Capability Maturity Model - Integration by svh16277

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									CMMI For Small Business
                              OR
    “How Much Can I Get Done with Almost No Resources
               and Little or No Money???”
                 By Nat Guadagnino, PMP
                     San Antonio, TX


 9/1/2004           OnBoard Software Inc-San Antonio    2
                          Agenda

1.     Brief Overview of CMMI - Continuous Representation
       and Why It’s Important to a Small Business.
2.     The Significance of Operational Dynamics in a Small
       Company. Which Ones are Useful?
3.     Process areas Selected as High Priority based on
       ‘Balanced Minimalization’ and ‘Value Add’
4.     Convert a CMMI Process Area into a Project Plan,
       Policies and Procedures.
5.     Simple templates for Small Business.


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     What is CMMI About??

1.         Continuous Process Improvement (CPI)
2.         Improving the way we do business
3.         Standardization, Simplification, Specialization, Structure
4.         Making people feel good about their jobs
5.         Making better decisions
6.         Predictability, Repeatability,Accountability & Responsibility
7.         CMMI is a model for improvement using best practices
8.         Adds Maturity to your Operating Mode.



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             Why Use Models???

    Models help us achieve
    improvement in a predictable,
    measurable and organized way.
    Models Provide:
           Best Practices
           Standards and Guidelines
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      CMMI Continuous Representation

•You can select from 1 to 25 Process Areas for your
journey.
•You Can Brag About Each PA (Process Area) as you are
Appraised and Certified.
• Appraisals are Measured Against Goals and Practices (sort
of) for a Single Process Area.

•Goals        = Policies
•Practices    =Procedures, Work Instructions, Checklists,
                    Guidelines & Standards
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            Importance of Continuous Representation to
           small business.

L5
             Req       Project
L4
            Mgmnt    Planning &                           Process
L3            &        Project           Config            And      Etc
             Req     Monitoring          Mgmnt            Product   Etc
            Devel.      and                                 QA
L2                     Control


       Appraisal is on any distinct CMMI Process Area.
     Works great for small companies with limited resources.
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           Specific Goals = Policies

1.   Specific Goals-Apply to a single process area and
     describe the unique characteristics that must be
     implemented. (Critical for Appraisals)
2.   Multiple SG’s per capability level for all 25 PA’s.
     From 1 (REQM) to 4 (IPM)
3.   Each SG builds on the previous level.
4.   How many total? 55! (for all 25 PA’s)
5.   Goals are achieved by (tailoring) performing the
     appropriate practices.

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           Specific Practices Page 1


   1. A specific practice is an activity that is
      considered important in achieving the
      associated specific goal.
   2. SP’s are given but are expected to be tailored or
      eliminated. (With cause)
   3. This is where the meat is!
   (Cont)

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           Specific Practices Page 2

4.     We must ‘DO’ the Specific Practices but always look
       to see that we are contributing toward achieving each
       Goal. Use ‘Balanced Minimalization’ and ‘Value Add’
       as our yardstick.
5.     Why? We are appraised on how well we meet the SEI
       interpretation of what it takes to demonstrate we have
       achieved a GOAL. I.e. We must actively demonstrate
       how we meet each Goal.
6.     Traceability from the model is the glue to hold our
       infrastructure together for its’ entire life cycle.


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L in e   G oal   P r a c tic e   G o a l/P r a c tic e        P o lic y I D          P rocedu re            ID an d                  N am e and         N a m e, ID
#        ID      ID              N am e and                   a n d T it le          ID an d                N am e of                ID of              and
                                 D e s c r ip tio n                                  T it le                W o r k -F lo w          G u id e lin e s   L o c a t io n
                                                                                                            D ia g r a m s ;         and                of
                                                                                                            T e m p la te s ;        S ta n d a rd s.   O b je c tiv e
                                                                                                            C h e c k lis ts ;                          E v id e n c e .
                                                                                                            F o rm s;
                                                                                                            W ork
                                                                                                            I n s tr u c tio n s .
1        SG1                     E s ta b lis h               C o n fig u ra tio n
                                 B a s e lin e s              M anagem ent
                                 B a s e lin e s o f          P o lic y – C M -
                                 id e n tifie d w o rk        P O L -0 0 1
                                 p ro d u c ts a re
                                 e s ta b lis h e d .
2        SG1     S P 1 .1 - 1    I d e n tify                                        C M -P R O C -         C M -T E M P -                              A p p ro v e d
                                 C o n fig u r a tio n                               003 -                  001 –                                       C M P in
                                 Ite m s                                             C o n fig u ra tio n   C o n fig u ra tio n                        CM
                                 Id e n tif y th e                                   M anagem ent           M anagem ent
                                 c o n fig u ra tio n                                P la n                 P la n (C M P )
                                 ite m s ,                                           P ro c e d u re        T e m p la te
                                 c o m p o n e n ts , a n d
                                 re la te d w o rk
                                 p ro d u c ts th a t
                                 w ill b e p la c e d
                                 under
                                 c o n fig u ra tio n
                                 m a n a g e m e n t.
3        SG1     S P 1 .2 - 1    E s ta b lis h a                                    C M -P R O C -         C M -F O R M -                              A p p ro v e d
                                 C o n fig u r a tio n                               010A – C M             0 0 9 C M T o o ls                          PM P
                                 M an agem en t                                      Tool                   P e rm is s io n                            A p p ro v e d
                                 S y ste m                                           U tiliz a tio n        R eq u est                                  CM P
                                 E s ta b lis h a n d                                P ro c e d u re        (P V C S )                                  W BS
                                 M a in ta in a                                      (P V C S )                                                         C hange
                                 c o n fig u ra tio n                                C M -P R O C -                                                     R e q u e sts
                                 m anagem ent and                                    014A – C M                                                         CR
                                 change                                              T o o ls                                                           R e g is te r
                                 m anagem ent                                        P e rm is s io n s                                                 A u d it
                                 s y s te m fo r                                     R eq u est                                                         R e p o rts
                                 c o n tro llin g w o rk                             P ro c e d u re                                                    S ta tu s
                                 p ro d u c ts.                                      (P V C S )                                                         R e p o rts
                                                                                                                                                        B ackup
                                                                                                                                                        D is c s
                                                                                                                                                        R eco v ery
                                                                                                                                                        P la n
     Use Operational Dynamics to Organize a Small
     Business for Continuous Process Improvement

    Matrix Management
    Skills
    Role Centric versus Action Centric
    Time Management
    Responsible, Accountable, Authority.
    Management by Project
    ‘Minimum Unit of Work’ in Deploying Policy and
    Procedures.
    Boot-Strap Consortiums for Process Sharing
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           Matrix Management (MM)

    Small Business - Too small to have dedicated
    specialists.
    Need flexibility.
    MM adds rigor to the cloud in a small company.
    2 Bosses, line manager and project manager(s).
    Make, break, remake teams as needed.
    Great for a small company.


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     Skills
    Everyone has multiple skills.      Often we don’t know
    how valuable we are.
    Not easy to find skills after someone has ‘settled’ in.
    You need them badly for roles, when you need them.
    People LOVE to brag. Take advantage of this.
    Do an inventory of skills! You have untapped skills! I
    promise!
    Use a Resource Manager role to manage this.



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     Role Centric versus Action Centric
Rarely are there defined roles or job descriptions (JD) in
a small company.
People need to know what they should do (JD) and
where they fit (Role) in an organization.
Job descriptions and roles satisfy that need.
One person can have multiple roles (hats)
All roles required for a process must be filled.
Define Roles while Prepping Policies and Procedures.

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     Time Management

    There is never enough time to do both CPI and ‘Customer’
    work. Guess who wins?
    The Hero approach says we will rise to the challenge, but
    at what cost?
    How to get 2 person-days per week from key people?
    ID the tasks; set priorities; allocate resources.
    Use a Resource Manager with real authority.
    Schedule using a tool so you have credibility.
    Use Process Thursdays.

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     Responsible, Accountable, Authority.

Give people clear assignments in writing
Make them responsible for completion
Agree on due dates
Hold them accountable if they have problems
Give them the authority to get the resources they
need. Good Luck on this one!


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     Management by Project
    Not the same as a PMO
    Do a plan, follow the plan, change the plan.
    Track progress.

    If you are not doing Management By
    Project you're in trouble.


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           Deploying Policies and Procedures
             Business Document Pyramid

                                                          The triangle represents the
                                  Corp. Charter           minimum unit of work
                                                          suitable for training and
                                 Business Plan            rollout to the target
                                                          organization or Company.


                                Policies
                            WHAT IS WANTED!
                                 Procedures
                                Steps to Do It!

                              Work Instructions
                              DETAILED HOW!
                      Guidelines, Standards & Manuals
           CMMI, DOD, ISO, IEEE… Models and Reference Material.

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         Rollout Minimum Unit of Work

The principle in control is: People deserve and need the
    infrastructure that should surround any process.
1.  Policy - Approved by Corp Officer and Issued but not Effective.
2.  Process Work Flow Diagram, Completed Procedures,
    Checklists, Work Instructions, Forms, reports. All Approved by
    SEPG
3.  Needed Standards or Guidelines are in our Asset library.
4.  TRAINING - TRAINING - TRAINING!!!!
5.  Rollout to user community.
6.  Enforcement and feedback!!

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           Boot-Strap Consortiums

    Consortium - A group formed to undertake an enterprise
    beyond the resources of any one member!
    Reach agreement with Non-Disclosure Agreement’s, non-
    compete, no staff raiding, etc.
    Share plans, policies, procedures, checklists, etc after
    sanitizing them.
    Best practice = Build sharable library on an accessible
    server.
    Use your local SPIN! Isn’t this a great use for SPIN??


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How Important is it to your
career to get this right????

This Could be Your Next Job
Assignment.

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Just Kidding!
           Process Areas Selected as Hi-Priority -
            Balanced Minimization - Value Add

           1 - Base Practices
           1 - REQM - Requirements Management
           2 - CM - Configuration management
           2 - PPQA - Process and Product Quality Assurance
           3 - MA - Measurement and Analysis
           3 - PP - Program and Project Planning
           3 - PMC - Project monitoring and control
           ==LEVEL 2 PA’s == Continuous Representation ==
           4 - VER - Verification
           4 - VAL - Validation
           4 - RD - Requirements Development
           5 - OT - Organizational Training
           4 - TS - Technical Solutions
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       What’s in a Project Plan for Each PA?

    All the normal project stuff.
       Approach, Tasks, Milestones, Skills, Implementation
       Plan, Deliverables, Schedule, Meetings, Issues,
       Risks, Change Control, WBS, Baseline, measurements,
       process improvement thru feedback.
       FOCUS ON DELIVERABLES!!!
    Implementation Plan Approach - How will we take the
    deliverables from the project and roll the processes and
    documentation out to the full company. Use the minimum
    Unit of Work - It Always works.

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           What’s in a Project Plan for a PA?

    ID the Deliverables -
        Policy for each GG and SG, maybe more, maybe less.
        Procedures for Best Practices. Tailor as needed.
        Templates for Forms and checklists to support procedures.
        Bidirectional Traceability Control tables.
        Change control Process.
        Etc.
    We need the team manager to figure out what the
    deliverables are, based on the PA. Most of the
    project work flows from Deliverables!

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            What is a Policy?

1. A predetermined course of action established as a
   guide toward accepted business strategies and
   objectives.
2. A policy is a basic guide to action. It forecasts
   expected actions in response to anticipated
   events.
   CPI will never be done because we can’t think of
   every situation and write a policy on how to
   react.

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      Business Document Pyramid

                                                              The triangle represents the
                       Corp. Charter (Pres, CEO, BOD)         minimum unit of work
                                                              suitable for training and
                      Business Plan (Officers & Directors)    rollout to the target
                                                              organization or Company.


                        Policies (Officers & Directors)
                            WHAT IS WANTED!
                       Procedures (Directors & Mgrs)
                              Steps to Do It!

                   Work Instructions (Directors & Managers)
                             DETAILED HOW!
            Guidelines, Standards & Manuals (COTS, Dir’s & Mgrs)
           CMMI, DOD, ISO, IEEE… Models and Reference Material.

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     Policies Help The Working
     Person
    It does NOT tell people HOW to proceed.
    It is WHAT management wants.
    It helps supervisors and operations people
    to make sound decisions w/o top execs.
    It provides fair and equal treatment of all.
    It provides a unity of purpose. It codifies a
    decision that can be used widely.

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               Goals to Policies

    How to convert a SG to a Policy.
    Elaboration of each policy section.
           Policy Statement - Trace to a Goal
           Scope - Trace to SP’s.
           Authority - Create New Roles?
           Definitions And other Boilerplate - Hot links to
           your Asset Library.


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                                                                               E ffective D a te:                       N u m b er: Q A-P O L -0 01 -0 3
                                                   1 .1.1
                                                                               D a te Is su ed:                         Page 1 of 1

                                                     P o lic y                 P rep are d B y: R . F la he rty
                                                                                                A ll prior ve rsion s
                                                                                                                        R e sp . D e pt.: Q A

                                                                               S u pe rc ed es: of Q A P o lic y        R e f. P olic y # :

                                                                               A p proved B y:

               T itle : P o lic y fo r P ro ces s an d P ro d u ct Q u a lity As s u ran c e

              P o lic y S tatem en t:

PPQA          T his policy req uires that w e obje ctively e valua te the adh erence of pe rform ed
              processe s, w o rk pro du cts a nd services aga inst a pplicab le process
              de scrip tio ns, sta ndard s, and procedure s, and th at n oncom plia nt issues are
SG 1 & 2      tracked w ith a via ble reso lution and the q ua lity issue s are co m m un icated to
              th e sta ff, m ana gem ent, a nd custom e rs o f O nB oa rd S oftw a re Inc. (O B S I).

              S co p e :

              T he scope of this po licy is to:

                  1. E stab lish a nd m a intain a p lan for p erfo rm in g th e P P Q A p roce ss.
                  2. E nsure th at a de quate resources are perform in g the P P Q A process,
Specific             deve lopin g th e w ork produ cts, an d providin g th e se rvices o f the
                     process.
and Generic       3. A udit th e desig nated perform e d processes, w ork products, a nd services
                     aga inst the a pp licable process d escriptions, stan dards and procedu res
Practices            by p ro vid ing eva luation rep orts to the staff, m an ag em e nt, an d custo m er.
                  4. Id en tify, an alyze , and docum en t n oncon fo rm in g issues until a via ble
that relate          re so lution w ith the stakeh old er, m an age m en t an d the custo m er is in
                     place to preclud e any ne gative qu ality tren ds.
to SG 1 &         5. E stab lish a trainin g ag end a and ensu re resource s a re ide ntified,
                     train ed, an d qua lified to perform Q A a ctivitie s.
                  6. P lace design ated P P Q A w ork products and p roce sses un der
2.                   co nfigu ration m anage m ent.
                  7. M on ito r an d co ntro l the P P Q A process a ga inst the pla n and w ith
                     iden tifie d rele va nt stakeh old ers take app ro pria te co rrective actions.
                  8. E nsure th at a ll o rg anization al expe ctatio ns for p rocess and pro duct
                     qua lity assura nce is practice d an d no ncom plia nt issues are ide ntifie d,
                     docu m ented , a nd con ve ye d to the staff, m a na gem e nt, and custom er.
     Work Flow Diagrams
    Important input to procedure writing.
    Block Diagrams
    Role driven
    Keep It Stupidly Simple (KISS)
    not Keep It Simple Stupid.



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         Format of Workflow Diagram.
                   Role: ?
Info Box:
                   Action Steps
Drivers, inputs,
outputs, forms,    Role: ?
exit criteria
                   Action Steps

                   Role: ?
                   Action Steps


                                      End

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           Procedure Construction


    Inputs - Drivers, Work Flow Diagrams, forms,
    reports, brainstorming sessions, roles,
    regulations, timing, start and end points, hand-
    offs per role, exit criteria.
    Gather all the above - Gestalt - Assimilate.
    What is the ‘driver’ of the process? A Form?
    Customer?
    Start with the driver and proceed role by role.


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     Review Procedure Template
    Use Playscript Procedure Methodology.
    Be brief. 2-3 pages max.
    Use action verbs as first word.
    Always hand-off from role to role. Why?
    Simple branching is OK.
    Nothing else.


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                                            Effective Date:         Number: ADMIN-TEMP-003-02
                         1.1.1
                                            Date Issued:            Page 1 of 1
                         Procedure          Prepared By:            Resp. Dept.:

                                            Supercedes:             Ref. Policy #:

                                            Approved By:

 Title: Procedure Name


Discussion/Purpose:




Actor/Function           Description of Action
  st
1 Actor                     1. 1st action by 1st actor
                            2. 2nd action by 1st actor.
                            3. Last action in each section must tell how the handoff is to
                               occur.

2nd Actor                   4. 1st action by 2nd actor.
                            5. 2nd action by 2nd actor
                            6. 3rd action by 2nd actor. Handoff to next Actor.

                         End of Procedure
                         Note: each set of actions for each Actor should be in a separate
                         table row. Number Actions sequentially throughout procedure.
                         No need to number Actors. Remove this note/row.

End of Document
           Other Support Artifacts

    Checklists
    Audit Forms
    Work Instructions
    Log Books
    Asset Library



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           Questions????




9/1/2004    OnBoard Software Inc-San Antonio   38

								
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