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                                            Trendwatchers for innovation and technology


                      Innovative Dutch Solutions to
                      Improve Mobility

    Dear reader,

    Like many advanced industrialized economies, the Dutch economy
    and society face some interesting challenges in the field of sustainable
    and economically competitive road transport and personal mobility . It
    is therefore no surprise that the Dutch government has developed a
    vision and an innovation programme focusing on the automotive
    sector. The vision demonstrates awareness of the potential of interna-
    tional and Dutch R&D efforts to address some of the technological
    issues surrounding the adoption of innovative technologies for road
    transport and personal mobility.

    The Netherlands does certainly not pretend to have the technology
    solution for all advancements in the dynamic world of road transport
    and personal mobility. Yet with our combined knowledge and
    experience in fields such as energy, materials, tribology, ICT dependa-
    bility, human machine interaction, road support infrastrcuture, passive
    and active safety it is achievable to play a considerable role in some of
    the breakthroughs which are to be expected from all R&D and
    innovation efforts.

    In order to provide a stimulating push for cooperation in this field of
    R&D and innovation, an international conference by the Netherlands
    Network of Science and Technology Officers was agreed on the topic
    of “Innovative Technologies for road transport and personal mobility”.
    As part of this conference we aim to provide international relevant
    contacts and information in the field of science and technology with
    an overview of the Dutch R&D and innovation efforts in the fields
    mentioned earlier.

    The Netherlands Network of Science and Technology Officers
    (Technisch-wetenschappelijke Attachés) are able to quickly establish
    contact with the various experts in the field of relevant R&D activities
    in the Netherlands. These S&T officers are stationed in a large number
    of countries around the world to foster cooperation between
    researchers and entrepreneurs.

    This publication will provide you with a non-exhaustive overview of
    some of the novelties of Dutch innovative entrepreneurship and
    research . The Netherlands Science and Technology Officers sincerely
    hope that you are inspired by this publication to work together with all
    Dutch organizations active in the field road transport and personal


    The Netherlands Network of Science and Technology Officers.

Innovative Dutch Solutions to                                                       number of tailbacks. However, it does call for more compact and
                                                                                    lighter automotive electronics; electronics which must also be

Improve Mobility                                                                    inexpensive and 100 per cent reliable. There is also a need for more
                                                                                    insight into the interaction between man and his intelligent
Arjen Goetheer and Amanda Mackloet                                                  surroundings in order to be able to set those electronics correctly. The
                                                                                    development of ambient intelligence will result in vehicles that travel
Summary                                                                             to their destination independently by interacting with their co-road
Many challenges face the Netherlands in the field of mobility, safety               users and with road furniture. This will take time however – until 2030
and the environment. Tailbacks are expected to increase even further                is the expectation. While technological developments are going at a
over the next few years, the number of road casualties is still                     rapid pace, a new generation of systems will need to be introduced in
substantial, and a reduction in hazardous exhaust fumes is high on the              steps because of unforeseen future technical possibilities (3).
Innovative technologies in the field of road transport and personal                 Cleaner, safer, more pleasant
mobility are essential to be able to tackle these issues. Dutch                     The development of intelligent cars and roads will lead not only to
knowledge institutes and businesses can play a role in this respect.                fewer tailbacks but also to lower car speeds and thus a reduction in
This article outlines the main trends and developments, and names the               fuel consumption, plus a lower emission of hazardous substances.
players in the field and their innovations.                                         Climate change has led to reducing the emission of CO2, NOx and
For instance, a great deal is being done in the Netherlands in terms of             particulate matter being put high on the political agenda. European
efficient engines and transmission. With regard to the aspect of safety,            legislation is even now forcing car manufacturers to produce cleaner
sensors are being developed, such as adaptive cruise control, in order              vehicles by imposing maximum emission levels per kilometre (4).
to prevent damage. In addition to safety, ease of use is another                    The advent of more intelligent cars will also increase safety on our
important topic. Today we see a constant growth in user-friendly                    roads. Some cars are already equipped with sensors that indicate the
devices in passenger cars, such as navigation systems, traffic                      distance from other cars or bollards when parking, and are able to
information and entertainment systems to enhance the comfort of                     detect stationary or slow-moving road users (playing children for
passengers during their travels. Where traffic information is concerned             instance). The next generation will make it possible to communicate
the aspect of reliability is essential, not only for the user but also for          the distance that must be maintained between cars and automatic
road maintenance authorities.                                                       filtering in when driving onto the motorway. Car travel will become
A great deal of hardware is also developed in the Netherlands, such                 progressively more pleasant. Increasingly advanced vehicles will
as light-weight, sustainable and smart materials and intelligent nuts               offer the opportunity to carry out other activities while travelling, such
and bolts. And last of all, an intelligent infrastructure is also imperative;       as reading emails or watching films (5).
achieving reciprocal connection between individual vehicles while
travelling on the road and a connection between vehicles and their                  The Netherlands lays claim to world players
surroundings.                                                                       The worldwide automotive market is growing and presents opportu-
                                                                                    nities for the Dutch sector. A study conducted by Roland Berger
Details                                                                             Strategy Consultants (6) shows that the worldwide turnover in the car
Mobility is freedom. However, the feeling of being able to travel                   manufacturing industry will grow from 650 billion Euros in 2002 to 900
wherever and whenever you want has been under pressure for many                     billion in 2015. These researchers believe that the growth in this sector
years now. Delays in public transport, the many tailbacks due to the                will be totally to the benefit of supply companies and thus their share
increased use of cars and traffic accidents limit our freedom. The                  in the added value will increase from 65 per cent in 2002 to 80 per cent
number of tailbacks rose by 10 per cent in 2007. The annual death toll              in 2015. The reason for this growth is that car manufacturers will focus
on our roads stands at 800. Yet while this number has been on the                   on creating a distinctive product and brand. Research and development
decrease for several years now, safety is still high on the agenda. The             will largely be outsourced. The main growth is expected in the supply
cost incurred from tailbacks for our community is estimated at 3 billion            of electrical systems and electronics and in the supply of the structure,
Euros, and from road traffic hazards at 9 billion Euros (1). A further              the body work and the exterior.
increase is expected over the next ten years in the number of                       While there are only a few car and truck manufacturers in our country
kilometres we travel by car and the number of tailbacks on our roads                (7) our suppliers provide high-quality products and are innovative, ten
(2). This implies that the Netherlands will be faced with huge societal             of whom are market leaders in their segment, worldwide (8). This
problems in terms of mobility. Dutch knowledge institutes and                       international orientation arose because of the small number of
businesses can help solve these problems.                                           domestic manufacturers of end products. More than 90 per cent of our
Six subjects have been selected for the TWA theme day on innovative                 production is exported to other suppliers and car manufacturers
technologies for road transport and personal mobility: the environment              around the world. The sector is particularly strong in the development
and energy, passive and active safety (both of cars and passengers),                and application of embedded systems, software and sensors for the
the interaction between man and machine, materials and tribology,                   automotive industry. Dutch components are to be found in almost
reliable information systems, and roads and supporting infrastructure.              every car around the world (9).
This article outlines the most important trends and developments in
these fields, highlighting several players and their innovations.                   High-Tech Systems and Materials
                                                                                    The Netherlands can boast a strong international position in the field
Intelligent cars and roads... in 2030                                               of high-tech systems and materials, one of the key economic areas of
Widening roads or providing extra public transport would not seem to                our nation (10). The High-Tech Automotive Systems (HTAS) innovation
be a realistic solution to the issue of mobility. Greater progress would            programme falls within this key area and, likewise the other innovation
probably be achieved through smart cars and roads. By combining                     programmes, has the financial support of the Ministry of Economic
intelligent sensors and communication electronics it becomes possible               Affairs.
for cars to communicate with other vehicles and their surroundings.                 Through the development of more in-car electronic functions, and
This encourages anticipatory driving behaviour and could reduce the                 also through the development of innovative combinations of drive

                                                                       NOST Network | Innovative Dutch Solutions to Improve Mobility - October 008

    systems with light-weight materials, HTAS is very closely linked to          when the brakes are applied and then stored in a lithium-ion battery
    other programmes (11). This programme focuses on those areas in              which is subsequently used to assist acceleration or for slow driving
    which the Netherlands is able to excel in the international dimension:       in built-up areas or in factory buildings. The truck is able to travel a
    vehicle efficiency, and guidance and information systems for mobility.       total of two kilometres on a fully-charged battery (13). Through the use
    The plans for vehicle efficiency aim to achieve a reduction of 20 per        of continually lighter batteries this development is becoming even
    cent in fuel consumption and a decrease in the emission of CO2. The          more realistic. A fully electrical-driven delivery van is expected to be
    programme focusing on assisting the driver by means of guidance and          on the market by 2010: the Quicc, developed by Duracar. The Quicc is
    information systems is for the purpose of improving the flow of traffic,     powered by a lithium-ion battery and can travel up to a speed of 120
    achieving a higher level of safety, and sparing the environment.             kilometres per hour. It has an energy consumption the equivalent of
                                                                                 one Euro per hundred kilometres. The forecasts are that 25 per cent of
                                                                                 all cars in Europe will be powered by electricity in 2020 (14). Achieving
      Cluster-forming on the High Tech Automotive Campus                         this will call for a capacity expansion and a network of battery
      The High Tech Automotive Campus (HTAC) must become the                     recharging centres.
      centre for education, knowledge institutes and technology firms            The main opportunities for the Dutch automotive sector are in the field
      in the automotive field. A campus à la the High Tech Campus at             of powertrains. Many new concepts are being conceived in the
      Eindhoven, a campus with an international appeal where open                Netherlands and numerous businesses are active in this field.
      innovation will develop and testing facilities will be available. The      Continually variable transmission (CVT) is a Dutch invention conceived
      point of departure at Helmond was the research and testing                 by Hub van Doorne, the founder of DAF. This type of transmission was
      facilities of PDE Automotive and other companies that were                 then given the name variomatic, also referred to as the ‘smart gear
      already established there. Other companies established on the              stick’. This transmission system achieves the most favourable revs at
      campus include NoNox, Fier Automotive, and Advanced Public                 a given speed, plus the best mechanical torque possible. Van Doorn
      Transport Systems. ROC Ter AA and Fontys University of Applied             Transmissie (VDT) has meanwhile become part of Bosch. This type of
      Sciences Eindhoven and HAN University of Applied Sciences                  transmission has since been developed further and has led to a cluster
      provide automotive training on the campus. Automotive House is             of businesses being formed.
      also established on the campus, a national meeting and communi-            Dutch players are also engaged in so-called downsizing; reducing
      cation centre where events are organised. The HTAS programme               engine dimension while still maintaining performance. One example is
      bureau is also established here.                                           Gomecsys’s GoEngine, an engine which achieves a 30 per cent better
                                                                                 performance. Consumption is comparable to the Toyota Prius hybrid
                                             Figure 1. TNO’s establishment on    car, but with simpler and less expensive technology (15).
                                             the High Tech Automotive Campus.
                                             Source: own photograph
                                                                                   DriveTrain Innovations: smart transmission
                                                                                   Seven year-old DriveTrain Innovations is the perfect example of a
                                                                                   company that bridges the gap between science and practice.
                                                                                   Three former PhD students founded a company engaged in drive
                                                                                   technologies. Their scientific background and the many students
    Dutch innovations in six themes                                                they employ on work placement are able to translate the latest
    The six themes selected for the TWA theme day on innovative techno-            scientific insights into practical know-how. DTI developed the
    logies for road transport and personal mobility were taken as the basis        Automated Manual Transmission (AMT), a gearbox that allows
    for the innovations described in this article (12). These are: environment     the driver to determine the gear change moment himself without
    and energy, passive and active safety of vehicles and their occupants,         the need for a clutch. This achieves a combined automatic and
    human-machine interaction, materials and tribology, reliable                   manual transmission. The product that put DTI on the map is the
    information systems and roads and supporting infrastructure. Relevant          optimisation of Continually Variable Transmission (CVT) that
    trends and developments and several players in these fields, plus their        realises a 25% reduction in fuel consumption. The company, that
    innovations, are discussed below, subject by subject.                          now has a workforce of eleven, is a spin-off of Bosch VDT.

    Environment and Energy                                                                             Figure 2. The founders of DTI.
    Formula Zero, the very first race with hydrogen-powered vehicles,                                  Source:
    was held in August 2008 in Rotterdam. It was won by a team of students
    from Delft University of Technology. Their green racing car reached a
    speed of 110 kilometres per hour. Hydrogen as a car fuel is one of the
    developments in the trend towards more efficient and more
    environment-friendly fuels for cars. Not only is government policy a
    driving force in this respect, but an increasing number of customers
    are also calling for more environment-friendly cars. There are two
    main ways to achieve this: by using alternative sources of energy, and
    by optimising the processes in the powertrain (the group of components
    that generate power and deliver it to the road: transmission, driveshafts      NoNox: gas engine with the performance of a diesel engine
    and engine).                                                                   Gas Engine Technologie (GET) in Hoensbroek and RDM Technology
    The most obvious developments are alternative sources of energy.               of Rotterdam joined forces to form the joint venture NoNox.
    Hybrid cars, for instance, equipped with an electric motor and a petrol        NoNox developed a gas engine with a special valve technology
    engine, cars that run on hydrogen, and dedicated electric cars. DAF            that achieves a performance comparable with that of a diesel
    manufactures a hybrid LF truck, a combination of a diesel engine and           engine. GET supplied the expertise and RDM the financing; RDM
    electric motor. While this electric motor does use energy, it is released

  holds both the production and the sales rights. NoNox developed                          to be attached to fixed anchor points in the car, as opposed to the
  their own testing equipment for the product. The NoNox engine                            seat being kept in place by the seat belt alone.
  has an NOx emission of one gram / kWh maximum and a
  considerably lower CO2 emission. Vos Logistics has already                                                          Figure 5. Maxi-Cosi. Source:
  shown interest in this engine.

                         Figure 3. NoNox testing station. Source: nonox-

  Sensata                                                                                  Groeneveld: sensors and cameras for blindspots in lorries
  A company of American origin, Sensata, with                                              In addition to them being a major player in the field of solutions for
  an establishment in Almelo, is the world’s Source:                           automatic maintenance, such as greasing systems, Groeneveld is
  largest manufacturer of pressure sensors for                                             also a major player in the field of active safety. The Greensight
  the car manufacturing industry. Sensata recently won the EUREKA                          product provides truck drivers with 360 degree vision. It is an
  Lillehammer award for their contribution to sustainability with a                        active safety system involving sensors and cameras that detect
  pressure sensor incorporated in the cylinder. This sensor sends a                        traffic and other obstacles. The driver is able to see these
  signal to the management system if the combustion process is                             obstacles on a monitor located in the truck cabin. Groeneveld’s
  not operating optimally. The exhaust circulation is then adjusted                        research shows that truck drivers have always found extra
  to ensure that the combustion process remains uniform and                                mirrors annoying, but that a combination of sensors and cameras
  efficient. The emission of soot and nitrogen is reduced by this                          would be ideal. Groeneveld is one of the most rapidly growing
  sensor by 90 percent! Volkswagen’s Jetta, Touareg and the Audi                           companies in the Netherlands in terms of turnover. Last year they
  Q7 will all be fitted with this sensor.                                                  received the FD Gazellen Award.

                                                                                                                          Figure 6. 360 degree vision with the
Active and passive safety for cars and passengers                                                                         assistance of cameras and sensors.
The safety of car passengers can be increased substantially by an                                                         Source:
adjustment in hardware: bumpers, cage construction and crumple
zones. Nevertheless, the automotive sector of today is focusing on
software: various electronic gadgets that make driving more safe.
Mechanical and hydraulic systems are being replaced with wiring,
networks and chips. This technology is referred to as ‘drive by wire’.
A variety of electrons have meanwhile become available which are                        Human-machine interaction
also being incorporated in the cheaper-range cars. For instance:                        Human-machine interaction relates to the interaction between a
automatic parking sensors, windscreen wipers that switch on                             device and an individual; from turning a car wheel to operating a
automatically if rain is detected, anti-lock brake systems (ABS) and                    navigation system. User-friendliness is of the utmost importance in
automatic traction control (ATC) that prevents skidding when accele-                    this respect. TomTom is undeniably the pride of our nation in the field
rating too hard.                                                                        of (particularly portable) navigation systems (see the box). In addition
TNO Automotive has developed several products in this field such as                     to navigation, TomTom is now offering up-to-date traffic information.
adaptive cruise control, a system that maintains a set speed and                        The newest models are voice-operated. The end of integration with
distance to the car in front. They are also developing collision warning                multiple systems is by no means in sight as yet. The R&D centre of
systems and pre-collision systems such as direct working seat belt                      SiemensVDO, that has been taken over by TomTom, is engaged in the
tensioners and active lateral protection in the event of collision. Other               development of a navigation platform: ‘a complete platform for
Dutch players engaged in the development or supply of electronics                       orientation, navigation and integration with in-vehicle infotainment
and embedded systems for the automotive sector are SKF, Vredestein,                     systems’ (16).
NXP and Sensata. There are also automotive-specialised software                         NXP supplies chips that make the interaction between man and
companies. Rialtosoft supplies software for motor management,                           machine possible. Examples being chips for car radios, network
stability systems and braking systems.                                                  systems, immobilisers and optimum picture and sound. NXP has also
                                                                                        developed a chip that makes it possible to lock a vehicle’s doors and
                                                                                        start the engine without the need for a key. In the field of human-
  Maxi-Cosi: number one in safety and convenience                                       machine interaction Sensata manufactures sensors that guarantee a
  The German Stiftung Warentest has awarded a company of Dutch                          comfortable temperature inside vehicles.
  origin, Maxi-Cosi, the manufacturer of car seats for children and
  children’s prams, the first maximum safety score of five stars, and
  consequently the designation ‘very good’ for their CabrioFix.                            TomTom: Optimal route and optimal ease of use
  According to the organisation, this children’s car seat provides                         TomTom is currently working on a second-generation navigation
  optimum physical protection, is simple to use and is comfortable.                        system. After the first generation, that provides information on
  Particularly the combination of seat and the EasyFix base makes                          how to get from A to B, the second generation will soon make it
  this product extremely safe. This fastening device allows the seat                       possible for users to chose the optimal route to the required

                                                                           NOST Network | Innovative Dutch Solutions to Improve Mobility - October 008

                                                                                 addition to a reduction in weight, roofs manufactured from synthetic
      destination. To be able to provide the most up-to-date traffic             materials are also more impact-proof. An additional advantage here is
      information TomTom makes use of a variety of information sources           that the material also offers more opportunities for design.
      (including historical data, data provided by Verkeerscentrum               Other examples of technological innovations in the field of materials
      Nederland, the data of TomTom users themselves and Vodafone                for the automotive sector are the development of the new polymer
      callers).                                                                  PA4T by DSM. This polymer is resistant to lead-free soldering and has
      TomTom intends to optimise the element of ease-of-use as much              high rigidity and mechanical strength at higher temperatures. These
      as possible, for instance by also offering functionalities such as         features allow car manufacturers to achieve a reduction in weight
      recording an address, making handsfree telephone calls, and an             given that polymer can be used instead of metal. AkzoNobel have
      integrated FM radio.                                                       developed Lesonal car enamels. These paints have a superior
                                                                                 composition that achieves a shine and quality that will last ten years.
                         Figure 7. TomTom’s Go 930 Traffic. Source:   Nedschroef, manufacturer of nuts and bolts, have developed the
                                                                                 Nedsonic, an automatic nut driver. Using this nut driver ensures that
                                                                                 the nuts are always screwed on correctly and consequently fewer
                                                                                 and lighter bolts can be used in cars. TNO is also active in the field of
                                                                                 materials for the automotive industry. For instance: TNO is engaged in
                                                                                 research into nano-pigment systems and the possibilities of powder-
                                                                                 coating. And last of all, the Netherlands can also boast two world
                                                                                 players in the field of tribology with SKF (self-lubricating bearings) and
                                                                                 Groeneveld (greasing systems).
      AIDA: driving in a relaxed, safe and yet swift manner
      The Applications of Integrated Driving Assistance (AIDA)
      knowledge centre is an initiative of TNO and the University of               Eco-Care: innovative recycling method for production waste
      Twente (Enschede). This centre is engaged in the development of              Eco-Care has developed a recycling method for processing
      a wide range of applications to meet the needs of motorists.                 production waste, especially instrument components with
      These applications focus, for example, on choosing and                       production defects. This is a method that separates the materials
      maintaining a safe speed, distance and course, plus safe                     used in the individual components through, inter alia, air and wet-
      overtaking manoeuvres, filtering in when driving onto the                    separation techniques. These techniques enable the company to
      motorway and turning left or right. Also detecting traffic lights            deliver 99.98 per cent clean material back to their customers.
      and warning signs for obstacles are important applications. The              Together with Volkswagen and Ticona, Eco-Care was awarded
      institute is also developing products that help search for the               the AVK environmental prize in 2007 for the process they developed
      fastest, cheapest or most comfortable route, taking the desired              for recycling dashboards with production defects.
      arrival time into account.
      AIDA technology can also inform and assist tomorrow’s motorist                                                      Figure 9. Volkswagen waste.
      and take into account his/her preferences and destination. The                                                      Source: Kunststof Magazine,
      motorist is thus able to drive more relaxed, safer and swiftly.                                                     no. 6, 2003
      Many of these developments are still in their infancy. Researchers
      at AIDA are attempting to gain more insight into traffic flows and
      the effects of driver’s systems on the motorist.

                                         Figure 8. AIDA driving simulator.

                                                                                   Alucast: lighter engines thanks to magnesium bottom plate
                                                                                   In association with BMW, Brabant Alucast (a division of Euralcom)
                                                                                   developed magnesium bottom plates for engines. Magnesium
                                                                                   has never before been used in high-temperature car parts given
                                                                                   that it is slightly inflammable. The company has been working for
    Materials and tribology                                                        three years on developing these new bottom plates. The first new
    Safety can be improved and the environment spared by using light-              BMW 6 models were fitted out with these lighter magnesium
    weight, sustainable and smart materials. A lighter car is more                 parts, and the result: an engine which is 7 per cent lighter, has a
    economic to run, is less polluting and has a lower fuel consumption.           12 per cent higher engine performance and a 12 per cent lower
    One of the elements to be studied in the recently started innovation           fuel consumption.
    programme, Materials (M2i), is the development of new materials for
    the automotive sector. In this programme knowledge institutes and                                                        Figure 10. Foundry at Alucast
    universities are working hand in hand with companies such as DAF                                                         Source:
    Trucks, Corus and SKF at the Materials to Innovate Institute on light-
    weight materials.
    One significant development in the Netherlands in the field of materials
    is concerned with new combinations of drive systems and light-weight
    materials. Inalfa and Polynorm Plastics are focusing on the supply of
    light-weight materials for instance. Inalfa is using polycarbonate in
    sun roofs and panorama roof systems as opposed to using glass. In

Reliable information systems
Technological developments and new services in the field of reliable                  LogicaCMG and Siemens: anonymous pay-as-you-drive
information systems are emerging in the Netherlands from automotive                   Various consortiums of companies are working on developing
and ICT combinations and a combination of different sources of                        pay-as-you-drive systems. One example of the concepts that
information (datafusion). Cars are becoming more intelligent and are                  have already been developed is the LogicaCMG and Siemens
constantly connected with their surroundings by chip technology                       system, a system that makes anonymous pay-as-you-drive
(inter alia, from NXP). This connection makes it possible to obtain                   possible. This concept is based on the same price per kilometre
information about the routes cars take, and their location in the                     being charged for the different stretches of road. While prepaid
tailback. The reliability of this information is the decisive factor for the          cards are used to pay for the kilometres that have been travelled,
computer system’s success, not only for the user but also for the road                the route is kept ‘secret’. Prepaid cards for the system can be
maintenance authority in the event of calamities. Research in this field              sold in supermarkets or petrol stations.
in the Netherlands is conducted, inter alia, at the Delft University of
Technology (RegioLab Delft) and the University of Twente (Enschede).
Transport and mobility are the focus of attention at the research school                                            Figure 12. Price per kilometre to
TRAIL (TRAnsport, Infrastructure and Logistics), a field in which TNO                                               solve the problem of tailbacks.
is also active. TNO has developed a system for ANWB by which both                                                   Source: Verkeer en Waterstaat
short and long-term forecasts in terms of traffic volume can be made
in order to prevent the occurrence of tailbacks. TNO also developed
the so-called FLIP algorithm for the Dynamic Route Information Panels
that inform motorists about the length of the tailbacks on the various
alternative routes.
With Navteq, Teleatlas, Falkplan-Andes (see box) and TomTom, the
Netherlands has a strong internationally-oriented cluster in the field of          Roads and supporting infrastructure
advanced navigation systems. These companies and road maintenance                  Elektronics and ICT are a significant basis for new products and
authorities use ICT on a large scale to obtain traffic information. One            services for roads and supporting infrastructure. This subject is
example being the DMV Gegevenslaag (Data Register for Dynamic                      concerned mainly with intelligent systems outside the vehicle, such as
Traffic Management) of the Dutch Ministry of Waterways and Public                  traffic information systems suspended above the road.
Works Adviesdienst Verkeer en Vervoer. This intelligent database was               Most of the research is carried out at Delft University of Technology
developed for the real-time storage and combined processing of large               (infrastructure, and transport and logistics), the University of Twente
amounts of data from various sources for regional traffic management.              (Enschede) (AIDA) and by the TRAIL research group. Among the
Another example is Vialis, a company that developed an open system                 knowledge institutes, TNO is a major player in this field. This organi-
which can interpret and process data from a variety of information                 sation is developing video-based monitoring and simulation systems
sources. The traffic information thus obtained is used in SWIFT (Smart             and a track and trace system for the transportation of hazardous
way to Inform Traffic) systems in and around the country’s major                   substances.
cities.                                                                            A perfect example of the integration of intelligent systems is the
                                                                                   Connected Car concept. Three systems are combined in this concept:
                                                                                   active passenger safety systems inside the vehicle itself, in-car
  Falkplan-Andes: reliable route for emergency services                            systems, which are primarily concerned with entertainment and
  Falkplan-Andes is the exclusive supplier of geographical data to                 information inside the vehicle, and telematics systems that make it
  the incident rooms of the Public Order and Safety sector. Using                  possible to establish communication between the vehicle and the
  iFalk Traffic, a web-based application which is linked to the                    road and between the individual vehicles themselves. Connected Car
  company’s central database, reliable routes are supplied to                      is one of the three areas being focused on in the field of driving
  emergency services. This means that the emergency services                       guidance in the HTAS innovation programme. In one of these projects
  are able to arrive at the location where they are needed in good                 Advanced Public Transport Systems (APTS) works in close cooperation
  time. Road works, traffic diversions and major events are all                    with Critical Software on the automatic vehicle guidance system for
  included in the Falkplan-Andes database.                                         the Phileas, a guided tram on wheels.
                                                                                   Another example of technological development is the implementation
                                                                                   of eCall. Connekt is involved with the implementation of eCall within
                                                                                   the framework of the European eSafety Programme. eCall is a system
                                                                                   which, in the event of an accident, sends a message automatically
                                                                                   from the car involved in the accident to the 112 emergency centre;
                                                                                   information which includes, inter alia, the exact location of the vehicle,
  Figure 11. iFalk Local Traffic. Source:                              the time of the accident and vehicle data.
                                                                                   Companies such as LogicaCMG and Siemens are active in the
                                                                                   Netherlands in the field of Intelligent Traffic Systems. For instance,
                                                                                   Siemens has realised De Informatieve Weg in the province of Noord
                                                                                   Brabant, a system using the combined efforts of loop detection,
                                                                                   signalling devices, radar technologies and advanced headquarters.

                                                                      NOST Network | Innovative Dutch Solutions to Improve Mobility - October 008

                                                                                     Sources and additional information
      Vialis: hard shoulder becomes rush-hour lane                                   1. Arem, B. van & Horst, R. van der (2008). Mobiliteit, mens en
      Vialis realised the first hard shoulder that could be used as a                    techniek. ConcepTueel, 17(1), 12-13
      rush-hour lane. The rush-hour lane on the A7 is now used as an                 2. Ministerie Verkeer & Waterstaat (2005). Nota Mobiliteit.
      extra traffic lane during rush hours. Detection loops were                     3. Also see Naar een agenda voor duurzame productiviteitgroei
      incorporated in the road surface to measure traffic intensity. If                  (2008) of Nederland Ondernemend Innovatieland for the vision,
      traffic intensity goes above a certain limit, then the Traffic Control             ambition and long-term strategy pursued by the government for
      Centre for North-West Netherlands of the Ministry of Waterways                     mobility, etc.
      and Public Works receives the signal to open the rush-hour lane.               4. De Volkskrant (2007). EU overweegt dwang automakers: Duitse
      Cameras located along the A7 are used to check that the lane is                    auto-industrie maakt geen haast met CO2-vermindering. 2 February
      free, and if so, then a green arrow is depicted on the matrix signs                2007.
      above the rush-hour lane to indicate that it can be used. This                 5. Gerven, P. van (2007).Een olifant eten, hapje voor hapje. Bits&Chips
      message is backed up by signs along the route showing the text:                    of 14 September 2007
      ‘Rush-hour lane open’.                                                         6. NRC Handelsblad (2007). Ook Nederland is een autoland. Consultant
                                                                                         René Seyger speaks about the value of the supplier and efficient
                               Figure 13. Rush-hour lane on the A7. Source: Vialis       engines. 24 March 2007
                                                                                     7. With NedCar the Netherlands has an assembly plant for passenger
                                                                                         cars and truck manufacturers (DAF Trucks and Scania), plus a bus
                                                                                         manufacturer (VDL, APTS). There are also several niche players in
                                                                                         the truck sector such as Terberg and Ginaf.
                                                                                     8. These are: Philips (lighting), SKF (bearings), Siemens VDO
                                                                                         (navigation systems), TomTom (navigation systems), Navteq (digital
                                                                                         maps), PowerPacker (hydraulic systems for folding car roofs) ,
                                                                                         Bosch VDT (CVT-belts), AkzoNobel (car enamels), DSM (industrial
                                                                                         plastics) and Groeneveld (greasing systems). Source: Federatie
                                                                                         Holland Automotive (2006). Vision for the Dutch Automotive
    Conclusion                                                                       9. SEOR (2008) Automotive.
    The question is whether traffic in the Netherlands will still be faced           10. Innovatieplatform (2004). Voorstellen Sleutelgebieden-aanpak.
    with huge tailbacks in the future. Maybe we will be driving around in            11. The other innovation programmes in the key area of High-Tech
    self-steering vehicles whilst reading the news on the iLiad in the year              Systems & Materials are: PointOne FASE2 (nano en microelec-
    2030. Or might we be flying to work with a PAL-V, a car with a collapsible           tronics and high-tech systems) and Materials to Innovate the
    rotor blade. One thing that is quite certain is that Dutch players are               Industry (materials).
    able to put forward intelligent solutions with regard to the mobility            12. Technological developments in the field of design, production
    issue. After all the Netherlands does have excellent know-how, plus                  processes and logistics fall outside the scope of this article.
    world players in the automotive field, the field of ICT, micro and nano-         13. Metalelektro Profiel (2008). DAF ontwikkelt LF hybridetruck. May
    electronics, and new materials. Combining these technologies with                    2008.
    human behaviour is the main driving force for innovations in the                 14. FEM Business (2008). Elektrische auto’s: zoevend over de snelweg.
    Netherlands in this field. The introduction of pay-as-you-drive across               26 July 2008.
    the whole country would mean that the Netherlands would be the very              15. AT-Aandrijftechniek (2007). Zuinige Nederlandse GoEngine verkeert
    first nation to do this. In other words: a great opportunity to take the             nu in testfase.
    lead.                                                                            16. Edelman, P. (2006). Navigatieplatform Siemens VDO leert met auto
    Over the next few years the challenge will be to integrate all the                   praten. Bits&Chips, 9 June 2006
    developments in this extensive field and to think in terms of a single
    system. Suppliers supply individual components but they must all be
    linked and communicate with one another, such as the transmission
    with the engine management system, the vehicle as a whole with a
    traffic information system, or the vehicle with the vehicle in front.
    There are more than enough challenges and opportunities to help us
    on our way, whether it’s driving, floating or flying.

    Arjen Goetheer and Amanda Mackloet are consultants at SenterNovem,
    Innovation Intelligence & Coordination.

    We would like to thank: Egbert-Jan Sol, CTO of TNO Science and
    Industry; Leo Kusters, Automotive business unit manager; Mel
    McGillivray, project adviser, SenterNovem; Ginus Ipema, programme
    coordinator High-Tech Automotive Systems innovation programme,
    SenterNovem; Corine Cornelissen, project adviser, SenterNovem.

NOST Network | Innovative Dutch Solutions to Improve Mobility - October 008
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