     Most chemical
                     protective suits
                     are not designed
                     to protect the
                     wearer against
                     flames or
                     radiant heat

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Protective Clothing: Classes
      Chemical Protective

8) requires constant inspection

                  If a good inspection
                  and maintenance
                  program is not a
                  part of the overall
                  CPE program there
                  may be unnecessary
                  worker exposures

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 Protective Clothing
EPA Levels of Protection



    Level A
      Level B
        Level C
         Level D



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           Protective Clothing
         EPA Levels of Protection


The federal EPA has established four levels
of protection for reference when working
with hazardous materials, identified as
levels A, B, C, and D
Level A offers the greatest protection and
Level D the least protection


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 Protective Clothing
EPA Levels of Protection

                   Level A protection
                   must be used when
                   the greatest level
                   of skin, respiratory,
                   and eye protection
                   is needed, such as
                   repairing a toxic
                   gas leak


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              Protective Clothing
             EPA Levels of Protection

NIOSH Approved                  Two-way radio
full-face SCBA or
SAR with escape                 Fully-encapsulating
bottle                          suit

Chemical-resistant              Chemical-resistant
inner & outer                   outer boots with
gloves                          steel toe & shank



                     Level A                     6-110
 Protective Clothing
EPA Levels of Protection


                Level B is used
                when the highest
                level of respiratory
                protection is
                necessary, but a
                lesser level of skin
                protection is needed


Level B
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        Protective Clothing
      EPA Levels of Protection



Level B protection is the minimum
level recommended for initial site
entry when contaminants and
concentrations are totally unknown


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                Protective Clothing
              EPA Levels of Protection


NIOSH Approved                   Two-way radio
full-face SCBA OR
                                 Hooded chemical-
SAR with escape
                                 resistant clothing
bottle
                                 Chemical-resistant
Chemical-resistant
                                 outer boots with
inner & outer gloves
                                 steel toe & shank


                       Level B
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            Protective Clothing
          EPA Levels of Protection


      Level C does not
require maximum skin
          or respiratory
 protection, and is the
only level where APRs
        may be used (if
sufficient protection is
     afforded by APRs)      Level C
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       Protective Clothing
     EPA Levels of Protection


Level C is used when atmospheric
contaminants, liquid splashes, or
other direct contact with the
substance will not adversely affect
or be absorbed by any exposed skin



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          Protective Clothing
         EPA Levels of Protection

Use of Level C presumes that:
  • the types of air contaminants have been
    identified
  • their concentrations have been measured
  • atmosphere contains at least 19.5% oxygen
  • an approved compatible APR is available that
    can remove the contaminants


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               Protective Clothing
             EPA Levels of Protection

                                 NIOSH Approved air-
 Hooded chemical-
                                 purifying respirator
 resistant clothing


  Chemical-resistant
                                 Chemical-resistant
inner & outer gloves
                                 outer boots with
                                 steel toe & shank



                       Level C
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 Protective Clothing
EPA Levels of Protection



                   Level D is used
                   when special
                   respiratory or
                   skin protection is
                   not necessary


Level D
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          Protective Clothing
        EPA Levels of Protection

Level D comprised of a work uniform
affording only minimal protection, and is used
to guard against nuisance contamination only
You may use Level D protection only when
work functions rule out the possibility of
splashes, immersion, or the potential for
unexpected inhalation of, or contact with,
hazardous levels of any chemicals

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             Protective Clothing
          EPA Levels of Protection



                             Coveralls or
                             work uniform
Chemical-
resistant boots
with steel toe &
shank




                   Level D
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             Protective Clothing
     Classification of Firefighter Clothing


HazMat incidents
almost always involve




                                ?
firefighters, yet
structural firefighter
protective clothing
is not designed to
protect the wearer
against chemicals



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       Protective Clothing
         Permissible Use

• Choose the proper PPE for each
  situation
• Training is mandatory using the
  PPE before working in it
• Follow the manufacturer’s
  recommendations


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              Review
•   the 3 principles of protection
•   the 3 types of respiratory protection
•   the 3 classes of protective clothing
•   the 4 EPA levels of protection



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Summary


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Application
   Step

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Lingjuan Ma Lingjuan Ma MS
About work for China Compulsory Certification. Some of the documents come from Internet, if you hold the copyright please contact me by huangcaijin@sohu.com