Using the LEGO NXT

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Using the LEGO NXT Powered By Docstoc
					Using the LEGO NXT
March 2007
 David Schilling
 Gus Jansson
Overview
  NXT Hardware
  Programming Languages
  Using the NXT
  Demo Robots
NXT – What you see
  4 Inputs (digital & analog)
  3 Outputs (support for encoders)
  Screen (100x64 pixels)
  4 Buttons
  Sound
  USB and Bluetooth
Processors
  Main processor:
     Atmel 32-bit ARM processor, AT91SAM7S256
     256 KB FLASH
     64 KB RAM
     48 MHz
  Co-processor:
     Atmel 8-bit AVR processor, ATmega48
     4 KB FLASH
     512 Byte RAM
     8 MHz
Bluetooth and USB
communication
  Bluetooth wireless communication CSR
  BlueCoreTM 4 v2.0 +EDR System
     Supports the Serial Port Profile (SPP)
     Internal 47 KByte RAM
     External 8 MBit FLASH
     26 MHz
  USB 2.0 Full speed com port (12 Mbit/s)
Graphics, Sound, etc
  Display 100 x 64 pixel LCD black &
  white graphical display
  Loudspeaker Sound output channel with
  8-bit resolution
     Sample rate of 2-16 KHz
  4 Buttons
Misc.
  3 output ports 6-wire interface supporting
  input from encoders
  4 input ports 6-wire interface supporting I2C
  as well as analog
     1 high speed port, IEC 61158 Type 4/EN 50170
      compliant
  JTag debugging pins if you want them
  LEGO has released technical specifications for
  all this
Online Documentation
  http://mindstorms.lego.com/ - click on
  “NXTreme” button for information and
  downloads for advanced users
  Open source firmware!!!
  SDK – Software Developer Kit
  HDK – Hardware Developer Kit
  BDK – Bluetooth Developer Kit
Motors
  Biggest improvement over RCX
   – rotation counters built in
  360 counts per rotation
  They are relative, not absolute positions
  Maximum speed is approx. 200 RPM
  Motors are much stronger than the
  other, older LEGO motors
Sensors
  Digital ultrasonic sensor (3cm-100cm)
  Light sensor – can control LED
  Sound sensor – DB and DBA
  Touch sensor - binary
Conversion cable
  LEGO has a conversion cable that
  allows you to use the sensors and
  motors of the RCX on the NXT
  And vice versa, but you can‟t use the
  ultrasonic sensor on the RCX, and the
  motors won‟t have encoder support
Wires
  The LEGO NXT wires have odd ends
  (like the DEC RJ-12 connector, but
  backwards)
  Wiring diagrams:


                                 Analog input
3rd Party Sensors
  Prices from $30 to $50 (so far)
  HiTechnic (www.HiTechnic.com)
     Packaging like LEGO sensors
     Authorized by LEGO
  MindSensors (www.MindSensors.com)
     Circuit boards with connectors
HiTechnic Sensors
  Color Sensor
  Compass Sensor
  Acceleration Sensor
  More coming…
     Prototype board
     Gyro sensor (analog, not I2C digital)
     IR Link (to talk to RCX and other LEGO IR devices)
     IR Seeker (for robo soccer, for example)
     No-contact touch sensor (electrostatic sensor)
     Motor Multiplexor
     Sensor Multiplexor
MindSensors Sensors
  Acceleration Sensor
  RCX to NXT communications link
  PS2 controller interface
  Motor Multiplexor
  Magnetic Compass
  Pneumatic Pressure Sensor
Bluetooth
  One way to download programs
  Can send files from one NXT to another
  Allows up to four NXTs to talk with each
  other
     One master, three slaves
  Can use a phone as a remote control
  for your NXT
  Other devices may be supported
Programming Languages
 NXT-G code
 NXC (and NBC)
 Robot C
 pbLua
 Java and others
NXT-G code
 LEGO‟s development environment
 Graphical programming
 Based on National Instruments‟ LabView
 Great for quick programs
 Wonderful for kids to use
  … but a real pain for old geezers like
    me who grew up with text
    programming languages
NXC (and NBC)
 NXC (Not eXactly C) is a language
 similar to NQC, which was the most
 popular way to program the RCX
 Built on NBC, the Next Byte Code
 „assembler‟
 Uses the built in firmware, and p-code
 system
NXC uses BricxCC
  Reasonably stable development
  environment
  Provides support for all LEGO robotic
  platforms
  Free!
Robot C
  Carnegie Mellon‟s programming
  language for various robotic platforms
  (including VEX, RCX, as well as NXT)
  Requires new firmware
  Not free (free trial, $30 download)
pbLua
 New firmware, and language
 Small portable language for embedded
 systems
 By Ralph Hemple, the author of pbForth
 for the RCX
 Compiles on brick!
 Use any terminal device to talk to it
Other languages
  Java and several other languages are
  reportedly in the works as well
  MS Robotic Studio also supports the
  NXT
     Download a small client program to NXT
     Actual control is on a PC
Programming with NXC
Assuming you are comfortable with C…

 How to use the motors
 How to read the sensors
 Threading model
NXC Programs
 NXC is based on C
 Restrictions because it‟s based on the
 built-in P-Code system
   There‟s no stack
   Limited memory
   Limited number of tasks (256)
     And subroutines, which are also „tasks‟
NXC program skeleton
#include "NXCDefs.h"

task main()
  {
  }
NXC Sensors
#include "NXCDefs.h"

task main()
  {
  SetSensorType( IN_1, SENSOR_TYPE_TOUCH );
  SetSensorMode( IN_1, SENSOR_MODE_BOOL );
  }
NXC Sensors
#include "NXCDefs.h"

task main()
  {
  SetSensor( IN_1, SENSOR_TOUCH );
  }
NXC Sensors
  To read a sensor use

     x = Sensor( IN_1 );
NXC Sample program
#include "NXCDefs.h“
task main() {
  SetSensor( IN_1, SENSOR_TOUCH );
  while( true ) {
    if( Sensor( IN_1 ) ) {
      PlayToneEx(440, 100, 3, false);
      TextOut( 0, LCD_LINE1, "TOUCHING!");
      while( Sensor( IN_1 ) )
      ;
    }
    TextOut( 0, LCD_LINE1, "---------");
    while( !Sensor( IN_1 ) )
    ;
  }
}
NXC Motors
 Simple motor commands are available
     OnFwd(), OnRev(), Off(), Float()
NXC Motors
 To use the built-in rotation sensors, you
 need to use the new motor commands
 Easiest to use is RotateMotor()
RotateMotor
  RotateMotor( port, speed, angle );
     port is OUT_A, OUT_B, OUT_C, or
      combinations such as OUT_AB, OUT_ABC
     speed is a number -100 to 100
     angle is the number of degrees you want
      the motor to turn (positive or negative)
Mimicking a Servo Motor
  Read the current motor angle
     Current = MotorRotationCount( OUT_A );
  Calculate how far you need to turn
     Delta = Target – Current;
  Turn that amount
     RotateMotor( OUT_A, speed, Delta );
Displaying Text
  The LCD display is useful for
     Debugging
     Setting parameters
     Runtime messages
     Graphics
     Games
     … and more
Displaying Text
  TextOut( x, y, text );
  NumOut( x, y, number );
LCD display
  The origin is the bottom left
  So TextOut( 0,0, “hi” ) will display in
  the bottom left corner
  Use the LCD_LINEn macros if you like
  to make it easier
Text Example
y = 42;
TextOut(0, LCD_LINE5, "Answer:" );
NumOut( 8*6, LCD_LINE5, y );
     // characters are 6 pixels wide
Graphics
  There are also commands to draw lines,
  circles, rectangles, and set points
  You can display bitmaps from a file
  RIC files – contain drawing commands
  One problem is there isn‟t an easy way
  to clear areas of the screen
     It‟s easy to clear the whole screen
     You can display a 1x1 blank bitmap
Tasks and Subroutines
  Multiple tasks are possible, but don‟t
  work like you might expect
  Scheduling is different – tasks start
  when a „dependant‟ task finishes
     There is no easy way of stopping a task
  Use Precedes() or Follows() in a task to
  define task dependencies
Tasks
task FooTask() {
  // will start executing when main() finishes
}
task main() {  // program starts here
  Precedes( FooTask );
}
task BarTask() {
  Follows( main );
  // will also start executing when main() finishes
}
Subroutines
  Essentially a task that can be called
  It suspends the calling task until it
  returns
  Don‟t use task keyword to define these
  Can pass in parameters or return a
  value
Subroutine Example
void TestSub( int x, int y, short i )
  {
  x = y + i;
  }
task main()
  {
  TestSub( 1, 2, 3 );
  }
NXC Help
 Preliminary help file is a PDF
 There are many samples and a tutorial
 online
Demo Robots
 Dog
 6-legged walker
 Crane
 Crate Dump truck
 Others?