I. Stages of Early Childhood in Four Frameworks Psycho-social

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					     I. Stages of Early Childhood in Four Frameworks
         Psycho-social, Moral, Spiritual, and Racial
The Psycho-social Stages of Erik Erikson
           http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml

This page presents an overview of the developmental tasks involved in the social and
emotional development of children and teenagers which continues into adulthood.
The presentation is based on the Eight Stages of Development developed by
psychiatrist, Erik Erikson in 1956.

According to Erikson, the socialization process consists of eight phases - the "eight stages
of man." His eight stages of man were formulated, not through experimental work, but
through wide - ranging experience in psychotherapy, including extensive experience with
children and adolescents from low - as well as upper - and middle - social classes. Each
stage is regarded by Erikson as a "psychosocial crisis," which arises and demands
resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated. These stages are
conceived in an almost architectural sense: satisfactory learning and resolution of each
crisis is necessary if the child is to manage the next and subsequent ones satisfactorily,
just as the foundation of a house is essential to the first floor, which in turn must be
structurally sound to support and the second story, and so on.

1. Learning Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust (Hope)
Chronologically, this is the period of infancy through the first one or two years of life.
The child, well - handled, nurtured, and loved, develops trust and security and a basic
optimism. Badly handled, he becomes insecure and mistrustful.

2. Learning Autonomy Versus Shame (Will)
The second psychosocial crisis, Erikson believes, occurs during early childhood,
probably between about 18 months or 2 years and 3½ to 4 years of age. The "well -
parented" child emerges from this stage sure of himself, elated with his new found
control, and proud rather than ashamed. Autonomy is not, however, entirely synonymous
with assured self - possession, initiative, and independence but, at least for children in the
early part of this psychosocial crisis, includes stormy self - will, tantrums, stubbornness,
and negativism. For example, one sees may 2 year olds resolutely folding their arms to
prevent their mothers from holding their hands as they cross the street. Also, the sound
of "NO" rings through the house or the grocery store.

3. Learning Initiative Versus Guilt (Purpose)
Erikson believes that this third psychosocial crisis occurs during what he calls the "play
age," or the later preschool years (from about 3½ to, in the United States culture, entry
into formal school). During it, the healthily developing child learns: (1) to imagine, to
broaden his skills through active play of all sorts, including fantasy (2) to cooperate with
others (3) to lead as well as to follow. Immobilized by guilt, he is: (1) fearful (2) hangs
on the fringes of groups (3) continues to depend unduly on adults and (4) is restricted
both in the development of play skills and in imagination.

4. Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence)
Erikson believes that the fourth psychosocial crisis is handled, for better or worse, during
what he calls the "school age," presumably up to and possibly including some of junior
high school. Here the child learns to master the more formal skills of life: (1) relating
with peers according to rules (2) progressing from free play to play that may be
elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamwork, such as baseball and
(3) mastering social studies, reading, arithmetic. Homework is a necessity, and the need
for self-discipline increases yearly. The child who, because of his successive and
successful resolutions of earlier psychosocial crisis, is trusting, autonomous, and full of
initiative will learn easily enough to be industrious. However, the mistrusting child will
doubt the future. The shame - and guilt-filled child will experience defeat and inferiority.




          Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning
The Preconvential Level - At this level, the child is responsive to cultural rules and
labels of good and bad, right or wrong, but he interprets the labels in terms of either the
physical or hedonistic consequences of action (punishment, reward, exchange of favors)
or the physical power of those who enunciate the rules and labels. The level is divided
into the following three stages:

Stage 0: Egocentric judgement. The child makes judgements of good on the basis
of what he likes and wants or what helps him, and bad on the basis of what he does not
like or what hurts him. He has no concept of rules or of obligations to obey or conform
independent of his wish.

Stage 1: The punishment and obedience orientation. The physical
consequences of action determine its goodness or badness regardless of the
human meaning or value of these consequences. Avoidance of punishment and
unquestioning deference to power are values in their own right, not in terms of
respect for an underlying moral order supported by punishment and authority
(the latter is stage 4).

Stage 2: The instrumental relativist orientation. Right action consists of what
instrumentally satisfies one's own needs and occasionally the needs of others. Human
relations are viewed in terms such as those of the market place. Elements of fairness,
reciprocity, and equal sharing are present, but they are always interpreted in a physical,
pragmatic way. Reciprocity is a matter of "you scratch my back and I'll scratch your", not
loyalty, gratitude, or justice.
   James Fowler - Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human
          Development and the Quest for Meaning
        I found both of this book while picking through the remains at library book sales,
choosing books for prison libraries. I believe grace had a hand in it. Every Friday
morning I facilitate a group of prisoners in a Spiritual Practices Book Discussion group. I
hope that this framework will help them in their journeys and in my own.
        James Fowler has suggested that there are six stages of Faith Development. His
book is a presentation of these stages. Scotty McLennan’s book is a presentation of these
stages with actions anyone can take to deepen their spiritual experience, regardless of the
stage of their own development.

       1) Magic: “This stage can occur anytime after the first two years of life and
usually concludes by age ten. The world is perceived magically: full of fairies and
demons, super heroes and villains. It is hard to separate sleeping and waking states,
nightmares and daydreams. Children in this place speak of God as all-powerful -
someone who is responsible for everything that happens internally and externally, usually
including both good and ill, from good health to plane crashes. God can create ghosts
and destroy dragons.”

        2) Reality: “Usually after the age of six...children enter the stage of Reality, in
which they learn to think logically and order their world with ‘scientific’ categories such
as number and time and causality.... In this reality-based spiritual stage, God begins to be
images more tangible as a person - in Western culture, often as an old man with a long
white beard. The Bible and other scriptures are read concretely and literally, rather that
as mere tales. Moral rules begin to have an impact. Now, there is a cause-and-effect
relationship to God or Ultimate Reality. God can be influenced by good deeds, promises,
and vows. People have some degree of free will and choice, which also means control
over good and bad results.
        Most children go through a transition period during which they still hold on to
fragments of their Magic Stage. For example, a child may believe more strongly in Santa
Clause when she starts to believe that God has moral rules that reward or punish her for
being ‘naughty or nice’....Childhood is a period of spiritual tension between the stages of
Magic and Reality.”
    Stages of Racial Identity Development for People of Color
    William Cross author of Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity

1. Pre-encounter - Black child absorbs the beliefs and values of the White culture,
including the idea that it is better to be White. This can be reduced by parents who work
to provide positive cultural images.

2. Encounter - begins when an event or series of events force the young person to
acknowledge the personal impact of racism. This often begins in school.



                 Racial Identity Development for Whites
                  Janet Helms author of Black and White Racial Identity

1. Contact stage - Whites pay little attention to the significance of their racial identity.
“I’m just normal.” A few children are actually taught racism but most just breathe it in
the air around them and internalize stereotypes. They think of racism as the prejudiced
behaviors of individuals rather than as an institutional system of advantage benefiting
Whites. These messages can go unchallenged for a long time.

2. Disintegration - marked by a growing awareness of racism and White privilege.
Often this is when they form a friendship with a person of color and see firsthand how
racism operates by seeing such incidents as the police beating of Rodney King or
participating in an ‘unlearning racism’ workshop. This awareness has the uncomfortable
emotions of guilt, shame, and anger. Whites begin to see how much their lives and the
lives of people of color have been affected by racism.
                     II. Stages During Adolescence
The Psychosocial Stages of Erik Erikson
After Stage 3, one may use the whole repetoire of previous modalities, modes, and zones
for industrious, identity-maintaining, intimate, legacy-producing, dispair-countering
purposes.

4. Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence)
Erikson believes that the fourth psychosocial crisis is handled, for better or worse, during
what he calls the "school age," presumably up to and possibly including some of junior
high school. Here the child learns to master the more formal skills of life: (1) relating
with peers according to rules (2) progressing from free play to play that may be
elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamwork, such as baseball and
(3) mastering social studies, reading, arithmetic. Homework is a necessity, and the need
for self-discipline increases yearly. The child who, because of his successive and
successful resolutions of earlier psychosocial crisis, is trusting, autonomous, and full of
initiative will learn easily enough to be industrious. However, the mistrusting child will
doubt the future. The shame - and guilt-filled child will experience defeat and inferiority.

5. Learning Identity Versus Identity Diffusion (Fidelity)
During the fifth psychosocial crisis (adolescence, from about 13 or 14 to about 20) the
child, now an adolescent, learns how to answer satisfactorily and happily the question of
"Who am I?" But even the best - adjusted of adolescents experiences some role identity
diffusion: most boys and probably most girls experiment with minor delinquency;
rebellion flourishes; self - doubts flood the youngster, and so on.
          Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning
                                  Conventional Level

At this level, the individual perceives the maintenance of the expectations of
his family, group, or nation as valuable in its own right, regardless of
immediate and obvious consequences. The attitude is not only one of
conformity to personal expectations and social order, but of loyalty to it, of
actively maintaining, supporting, and justifying the order and identifying with
the persons or group involved in it. The level consists of the following two
stages:



Stage 3: The interpersonal concordance or "good boy-nice girl"
orientation. Good behavior is what pleases or helps others and is approved by them.
There is much conformity to stereotypical images of what is majority or "natural"
behavior. Behavior is frequently judged by intention -- "he means well" becomes
important for the first time. One earns approval by being "nice".

Stage 4: The "law and order" orientation. The individual is oriented toward
authority, fixed rules, and the maintenance of the social order. Right behavior consists in
doing one's duty, showing respect for authority, and maintaining the given social order
for its own sake.


James Fowler - Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development
                      and the Quest for Meaning

        3) Dependence: “Most adolescents struggle with the tension between
Dependence and Independence. The need for dependence, which starts around age
twelve, stems from a number of unavoidable factors in both psychological and
physiological development. The first and most important factor is puberty, which can be
a confusing and painful time for girls and boys. Around this age, children also become
affected more by peer pressure and are more easily influenced by the leadership of
respected older people. These factors contribute to the period of dependence, during
which time an individual is susceptible not only to cult involvement and brainwashing
but also to the development of a meaningful outlook on life.
        In the Dependence stage, the young person hungers for a very personal
relationship with God - the One who knows the individual and loves him or her
unconditionally. God then helps and directs the person as an idealized parent, often
replacing the actual parents, whom the adolescent begins to see as flawed.
         4) Independence - “One’s Independence stage can begin as early as age sixteen.
Instead of relying on outsiders, social conventions, and spiritual advisor to define one’s
religious orientation, the late teenager or young adult begins to find spiritual authority
within. This is a common time for the individual to say, “I’m spiritual, but I’m not
religious”, not wanting to be part of any institution of under anyone’s control. At the
same time, God or Ultimate Reality tends to become more impersonal and distant. Even
for those who find in effect that the kingdom of God is within them (Luke 17:21), and in
that sense close at hand, the internal God is usually described as soul or spirit. This form
of God is not something with whom one interacts interpersonally in the way one would
with a parent. Instead, God lies buried, waiting to be found as an animating force, deep
beneath layers of one’s personal psychology and various kinds of self-deception.
         Some may become functional deists during the Independence stage. Deists feel
that a Supreme Being may have created the universe but has long since retreated and left
the universe subject to the forces of natural and human laws. Perhaps this God or Force
remains in the form of energy or electricity, but certainly not as a person who intervenes
to break natural laws with miracles or as someone who carries on conversations with us.
A common analogy for the absent God is that of a clock maker, who constructs and
winds up the clock but lets it run on its own. Thomas Jefferson and Voltaire were deists
throughout most of their lives.”
         “Some people in the Independent stage demythologize religious symbols, rituals,
and stories. They search for historical background, literary function, and conceptual
meaning. That also means that sacred power is muted or lost. Instead of experiencing
the holy directly, these people have trouble getting beyond critical examination of the
rituals, symbols, and myths that mediate the sacred.”
         Since many adults never reach the Independent stage, and for a large number it
does not emerge until the mid-thirties or forties, the tension between Dependent and
Independent can cause considerable stress and strain in social and religious settings.
    Stages of Racial Identity Development for People of Color
    William Cross author of Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity

3. Immersion / emersion - a time of strong desire to surround oneself with symbols of
one’s racial identity, and actively seek out opportunities to learn about one’s own history
and culture with the support of same-race peers. The Black person in the immersion /
emersion phase is energized by the new information he or she is learning - angry perhaps
that it wasn’t available sooner - but excited to find our that there is more to Africa than
Tarzan movies and that there is more to Black history than victimization.


                 Racial Identity Development for Whites
                  Janet Helms author of Black and White Racial Identity

       For Whites, adolescence is often the time of beginning to think about what it
means in our society to be White unless circumstances bring these issues up earlier.

1. Contact stage - Whites pay little attention to the significance of their racial identity.
“I’m just normal.” A few children are actually taught racism but most just breathe it in
the air around them and internalize stereotypes. They think of racism as the prejudiced
behaviors of individuals rather than as an institutional system of advantage benefiting
Whites. These messages can go unchallenged for a long time.

2. Disintegration - marked by a growing awareness of racism and White privilege.
Often this is when they form a friendship with a person of color and see firsthand how
racism operates by seeing such incidents as the police beating of Rodney King or
participating in an ‘unlearning racism’ workshop. This awareness has the uncomfortable
emotions of guilt, shame, and anger. Whites begin to see how much their lives and the
lives of people of color have been affected by racism.

3. Reintegration - pressure from ones associates and discomfort with the feelings
generated make Whites at least consider going back to the contact stage. The social
pressure from friends and acquaintances to collude, to not notice racism, can be quite
powerful. But it is very difficult to stop noticing something once is has been pointed out.

4. Pseudo-independent - often seen as guilty White liberals. It is hard to accept that they
are seen as members of a dominant racial group not only by other Whites but also by
people of color. There is often a great desire to spend time with People of Color but if
they are in the immersion stage the White might take it personally and give up.
III. Stages of Maturity

The Psycho-social Stages of Erik Erikson
6. Learning Intimacy Versus Isolation (Love)
The successful young adult, for the first time, can experience true intimacy - the sort of
intimacy that makes possible good marriage or a genuine and enduring friendship.

7. Learning Generativity Versus Self-Absorption (Care)
In adulthood, the psychosocial crisis demands generativity, both in the sense of marriage
and parenthood, and in the sense of working productively and creatively.

8. Integrity Versus Despair (Wisdom)
If the other seven psychosocial crisis have been successfully resolved, the mature adult
develops the peak of adjustment; integrity. He trusts, he is independent and dares the
new. He works hard, has found a well - defined role in life, and has developed a self-
concept with which he is happy. He can be intimate without strain, guilt, regret, or lack
of realism; and he is proud of what he creates - his children, his work, or his hobbies. If
one or more of the earlier psychosocial crises have not been resolved, he may view
himself and his life with disgust and despair




     Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning
               Post-Conventional, Autonomous, or Principled Level.

The individual makes a clear effort to define moral values and principles that
have validity and application apart from the authority of the groups of persons
holding them and apart from the individual's own identification with the group.
The level has the two following stages:



Stage 5: The social-contract legalistic orientation (generally with
utilitarian overtones). Right action tends to be defined in terms of general
individual rights and standards that have been critically examined and agreed
upon by the whole society. There is a clear awareness of the relativism of
personal values and opinions and a corresponding emphasis upon procedural
rules for reaching consensus. Aside from what is constitutionally and
democratically agreed upon, right action is a matter of personal values and
opinions. The result is an emphasis upon the "legal point of view", but with an
additional emphasis upon the possibility of changing the law in terms of
rational considerations of social utility (rather than freezing it in terms of stage
4 "law and order"). Outside the legal realm, free agreement, and contract, is the
binding element of obligation. The "official" morality of the American
government and Constitution is at this stage.

Stage 6: The universal ethical-principle orientation. Right is defined by the
decision of conscience in accord with self-chosen ethical principles that appeal
to logical comprehensiveness, universality, and consistency. These principles
are abstract and ethical (the Golden Rule, the categorical imperative); they are
not concrete moral rules like the Ten Commandments. At heart, these are
universal principles of justice, of the reciprocity and equality of the human
rights, and of respect for the dignity of human beings as individual persons.




   James Fowler - Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human
          Development and the Quest for Meaning
         4) Independence - “One’s Independence stage can begin as early as age sixteen.
Instead of relying on outsiders, social conventions, and spiritual advisor to define one’s
religious orientation, the late teenager or young adult begins to find spiritual authority
within. This is a common time for the individual to say, “I’m spiritual, but I’m not
religious”, not wanting to be part of any institution of under anyone’s control. At the
same time, God or Ultimate Reality tends to become more impersonal and distant. Even
for those who find in effect that the kingdom of God is within them (Luke 17:21), and in
that sense close at hand, the internal God is usually described as soul or spirit. This form
of God is not something with whom one interacts interpersonally in the way one would
with a parent. Instead, God lies buried, waiting to be found as an animating force, deep
beneath layers of one’s personal psychology and various kinds of self-deception.
         Some may become functional deists during the Independence stage. Deists feel
that a Supreme Being may have created the universe but has long since retreated and left
the universe subject to the forces of natural and human laws. Perhaps this God or Force
remains in the form of energy or electricity, but certainly not as a person who intervenes
to break natural laws with miracles or as someone who carries on conversations with us.
A common analogy for the absent God is that of a clock maker, who constructs and
winds up the clock but lets it run on its own. Thomas Jefferson and Voltaire were deists
throughout most of their lives.”
         “Some people in the Independent stage demythologize religious symbols, rituals,
and stories. They search for historical background, literary function, and conceptual
meaning. That also means that sacred power is muted or lost. Instead of experiencing
the holy directly, these people have trouble getting beyond critical examination of the
rituals, symbols, and myths that mediate the sacred.”
       Since many adults never reach the Independent stage, and for a large number it
does not emerge until the mid-thirties or forties, the tension between Dependent and
Independent can cause considerable stress and strain in social and religious settings.

         5) Interdependence - The Interdependence stage has been called a “second
naiveté” because it is a time when religious symbols become sacred once again and are
found to have new power. As the name suggests, this stage of Interdependence is the
reconciliation of the previous stages of Dependence and Independence. People at this
spiritual level live in a dialectical yin-and-yang world, in which they are able to tolerate
ambiguity and seeming contradiction and enjoy complexity. God or Ultimate Reality is
experienced paradoxically. For example, many people at this stage can pray to God the
person, even though they intellectually understand the divine as an impersonal force in
the universe. Instead of taking an either-or approach to life, people at the
Interdependence stage are able to see all sides of an issue at the same time.
         Religiously, people at the Interdependent stage are open to dialogue between
different traditions because they understand that truth is multidimensional. Any
particular religious symbol, myth, or ritual is necessarily limited and incomplete, bound
by the follower’s personal experiences. This is not a purely relativistic approach,
however, as it is in the Independence stage. People in the Interdependent stage know the
value of picking a particular path.
         Those at the Interdependent stage do not demythologize religion, because critical
analysis is tempered by spiritual awareness. For example, someone at this level
recognizes that Communion, on the surface, is a totemic ritual but still feels the sacred
meaning of the Eucharist.”
         6) Unity - “People at the stage of Unity feel unconditionally related to the
Ultimate. In other words, they have a direct awareness of the oneness of all existence.
Before this stage we may have momentary experiences but people at the Unity stage have
these kinds of experience much more often, and these experiences continually inform the
rest of their understanding.
         Yin and yang and all other forms of paradox now disappear into undivided unity.
People at this stage speak of God in an all-pervasive sense: God is felt to be in
everything, and everything seems to exist in God. As a result, they possess a
universalizing compassion and a vision of universal community beyond all forms of
tribalism.
         Personal security also ceases to be a concern at the stage of Unity, and virtually
all forms of ego attachment disappear. One is now ready for deep relationships with
individuals at any of the other faith stages and from any other religious tradition. These
mystically aware people can be seen to be subversive of structures and organizations
(including institutional religion). As a result they can become targets of
misunderstanding and conflict. Some have died at the hands of others, such as Mohandas
Gandhi, who was assassinated by a fellow Hindu for his openness to Muslims. Often
these figures are more revered and respected after they are dead. Two modern examples
of those revered well before their death are Mother Teresa, a Catholic, and the fourteenth
Dali Lama, a Buddhist.”
    Stages of Racial Identity Development for People of Color
    William Cross author of Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity

4. Internalization - characterized by sense of security about one’s racial identity. Often
willing to make friendships across group boundaries.

5. Internalization - commitment. Translates a personal sense of racial identity into
ongoing action expressing a sense of commitment to the concerns of Blacks as a group.


                 Racial Identity Development for Whites
                  Janet Helms author of Black and White Racial Identity

2. Disintegration - marked by a growing awareness of racism and White privilege.
Often this is when they form a friendship with a person of color and see firsthand how
racism operates by seeing such incidents as the police beating of Rodney King or
participating in an ‘unlearning racism’ workshop. This awareness has the uncomfortable
emotions of guilt, shame, and anger. Whites begin to see how much their lives and the
lives of people of color have been affected by racism.

3. Reintegration - pressure from ones associates and discomfort with the feelings
generated make Whites at least consider going back to the contact stage. The social
pressure from friends and acquaintances to collude, to not notice racism, can be quite
powerful. But it is very difficult to stop noticing something once is has been pointed out.

4. Pseudo-independent - often seen as guilty White liberals. It is hard to accept that they
are seen as members of a dominant racial group not only by other Whites but also by
people of color. There is often a great desire to spend time with People of Color but if
they are in the immersion stage the White might take it personally and give up.

5. Immersion / emersion - recognizing the need for a more positive self-definition we
find Whites who are further along and can help us. It is time to study the history of
Whites who have resisted the role of oppressor and who have been allies to people of
color.

6. Autonomy - take on the roll of ally, search out the stories of other allies and share
your experience with others who are just starting out. Rewarded with an increasingly
multiracial and multicultural existence.