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					Seminar:                     Discovering Local Transport Plans and Road Traffic
Reduction

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                                                                  Session C/D04/7i
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 UK transport policy - long-term goals
 RICKETT, W, DETR, UK
 Abstract not available
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                                                                  Session C/D04/7ii
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 Local transport plans - update
 CLARK, K, DETR, UK
 Abstract not available
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                                                                  Session C05i
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 Analytical appraisal for local transport plans
 ASHIRU, O, Surrey County Council, UK
 NIELSEN, S, Surrey County Council, UK
 TARRIER, M, Surrey County Council, UK
 Surrey was the most successful county in the south east of England in terms of funding received
for their
 draft Local Transport Plan (LTP). It is hoped that for the first full LTP in July 2000, we will be
equally
 successful. The success is due, at least in part, to the computer based modelling we have
developed
 for undertaking the analytical appraisal of proposals.

 Two of the key tools are the Surrey County Transportation Model (SCTM) and the Public
Transport
 Accessibility Model (PTAM). The SCTM is a multi-modal model which models traffic,
including
 private and commercial vehicles, and public transport. It has sub models for modal split, peak
 spreading, trip redistribution and traffic induction/suppression. The PTAM measures both local
 accessibility and network accessibility. Both models make extensive use of a geographical
information
 system (GIS) using the MapInfo software.

 Ongoing development of PTAM includes GIS based pedestrian and cycling accessibility
models which
 will be linked to the existing public transport and highway accessibility models in order to
provide an
 integrated accessibility.

 The paper will describe how the integrated transport proposals set out in the LTP can be
assessed
 using the two models and, in line with the Road Traffic Reduction Act, the measures required to
achieve
 Surrey’s traffic growth target can be assessed using the SCTM.

 By June 2000 the models will have been used as major tools in preparing the county’s Local
Transport
 Plan. The models will identify schemes offering best value, forecast their contribution in
achieving the
 county’s traffic growth targets and monitor the impact achieved.

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                                                                  Session C05ii
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 Innovative public participation in the local transport planning process
 HARTSHORN, G, Steer Davies Gleave, UK
 Ongoing public participation is a fundamental element of the new Local Transport Planning
process.
 The LTP guidance stresses the importance of Local authorities working in partnership with
 communities, businesses, voluntary organisations and transport operators to understand
problems and
 to develop and implement solutions.

 As part of the Council's wider Participation Strategy, ten public meetings were held in Leicester
which
 aimed to improve understanding of the key transport issues, public aspirations and views on
possible
 funding sources and expose local Ward Councillors to the views of their electorate. Guests were
 selected randomly on-street to broadly represent the socio-demographics of each area.

 The methodology adopted techniques normally reserved for facilitating professionals and
interest groups
 rather than the general public. The meetings were very successful in maximising the
participation of all
 group members and achieving their aims. Key issues identified were used to focus the next
stages of the
 Participation Strategy.

 Having described the methodology, the paper will describe the lessons learnt from this study
and how
 the method could be refined. Guidance will then be given on how such techniques can be more
widely
 and successfully adopted and utilised as part of the LTP public participation process.

 The author will draw on Steer Davies Gleave's wider experience to extract important elements
of public
 involvement and highlight some ways in which ongoing participation can be developed in the
LTP
 process.

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                                                                  Session C05iii
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 Healthy cooperation: local government and a health authority working together on
 sustainable transport

 HURDLE, D, Centre for Independent Transport Research in Londo, UK
 SUTHERLAND, P E, London Borough of Barnet, UK
  With the British government calling on the health and local authority sectors to set examples of
greener
  travel, joint action seems obvious but is often lacking. However, the London Borough of Barnet
and
  Barnet Health Authority have set up a Transport Working Group that also includes healthcare
trusts
  and transport operators. Its aims are greener travel and improving the quality and efficiency of
transport
  provision.

 CILT’s research for the group covers travel needs; existing travel; population characteristics in
hospital
 catchment areas; progress on Green Transport Plans; existing transport provision; examples of
good
 practice elsewhere; integration of local authority education and social services transport with
 health-related transport; and investigation of door-to-door transport.

  The paper will cite relatively simple, straightforward work that can be done to better match
travel needs
  and transport provision, whilst securing more efficient, and better quality, transport operation.
It will
 highlight the value of utilising data that is already available, such as Census information about areas with low car
 ownership, plus home postcodes of hospital staff and patients; and presenting it in appropriate ways, eg by
 comparison with existing public transport routes.

 It will conclude that joint working between local and health authorities need not be complex.
By
 presenting relevant existing information, and simply getting the right people together, much can
be
 achieved in informing transport providers. More non-car travel can be achieved, whilst at the
same time
 implementing key themes of Green Transport Plans, thereby addressing all travel to hospitals -
staff,
 patients and visitors.

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                                                                  Session C06i
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 Coverage of travel plans (Green Transport Plans) in local transport plans
 GILLINGHAM, R, Transport Research Laboratory, UK
 WROE, L, Transport Research Laboratory, UK
 The English Local Authorities first provisional Local Transport Plans were submitted to the
British
 Government Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) in July 1999. A
key
 component of the government policy is the promotion and encouragement of the voluntary take-
up of
 Green Transport Plans (GTP) by organisations.

 This paper outlines the results of a research project commissioned by the DETR where all 117
local
 and interim transport plans produced by English authorities were read with a view to identifying
areas
 and examples of best practice in Green Transport Plans. In particular the strategy,
implementation of
 measures, target setting and monitoring procedures were considered.

  The level of coverage given to Green Transport Plans in Local Transport Plans varies greatly
between
  authorities. Due to differing organisational, demographic and economic circumstances in
authority
  areas, level of coverage differs, and not all examples of best practice can be uniformly
transferred.
  However, some lessons can be learnt from 'best practice'. These include the demonstration of a
clearly
  staged strategy of a council's own GTP, and promotion of GTPs in other large employers; the
need to
  show examples of GTP activity; the linking of GTP strategy to walking and cycling strategies; a
clear
  monitoring framework to assess progress; statements of intent to source funds for GTP
marketing and
  development and use of planning systems and available control to encourage GTP production.
 This paper promotes the use of best practice Green Transport Plans as identified in local
authority
 Local Transport Plans and recommends where improvements can be made.

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                                                                     Session C06ii
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    The interdependence of company travel plans and national transport strategies
    ELLIOTT, J, Pfizer, UK
    Company Travel plans or Green Travel Plans encompass preparing, planning and implementing
a
  transport plan for an area. They involve data collection, analysis, scheme development,
funding,
  winning hearts and minds, politics, lobbying, implementation and continuing management, just
like any
  other transport plan or strategy.

    The difference is their times-scales are telescoped and they have to be delivered.

 This paper will describe Pfizer’s transport plans in terms of why they were needed and how
they are
 being implemented by promoting culture changes, using available sticks and carrots and by
ensuring an
 integrated approach. The relationship between the basic elements of the scheme (a parking cash
out
 mechanism, public transport improvements, cycle facilities, car share systems, infrastructure
 improvements on and off site and general enabling factors) will be described.

 In particular, 3 cutting edge developments that could be particularly useful elsewhere will be
explained:-

 a) The novel automated parking cash out scheme (where non car users will be financially
rewarded)
 b) The development of an incentivised public transport contract with the local public transport
operator
 for both contract and public service buses including revenue sharing to maximise patronage and
extra
 rewards for clean timely reliable buses
 c) Working with Kent County Council on a major highway scheme to improve conditions for
greener
  modes.

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                                                                     Session C28i
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 A strategy for road traffic reduction in London
 FAIRHOLME, N, Greater London Authority, UK
 GARDNER, K, Greater London Authority, UK
 Road traffic reduction is a new theme in transport policy. The process to ensure that it is fully
 integrated with wider land use and transport planning will need to be evolutionary. This paper
will
 describe LPAC’s approach to developing a strategy for road traffic reduction in London, which
is
 believed to be the first such strategy in the UK.

 The LPAC strategy consists of two elements:-

 Stage One: Setting road traffic reduction targets for Central, Inner and Outer London, and
subsequently
 for individual Boroughs, based upon a number of objectives or ‘needs’ for traffic reduction,
including
 air quality.

 Stage Two: Developing a ten year (2000-2010) integrated land use planning and transport
policy
 framework, within which the Boroughs can meet these targets. This strategy consists of a broad package of
 measures, including the use of road user charging and a workplace parking levy, with key
 milestones in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2010.

 LPAC started the process of developing its strategy in March 1988 when it commissioned
consultants
 Halcrow Fox, in association with the South East Institute of Public Health (SEIPH), to carry out
a study
 of road traffic reduction in London.

 The findings of the consultants work were published in December 1998 and in January 1999
LPAC
 published for consultation its draft Strategy for Road Traffic Reduction in London. Following
an
 extensive consultation exercise, LPAC published its final Advice to the London Boroughs,
Government
 and Mayoral candidates on a Strategy for Road Traffic Reduction in London in December 1999.

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                                                                  Session C28ii
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 Children's behaviour in traffic - what can we learn?
 OVSTEDAL, L, SINTEF Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norway
 RYENG, E O, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
 When planning and designing the City of Tomorrow it is important to create a liveable city for
all
 people; a city where also children have access. In order to create a better road traffic
infrastructure for
 children as road users, it is important to know how children actually use the facilities made to
help
 them.

 This paper presents a study of children's behaviour in traffic. The Norwegian Public Road
 Administration wanted to achieve more knowledge on how children behaved in traffic; when
did they
 behave correctly, when did they behave incorrectly, and how did they use the facilities (i.e.
zebra
 crossings) made to help them?

 More than 1800 Norwegian children aged 6-12 were observed in traffic, both when they were
crossing
 the street and when they walked along the street, and their behaviour was recorded on video.
Their
 behaviour is studied according to age and sex, and according to whether they travelled alone,
together
 with other children or together with adults. Children's behaviour is also compared to the
behaviour of
 the grown-ups. The analysis show that children are less careful on their own, that the 6 year old
 children follow the rules, and that girls do it better. Conclusions are also made on the quality of
the
 different solutions, seen from the children's point of view.

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                                                                  Session C28iii
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 How to reduce the number of short trips by car
 MACKETT, R, Centre for Transport Studies, UCL, UK

 At the 1999 AET Conference a paper entitled `Reducing the number of short trips by car' was
 presented. It contained preliminary findings from a project being carried out for the Department
 of the
 Environment, Transport and the Regions entitled `Potential for mode transfer of short trips'. The
project
 is now complete. The paper being offered here contains the findings and policy
recommendations.

 It has been found that there are alternatives to the car for nearly 80% of short car trips. Business
and
 work trips would be the least likely to transfer, whilst the most likely would be taking children
to school.
 Of all the short trips by car, about 31% would transfer to walk, 31% would by bus and 7%
would
 cycle. About 4% might not travel at all if it was not possible to go by car, with about half of
these
 involving travel by others.

 The single policy intervention that would do most to attract people out of their cars is to
improve bus
 services which could attract up to 21% of car drivers. In particular, increasing the route
coverage and
 frequency of buses would make them much more attractive.

 There is little in the nature of specific policy intervention that could encourage more walking or
cycling.
 Most car drivers recognised that it would require some personal initiative.

 Policy action by government, both central and local, has a role to play in shifting about 35% of
the car
 trips. The organizations that have most potential to encourage drivers out of their cars are bus
 companies, but they will need incentives.

 Local government has a role to play by improving the facilities for cycling and walking,
including better
 street lighting, and by increasing the provision of bus services by inviting operators to tender to
provide
 significantly enhanced services. Central government's role is to provide leadership through
funding,
 publicity and where necessary, legislation.

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                                                                  Session C29i
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 Balancing car accessibility and good urban environment
 SVENSSON, T, National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden
 This paper will discuss some of the results from, and the applied methodology within, the
research
 project Balancing car accessibility and good urban environment. The background to the project
is the
 increasing use of cars in towns and cities, which has been a major problem for local town
planners and
 politicians during the whole post-war period. The underlying task for the entire research project
is to
 investigate if the documented development in this area is in line with the public interest, or if
there is an
  imbalance between the actual outcome and the inhabitants’ preferences. The central issue
concerns the
  balance between individual benefit of car-access and the public benefit of a good urban
environment.
  There is no functioning market where this balance can be effectively settled because urban
environment
  is an example of a public good that can not be purchased in desired quantities on a traditional
market.
  Problems of non-rivalry in consumption and free riders hamper the functioning of the market as
an
  efficient mechanism for allocating scarce resources. The isolated behaviour of an individual, or
a
  household, has no impact on the total outcome, which in turn will influence the behaviour in
certain
  directions. The purpose of the study is to investigate and analyse the balance between individual
gains
  offered by unlimited car-access and the following consequences of the total traffic by private
cars, that
  individuals would choose if the connections between these variables were made clear. This
research
  question is answered by letting individuals choose among different scenarios concerning the
design of
  inner cities and residential areas in suburbs, by means of a questionnaire. By letting the
individuals
  express their attitudes towards different parts of the scenarios and answer questions concerning
their
  socio-economic background and travelling behaviour, the analysis is further advanced. The
results of
  the study show that, within the boundaries of the applied methodology, a majority of the
individuals
  prefer scenarios where all kinds of road-users relatively safely coexists on streets and roads in
towns
  and cities, and where this condition has been reached by traffic calming measures. Compared to
the
  present situation this means a rather large reduction in car-traffic and parking in, especially,
inner cities
  with corresponding improvements in safety and assigned capacity for pedestrians and cyclists.

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                                                                  Session C29ii
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 Transport demand management in historic cities
 CONNER M, University of Leeds, UK
 GERRARD, W J, Leeds University Business School, UK
 MAY, A D, ITS, University of Leeds, UK
 TIGHT, M R, ITS, University of Leeds, UK
 This paper reports on the results of a major research project which sought to investigate the
 effectiveness of a range of demand management measures applied to three case study historic
cities:
 Cambridge, Norwich and York. The demand management measures considered were: parking
control;
 physical control; permit control; and road user charging as well as the combined effects of
workplace
 parking levy and road user charging and workplace parking levy and bus priority measures.

 The specific objectives of the research were: to predict the travel responses to, and the traffic
and
 environmental impacts of the demand management measures; to assess the public and business
attitudes
 to the measures and their predicted effects; and to provide guidance on the potential for
application of
 the methods, their future development and the implementation of enabling technologies.

 The different demand management strategies each assessed in a number of ways:

 in terms of their effects on travel choices in the areas through use of stated preference
techniques
 their effects on traffic using the SATURN model;
 their environmental effects, again using SATURN, but with enhancements to the existing
 algorithms for determining environmental impact;
 their effects on the urban economies of the cities, in particular looking at the attitudes of the
 business community; through questionnaire surveys; and
 their effects on public attitudes, again using questionnaire surveys.

 The paper presents a discussion of the main results of each of these elements of the assessment
and
 overall conclusions given as to the relative effectiveness of the different demand management
strategies.
 Suggestions are given for ways in which such strategies could be most effectively implemented
in the
 future.

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                                                                  Session C30i
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 Transport and accessibility: the perspectives of disadvantaged groups and communities
 LUCAS, K, University of Westminster, UK
 SIMPSON, R, University of Westminster, UK
 The paper presents the findings of research on behalf of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation,
designed to
 provide information on the transport needs of disadvantaged communities, under their
"Reconciling
 Environmental and Social Concerns" programme. The study focussed on five case study areas,
 selected on the basis of either physical isolation and/or economic deprivation and representing
urban
 through to rural scenarios. Drawing on the focus groups evidence of local residents, the paper
 characterises their views, aspirations and concerns vis-a-vis transport and accessibility. It
critically
 examines these in the context of the current transport policy agenda, evaluating on the basis of
 information gathered in interview with key transport decision makers the extent to which the
issues
 raised are currently being addressed. The paper concludes that, whilst the need for transport to
target
 disadvantaged groups and communities is generally recognised, there is a paucity of in-depth
 information from the perspectives of the affected individuals themselves on how this could best
be
 achieved. This position can lead to serious misinterpretations in needs analysis and policy
formulation;
 in this respect, the study makes an important contribution to planning and implementation in an
  increasingly evidence-based policy arena.

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                                                                  Session C30ii
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 Transport and social exclusion
 SOLOMON, J, TRaC, University of North London, UK
 This paper is based on research carried out in 20 urban and rural neighbourhoods between
January
 1999 and March 2000 for the Mobility Unit of DETR. The report is due to be published in the
summer
  of 2000. The paper will answer the following questions:

 - what problems of social exclusion are encountered in the sample neighbourhoods, and which
of these
 problems are common to all of them?

 - how far is transport (or lack of it) a contributor to the social exclusion of neighbourhoods,
groups and
 individuals?

 - what transport or other policy measures could contribute towards a greater level of social
inclusion in
 those areas?

 The research, which involved a wide variety of qualitative surveys, uses a life-cycle analysis to
consider
 the effects of transport on the socially excluded by age group, starting with the under-5s and
finishing
 with older people. Ethnic minority groups and people with disabilities are also given separate
 treatment.


 Interim results and analysis indicate that in some areas and among some groups of people, there
are
 very strong links between transport and social exclusion. Social and geographic mobility are
directly
 correlated and the disadvantaged are constrained by the affordability, availability, accessibility
and
 acceptability of public transport.

 Many of the problems now being encountered in the transport sector are the results of policies
in other
 sectors such as health, housing, education, social services. Although transport policy can help
to solve
  some of the problems, a more radical rethink and some cross-cutting measures are required.

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                                                                  Session C30iii
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 Defining a new urban public transport policy through consensus: taking advantage of the
 political change in Venezuela

 D'ELIAS, A, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Venezuela
 FLOREZ, J, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Venezuela
 In Venezuela the latest comprehensive urban transport policy was formulated (by the central
 government) in 1991. It was based on five proposals: transferring competencies on public
 transportation from central government to local authorities, a new variable pricing system, a
plan for
 subsidising transportation, a plan for lowering operation costs, and the transformation of the
institutional
 framework. In spite of the value of the overall strategy, its implementation, almost a decade
later, can
 be considered weak. In spite of some positive results, such as the renewal of the public transport
fleet,
 the establishment of some new larger transport companies and the improvement of the technical
 qualification of staff at the national and local level, the quality of the urban transport service has
no
 improved significantly.

 The reasons for this failure have been identified as the following: The lack of adequate co-
ordination
 between the different authorities responsible for transport provision and with those in charge of
urban
 planning; very few financial resources available compared with the requirements; and the
difficulty of
 organising and managing a myriad of small transport operators. All this overshadowed by a
political
 system based on well established patterns of mismanagement of public resources.

 In 1999, a new elected government had introduced significant changes in the political and
institutional
 national framework, including a new Constitution approved throughout national referendum.
These
 political and institutional changes offered a unique opportunity for reformulating the transport
policy.
 Consensus have being the key issue in that formulation, considering the fact that, a hole set of
different
 agents are now participating in transportation sector.

 The proposed paper will focus on the process of definition and reformulation of a new national
urban
 transportation policy through a participation process incorporating all related agents. Its
objective is to
 present, in a systematic way, some ideas for a national urban transport policy adapted to the
changing
 national development strategies that could be used to establish the guidelines of a new urban
 transportation policy for Venezuela.

 The adopted approach recognises the role of transportation as a facilitator and partner in the
 achievement of wider economic and social objectives. It also recognises that consensus among
all
 agents participating in the provision of transportation infrastructure and services are critical to implement any
 policy. This holistic approach has guided the three main activities that have been developed. The first one has been
 the monitoring of past government decisions at national, regional and local level. The second one has produced
 some recommendations based on a review of national and international experiences. Finally the opinions and
 proposals of the different agents based on the possibilities of participation and decision making brought about by
 the new political context have been identified.

 The last activity has been particularly difficult as no previous experience of a similar situation
could be
 obtained. Small discussion groups have been set to analyse in depth a pre-defined list of basic
issues.
 Nominal groups and Delphi processes allowed a systematic and interactive process of
communication
 and re-evaluation. This finally lead to a level of information (diagnosis and development
options) that
 could be usefully synthesised for the definition of a new urban transportation policy.

 As a result, some primary proposals have been designed regarding the relationships and change
in six
 major key issues:
 - Institutional arrangements: jurisdictional and functional reform,
 - Public transport organisation and regulation,
 - Financial framework: prices and subsides, taxing and funding,
 - Information technology,
 - Urban transport safety, and
 - Systems and technology

  This relatively vague set of proposals is expected to represent a common framework in which
the
  disparate interests of all agents, including regional and city planners, can be accommodated.
The next
  steps to be taken are designed to reach a much more difficult consensus, as they will affect the
  immediate and long-term interests of both public and private agents who are, by definition,
  contradictory. They envisage a set of progressive agreements between pairs of participants with
  conflicting interests that are systematically adjusted after negotiations inside the group. The
critical
  co-ordination role of the process will be lead by independent professionals under the umbrella
of the
  Ministry of Transport, throughout a National Foundation for Urban Transport (FONTUR). The
paper
  will present this original strategy to build a consensus that should produce a viable urban
transportation
  policy and some of the first results of the process.

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                                                                  Session C52i
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 Acceptability factors to transport policy changes
 RAUX, C, LET, France
 SOUCHE S, LET, France
 To obtain significant changes of behaviours, i.e. a reduction of the vehicle-kilometres travelled
either by
 modal transfer, or by reduction of mobility, the forecasting studies show that high levels of
prices must
 be applied. The definition of efficient policies of travel demand management is thus in a dead
end, as
 any efficient measure implies at first sight drastic changes but thereby unacceptable.

 The example of the recent failure of a tolled by-pass of 10 km in the agglomeration of Lyon can
be
 explained at the same time by an over-estimate of the traffic and an under-estimate of the
attitudes of
 refusal. Conversely other experiments of urban toll roads and (rare) experiments of tariff
modulation of
 road tolls show however that the road users can react so as to ensure the success of these
schemes:
 that is explained in particular by the fact that alternatives of choice exist and especially that they
are
 acceptable.

 This communication will argue for the need to take into account acceptability as a component
essential
 in the formation of the attitudes and thus the behavioural reactions to an evolving context. It
will be
 based on the results of several research works, including in particular a series of case studies of
demand
  reactions to ongoing road pricing schemes or experiments in various European countries, and a
series
 of ongoing studies and surveys about the acceptability of transport pricing measures in France
and in
 other European countries. It will draw conclusions on guidelines to enhance acceptability of
mobility
 management schemes.

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                                                                  Session C52ii
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 Toll-per-kilometre of heavy goods vehicles comparison of Austrian and German
approaches
 CORTHIER, B, ISIS, France
 MORELLO, S, ISIS, France
 In continental Europe, heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) must currently be equipped with a "Euro-
vignette"
  authorising them to use motorways in countries which are not equipped with toll-per-kilometre
 systems. The financial capital produced from this "Euro-vignette" is then redistributed amongst
the
 countries according to the kilometres travelled on their motorway network.

 By the calendar year 2003, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Federal Republic of
Austria
 intend to abandon this system in favour of the introduction of a toll-per-kilometre system for
their entire
 motorway networks.

 This paper will compare two very different approaches used by Germany and Austria to meet
this goal
 leading to a number of interesting conclusions, some of which are as follows:
 · The geographical situation of each country combined with different political concerns can
result in
 completely different choices for the technology to be implemented.
 · The rationale for the introduction of toll is either financial, or related to national transport
policies.
 · For reasons of political sensitivity, the opposition to tolls differs from one country to another.
 · The European Commission does not play a major role during the initial stages of these
projects, but
 rather in the closing stages, which can halt progression.
 · Two different organisational strategies were used to obtain similar results (one where the State
has an
 operating role and the other where the State acts as a monitoring authority).

 This paper will therefore provide important insights for policy-makers for future changeovers in
 European countries with existing "free" motorway networks to toll motorway networks.
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                                                                  Session C52iii
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 On the economic, technological and political aspects of road pricing as a tool for traffic
 demand management

 SANTOS, G, University of Cambridge, UK
 Road pricing can be used as an important tool to manage traffic. It has three main aspects: economic (how to
 determine an efficient charge), technological (how to collect the money) and political (how and when to introduce
 it).

 The first one is attacked via road pricing on the basis of congestion costs. A road charge aimed at improving the
 efficiency of the traffic system should be directed at covering the difference between the marginal social cost and
 the price actually paid by road users. Some estimates obtained from simulations with data provided by councils are
 presented. They suggest that if patterns can be found to characterise towns, finding the efficient agnitude in a few
 typical cases would provide the basis for fair road pricing across the UK. This is specially important since the
 recent Transport Bill enables local authorities to introduce charges.

 For the second aspect a variety of technologies have been proposed. Apart from the simple paper permit scheme,
 there are various electronic options with varying degrees of complexity and costs. Experience is being gained
 because some of them are actually in use in several European and Asian cities.

 No matter how well treated the previous aspects are, the dominant one is political. An electronic
system,
 successfully tested in Cambridge in 1993, was not finally introduced, probably because the
proposition
 was a sure vote looser. This shows that the introduction of a policy, no matter how efficient it may be, will
 probably fail if it has not a certain degree of public acceptance.


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                                                                  Session C53i
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 Consumer response to sustainable planning and transport policy initiatives
 COOPER J, TRI, Napier University, UK
 DONEGAN, K, TRI, Napier University, UK
 RYLEY, T, TRI, Napier University, UK
 SMYTH A, TRI, Napier University, UK
  The Integrated Transport Strategy in setting a new agenda for sustainable planning and
transport policy
  depends for its success on support from the general public. Insight is provided into consumer
response
 to those initiatives such as public transport improvements, road user charging, densification of residential property
 and domestic energy efficiency.

 Two independent data sets furnish the conclusions presented herein. The first emerges from a
major
 household survey undertaken as part of an EPSRC Sustainable Cities project within the Belfast
 Metropolitan Area and describes inter alia the pertinent variables: house location, household
 characteristics, car ownership, parking provision, modal choice and proximity to amenities.
 Incorporated in the survey is a stated preference element, which collected trade-offs between
house
 price, road user charges, proximity to public transport, house size and housing density. Relative
 attribute values of these variables were estimated for the whole sample and a series of market
 segments, using house price as the basic metric.

 The survey provides a picture of lifestyles, and informs an understanding of the likely
behavioural
 response to sustainable planning and transport policy initiatives. The level of resistance to such
 initiatives is examined and possible policy improvements are suggested on the hypothesis that
the
 Integrated Transport Strategy will radically alter the way people travel.

 The second and complementary survey is directed at suburbanised villages. It was designed to
 compare the attitudinal priorities of experts and consumers with respect to an expert consensus
 framework of travel behaviour indicators that have a bearing on sustainability.

 The project associated with the former survey has been extended to build up a similar
framework for
 Edinburgh. The differing approaches to sustainable planning and transport policy, arising from
extremes
 of car dependency, will be a focus of the discussion.

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                                                                  Session C53ii
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 The impact of road pricing and workplace parking levies on the urban economy: results
from
 a survey of firms
 GERRARD, B, Leeds University Business School, UK
 JOPSON, A, ITS, University of Leeds, UK
 STILL, B, (formerly at ITS, University of Leeds), UK
 A major obstacle to Local Authority implementation of urban road user charging and
workplace
 parking levy demand restraint policies is the potential adverse impact on the economic vitality
of urban
 centres. Currently, very little is understood about how firms may respond to such policies.
 This paper examines the attitudes of key decision makers within a range of firms to these
policies, and
 the likely responses to implementation. Over 160 firms were surveyed from three 'historic'
cities;
 Cambridge, Norwich and York.

 The first stage of the study examined the respondents' expectations of the policy impact on the
city in
 general and on their business in particular. The second stage is using the survey data in a model
of
 business sector growth and examining how responses to the policies will influence the
economic
 performance of the different cities. The presented paper will discuss both stages.

 Stage 1 of the study found a wide variation in responses to the policies, both by city and
business type.
 Many firms recognise the environmental and social gains from the policies, but also expect
private
 economic losses, particularly from parking levies. It was found that location preferences may
change,
 and staff recruitment be affected.

 The paper will conclude by discussing the implications of the analysis for successful policy
 implementation.

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                                                                  Session C54i
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 Does Scotland have a rural transport 'problem'?
 GRAY, D Dr, The Robert Gordon University, UK
 In many parts of rural Scotland, transport has become a highly charged issue as an increasingly
 car dependent society has been confronted by the highest fuel prices in Europe. More than
 ever, rural transport is represented in the media as a 'problem', one where a lack of public
 transport alternatives and increasing fuel prices threaten to undermine the sustainability of rural
 communities and increase social exclusion among low income households.

 Drawing on the findings or research into car dependence in rural Scotland, the paper will argue
that this
 representation is merely an accepted wisdom, based on a set of commonly held assumptions about rural transport,
 each of which can be challenged. After deconstructing the rural transport 'problem' the paper will go on to suggest
 that the real difficulty lies in the increasing conflict between increasing mobility and accessibility. It will be
 suggest that high car ownership levels are desirable because mobility and social participation are maximised for the
 majority. However, this also acts to marginalise local shop and service provision, undermining accessibility and
 social inclusion for those without access to a car.

 In reconciling this conflict, the paper will conclude that as well innovative polices such as car
clubs and
 dial-a-ride should be introduced alongside conventional public transport with the aim of
 maximising mobility for those who wish or need to travel. However, in order to maintain
 accessibility for those who don't, equally innovative approaches to support and stimulate local
 shops and services are also vital.


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                                                                  Session C54ii
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 The potential for car-clubs in rural areas - the European Experience
 CAMARA, P, Maunsell, UK
 European city 'car share/club' schemes have derived significant environmental benefits - lower individual car
 mileage, higher vehicle occupancy rates and a significant modal shift towards 'greener' modes of transport. 'Car-
 clubs' is a convenient form of short-term car hire that enables its members to have access to a car without actually
 owning one. Their members share a number of cars individually for all sorts of journeys.

 What seems to be still to explore is the potential of such schemes in rural areas and how they
could
 operate to promote mobility and improve accessibility. This is the aim of this paper. By using
the
 European experience of city car-clubs the paper will look at how these schemes could be also
 developed and adapted to rural areas.

 The aim of 'car-club' schemes is to provide access to a car whenever walking, cycling and
public
 transport are not viable alternatives, what is the case in most rural areas. The concept
ultimately seeks
 to divorce car use from car ownership to improve car utilisation.

 There seems to be a niche to be explored in rural areas. If such schemes are well developed in
rural
 areas significant improvements can be achieved in terms of accessibility and mobility.

 The advantages of such clubs are many fold: they allow people to use cars without necessarily
owning
 one; allow users access to cars for short periods from convenient neighbourhood or workplace
 locations; and encourage combining the use of other means of transport, including walking,
cycling and
 taxis.