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					    WWW.ADVISORS.iao.fhg.de   1
WWW.ADVISORS.IAO.FHG.DE
 What can ADVISORS
do for freight transport?



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    WWW.ADVISORS.IAO.FHG.DE
        This presentation
ADVISORS: Objectives and partners
Actors interests and acceptance
Risk analysis
Evaluation methodology
Conclusions



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             ADVISORS
  Advanced Driver assistance and Vehicle control
systems Implementation, Standardisation, Optimum
       use of the Road network and Safety

             DGTREN GRD1-2000-10047
              April 2000 – October 2002


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          Main Objectives

Integrated assessment methodology +
 criteria
Identify ADAS with high potential for
 safety and network efficiency increase
 and environmental load reduction
Comprehensive Implementation
 Scenarios
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                     Partners
   SWOV                         CRF
   JAM DE RIJK BV               Siemens Automotive SA
   ACHMEA Holding BV            University of Stuttgart
   Delft University of          Bundesanstalt fur
    Technology                    Strassenwesen
   IBSR/BIVV                    National Technical
   Aristotle University of       University of Athens
    Thessaloniki                 Centrum Dopravniho
   VTI                           Vyzkumu
   University of Groningen      VTT
                                 TRL
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Actor interests and acceptance




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    Actor stated problems
                                                   2000   2010


       Road network and its costs                                6.8
                                                                           7.7

Fleet and resources and their costs                           6.5
                                                                6.8

                                                               6.6
   Accessibility of public transport                            6.8

     Travel time, its predictability                            6.8
     and information                                           6.6

                 Traffic safety                                      7.1
                                                              6.4

    Environmental effects of traffic                             6.8
                                                                 6.7

                                  1    2   3   4    5     6      7         8     9   10




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Problems, different actor groups
 10



  9



  8



  7



  6



  5



  4
      Traffic safetyRoad network    Travel   Environment Accessibility of Fleet and
                    and its costs   times                 public transport resources

       Key actors     Authorities    Industry    Fleet managers   Other important actors



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Difference between mean severity of traffic-
     related problems currently and in 2010.
  3




  2




  1




  0




  -1




  -2




  -3
         Traffic safety   Road network    Travel time, its   Environmental        Accessibility of      Fleet and
                          and its costs    predictability    effects of traffic   public transport   resources and
                                          and information                                              their costs



       Key actors            Authorities             Industry                 Fleet managers                  Other important acto




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                      Attractiveness on motorways
                                      ACC                                                                                          ISA
                0.6                                                                                        0.6
                0.4                                                                                        0.4
                0.2                                                                                        0.2
part-worth




                                                                                             part-worth
                0.0                                                                                        0.0
               -0.2                                                                                       -0.2
               -0.4                                                                                       -0.4
               -0.6                                                                                       -0.6
                       distance        ehi o
                                       v clef lowing                   stop&go                                   nosupport           speeding   speedlimitation
                        warning           assistance                 assistance                                                       warning


                                   NAVIGATION                                                                                 PRICE
                0.6                                                                                        0.6
                0.4                                                                                        0.4
                0.2
                                                                                                           0.2
  part-worth




                                                                                             part-worth
                0.0
                                                                                                           0.0
               -0.2
                                                                                                          -0.2
               -0.4
               -0.6                                                                                       -0.4
               -0.8                                                                                       -0.6
                       nosupport       staticrouteinf
                                                    o                       o
                                                               actualrouteinf                                     EUR500             EUR1500        EUR2500

                                                        carprivate                carprofessional                   heavyvehicle




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                   Results
 Most severe rated: safety problems
 Increasing: network related problems and
  costs
 Dynamic navigation function most attractive
  (comfort, travel time, fuel consumption)
 Trucks: ACC (safety, comfort)
 ISA: mostly urban (safety, comfort for trucks)
 Warning more attractive than intervention
 User friendly terminology


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Risk analysis




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 Based on FMEA (Failure Mode
and Effects Analysis) methodology
 The indicators of severity, occurrence
  probability, delectability and recoverability
  have been expanded to cover technical-,
  behavioural-, legal- and organisational risks.
 For each identified type of problem:
   failure effect,
   cause,
   detection and recognition,
   mitigation strategy
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      Some elements of the
     Methodology for ADAS
    multiparameter risk analysis
 Risk = Severity x Probability x ((Detectability +
  Recoverability)/2)
 Calculate Technical Risk Number (RNT),
  Behavioural Risk Number (RNB), Legal Risk
  Number (RNL) and Organisational Risk Number
  (RNO)].



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  Technical Failure Analysis
            steps
System definition
Development of block diagrams
Failure modes, causes and effects
Design alternatives
Criticality of failure mode
Probability of failure mode
Criticality evaluation
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Severity levels of technical failure
 Extremely severe: Technical failure is intolerable; it
  could cause loss of vehicle safety resulting in serious
  injury and vehicle or environmental damage.
 Severe: The failure implies total loss of the vehicle
  availability causing major customer dissatisfaction.
 Moderate: Failure implies the partial loss of the function
  causing customer dissatisfaction.
 Slight: Technical failure of ADAS could cause customer
  dissatisfaction without resulting in injury or vehicle or
  environmental damage.
 Insignificant: The technical failure is very unlikely to
  happen and the consequences would be insignificant.

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  Technical barriers to ADAS
         deployment
A technical solution is not available,
 needs further investigation, or is highly
 complicated.
Cost would be prohibitive.
The benefits gained from the
 functionality of the system are
 uncertain.

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    Technical Risk Analysis
           results
Extended Navigation System (ENS)
Route guidance, navigation and vehicle
 status system (mainly for truck
 applications) (RGNVSS)




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   Extended Navigation (EN)
Navigation map enriched with additional
 information, speed limits in each road
 segment, road curvature in each road
 segment, number of lanes in each road
 segment, landmarks (traffic signs) in each
 road segment. This additional information can
 be provided to the driver directly, without
 filtering, or can be used in ADAS application.


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           Conclusions EN
 The info provided may be wrong or outdated
  (road lanes, directions and other road
  characteristics do change overnight due to
  local traffic policies, road works, etc). System
  reliability depends heavily upon data mapping
  from on-board sensors as well as frequent or
  even dynamic map updates.



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 Preliminary guidelines for EN
 Always fusion between extended map data
  and on-board sensors (from radar, road lane
  recognition camera, etc.) before providing
  information or warning to the driver.
 In case of conflict, the on-board sensor data
  should receive priority.
 A driver feedback button should be provided.
 The development and use of dynamically
  (locally) updated databases in the future is
  recommended.
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      To be evaluated (EN)

Define the optimal strategy and HMI of
 driver feedback, simulating various
 system errors / inaccuracies,
Define the optimal combination of
 redundant driver warning modalities.



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Route guidance, navigation and
vehicle status system (mainly for
 truck applications) (RGNVSS)
 Collection and recording of data related to
  trip, driver, vehicle’s location, performance,
  automatically or by driver (i.e. reasons for
  delay, expenses, etc).
 Messages receipt and transmission between
  vehicle and base, for route guidance and
  rerouting of the vehicle. Based upon
  INMARSAT-C and Euteltracs satellite
  communications and GSM-sms messaging.
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           RGNVSS cont’d
 Exchange of transport orders and contract
  status between the vehicle, its base and
  clients (vehicle rerouting / operations
  rescheduling)
 Classical static navigation used on-board of
  professional vehicles.




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     Conclusions RGNVSS
Operational risks are much higher than
 technical ones.
Most existing technical risks can be
 averted by proper drivers’, operations
 personnel’ (at home base stations) and
 even clients’ (e.g. companies) training.
 However, relevant training services and
 tools are not common today.

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 Conclusions RGNVSS cont’d
 Transport operators need integrated support
  for the set up, maintenance and operation of
  fleet related ADAS. Hard to find and therefore
  expensive;
 ADAS-based fleet management scheme
  requires large investments, (>= 10 vehicles;
  reported pay-back period of 4-8 years).
  Additional state funds or promotion policies
  (i.e. tax exemption) need to be offered to the
  pioneer transport operators.
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Preliminary guidelines for RGNVSS

 Automatic verification of transmissions
  between base station and truck should be
  supported.
 When the truck is out of communication
  range, both the base and the driver should be
  automatically informed, as well as when
  communication has been re-established.



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  Preliminary guidelines (RGNVSS)
                cont’d
 Training packages and manuals for the driver,
  the base station personnel and even the client
  should be offered by the companies installing
  ADAS on trucks that involve communication
  issues.
 Data storage and transmission length
  limitations should be imposed and explained
  to the users. Relevant field ranges should be
  as much as possible adjustable, to cater for
  different user needs.


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Preliminary guidelines (RGNVSS)
              cont’d
 Navigation maps need to extend to more
  European areas and especially south-eastern
  Europe and the Balkans, where
  communication links are still rather poor and
  therefore on-board solution (i.e. reliable
  navigation maps) can mitigate technical risks
  in operation due to communication errors.



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  To be evaluated (RGNVSS)

 Define the limits and optimal content of
  transmitted messages length for a list of key
  communication functionalities.
 Optimise the exchanged messages HMI, to
  minimise the required driver / base
  personnel training and enhance systems
  safety.


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To be evaluated (RGNVSS) cont’d

 Simulate a few complex message exchanges
  to verify the message understandability and
  involved actors’ interactions, using the
  proposed vs current message contents and
  layouts.




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Evaluation Methodology




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 Evaluation Methodology: a.o.
 Traffic Safety Assessment
 Usability and driver comfort assessment
 HMI factors and Interaction safety
 Road network efficiency and Environmental
  Impact Assessment
 Toolbox and Integration into a Framework



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    Traffic Safety Assessment, a.o.
 driver errors, various approaches
 drowsiness
 stress
 situation awareness
 vehicle measures (TTC, TLC, impact vulnerable
  road users etc)
 test vehicle confirmation (sensor tests etc)


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   Usability and driver comfort
       assessment, e.g.


 usability scales
 subjective driver satisfaction




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HMI factors and Interaction safety,
               e.g.

   HMI Model
   ADAS Quickcheck:
   general criteria
   criteria related to control (input) functions
   criteria to display (output) functions


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  Road network efficiency and
Environmental Impact Assessment

 Microscopic and macroscopic modelling for
  network efficiency
 fuel consumption
 emission levels (mass) of CO2, CO, HC, NOx
  and particulates (PM).



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                 Model links
          Network Efficiency   Environmental

Microscopic
              Microscopic        Microscopic
                Traffic         Environmental
                Model              Model
Macroscopic




              Macroscopic
                                 Macroscopic
               Network
                                Environmental
               Efficiency
                                   Model
                Model




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               Toolbox
Approx. 80 different tools
Described on various characteristics
 and references




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    Test within ADVISORS
HMI aspects of RGNVSS for truck
 drivers and planners




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              Conclusions
 Safety and network related problems and
  costs a problem
 Dynamic navigation function most attractive
  (comfort, travel time, fuel consumption)
 Trucks: ACC (safety, comfort)




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           Conclusions cont’d
 EN: Fusion between all data; give priority to on-board
  data
 Need for dynamic database
 HMI aspects, a.o. Optimal combination of warning
  modalities
 RGNVSS: Operational risks
 HMI
 Training
 High investments
 Inform both parties if communication fails
 standardisation of optimal lengths of messages
 Navigation maps to include SE Europe
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  Safety is also an important
   issue for freight transport
Project on Near accident analysis. Who
  wants to be involved??

Please contact Marion Wiethoff at:


     m.wiethoff@tbm.tudelft.nl

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