Crash Investigation Division Presentation

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					U.S. Department of
Transportation


     Mishap Analysis Training
      NTSB Training Center

        Motor Vehicle Crash
          Investigation

                John Brophy
     Chief, Crash Investigation Division
      National Highway Traffic Safety
               Administration

        NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   1
Highway Safety Facts (2007)

                               37,248          Fatal Crashes

       59
   1,0 ties
                             1,711,000
                             1,929,000
  4 li                     Injury Crashes
                          Injury Crashes

  F ata                     4,348,000
                           4,275,000
                        Property Damage
                        Property Damage Only
                               Only

                          6,316,000
                          6,024,000
                   Police Reported Crashes
                 Police Reported Crashes

                  >16,000,000 Crashes
                  >16,000,000 Crashes
          $230 Billion Societal Cost
       NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division         5/09       2
NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   3
                    NHTSA Activities

•   Potential Vehicle Defects         •   Child Safety
    ♦ Report via HOTLINE                  ♦ Safety seat
    ♦ Imports                             ♦ Backover
         ° Tires                          ♦ School bus
         ° Valve Stems                        ° Safety Belts
•   Rollover                          •   Alternative fuel systems
    ♦ Stability control                   ♦ Hybrid Vehicles
    ♦ Roof crush                      •   Electronic Stability Control
    ♦ Ejection Mitigation             •   Motorcoach
•   Occupant Protection               •   Commercial Vehicles
    ♦   Safety belt use
                                      •   Low Speed Vehicles (LSV)
    ♦   Non-deployment
                                      •   Motorcycles
    ♦   Air bag suppression
                                          ♦ Helmets
    ♦   Side curtain Air bags
                                          ♦ ABS
    ♦   Elderly
                                      •   Law Enforcement Deaths


                  NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division     5/09          4
                   NHTSA Data Collection

                   Investigation Based
                                          NMVCCS


       CDS



Police Crash Report Based                 State Data Based



              GES


             NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09     5
           Occupant Protection

     • Helmeted
       occupants . . .


     • Good thing!


NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   6
                    Occupant Protection

Upon further
review . . .


THIS is NOT
occupant
protection (for
the child)

         NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   7
                         Disclaimer

•   Some
    incidents
    are best
    explained
    without
    words…




            NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   8
  Field Investigation Programs

NASS – National Automotive
Sampling System
 CDS - Crashworthiness Data System (24 Offices)
 Detailed information on vehicles, scenes, and
 occupants for crashworthiness


NMVCCS – National Motor Vehicle
Crash Causation Survey
 Responded on-scene
 Detailed information on the “factors” involved in
 the crash (human, vehicle and environmental)



  NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09        9
         Field Investigation Programs

SCI – Special Crash Investigations
  In-depth detailed investigations on a limited
  number of crashes
  Three “go-teams” stationed around the
  country
  Focus is new & rapidly changing occupant
  protection technologies
• Provide the Agency with early detection
  of alleged or potential vehicle defects




          NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   10
                           Crash Dynamics

3- Types of Crash Forces
                       •   Vehicle
                       •   Human
                       •   Internal




     NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   11
                                        Case Content

•   Over 600 CDS data elements that describe …
    • Crash events
    • Damage to vehicle
    • Crash forces involved
    • Injuries to victims
    • Injury mechanisms




             NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   12
                                        Data Sources

•   Data Sources:
    • Police reports
    • Scene inspections
    • Vehicle inspections
    • Driver and occupant interviews
    • Autopsy and hospital records




             NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   13
               Various Crashworthiness Standards
 Occupant               Head            Roof Crush       Child Restraint     Rear Impact
 Protection        Restraints (202)   Resistance (216)   Systems (213)     Protection (224)
 in Interior
Impact (201)


   Occupant
     Crash
Protection (208)




                                                         Child Restraint
                        Side Impact        Seating         Anchorage          Fuel System
                      Protection (214)  Systems (207)     Systems (225)
                         NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division       5/09     Integrity (301)
                                                                                        14
                           Overview of Scene

•   Physical Plant
    • Roadway features,
      etc.

•   Evidence
    • Skid marks, etc.

•   Scaled Diagrams



             NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   15
                                                   Field Data

•   Vehicle Exterior Inspection
    • Crush Profile - Length, Depth and
       Location
    • Collision Deformation Classification
    • Principle Direction Of Force (PDOF)
    • Tires
    • Rollover
    • Side impact detail




                NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   16
                                              Field Data

Vehicle Interior Inspection
 • Glazing
 • Ejection /
   Entrapment
 • Intrusion
 • Restraint Systems
 • Occupant Contacts



           NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   17
                                                      Case Data

•   Crash Severity Indicators
     • WINSMASH
       • Delta V
    • Barrier Equivalent Speed
    • Visual Estimates
       • Speed Changes in
         Ranges
       • Minor, Moderate, or
         Severe
•   Event Data Recorder
    • Delta V over time
    • Air bag logic



                   NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   18
                                           Injury Data

•   Medical Coding
    • Injury Determination
       • Medical Record Review
    • Injury Coding
       • Injury Coding based on
         AIS-90 (Update 98)
       • Moving toward AIS 2005




            NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   19
                                   NHTSA & EDRs

•   Final Rule issued Jan 14, 2008
•   Does not mandate EDR’s in vehicles
•   However, if there is an EDR
    ♦ Capture uniform data in a uniform format
    ♦ Standardized notification statement in
      vehicle owner’s manual
    ♦ Commercially available tool to access the
      data



            NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   20
Aviation “Black Boxes” or Flight
          Data Recorders (FDR)




    NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   21
       Event Data Recorders




NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   22
                                         NHTSA & EDRs
    •   New EDR Rule takes effect with
        vehicles manufactured after 9/1/12
    •   If EDR equipped required items:

•   Delta V Long                     •   Frontal air bag warning lamp
•   Max Delta V Long                     on/off
•   Time, Max Delta V                •   Frontal air bag time to
•   Speed, vehicle indicated             deploy – driver air bag
•   Engine throttle % of full        •   Frontal air bag time to
                                         deploy – passenger air bag
•   Service brake on /off
                                     •   Multi-event – number of
•   Ignition cycle, crash                events
•   Ignition cycle, download         •   Time from event 1 to 2
•   Safety belt status, driver       •   Complete file recorded
                                         yes/no

                NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09        23
                                         NHTSA & EDRs
      •   Additional items are required
          “if reported” some include:
•   Lateral acceleration             •   Side air bag time to deploy
•   Max Delta V Lateral                  – Driver
•   Engine RPM                       •   Side air bag time to deploy
•   Vehicle roll angle                   – RF passenger
•   ABS activity                     •   Side curtain / air tube time
                                         to deploy driver side
•   Stability control on / off
                                     •   Side curtain / air tube time
•   Safety belt status, front            to deploy pass. side
    right passenger
                                     •   Pretensioner time to fire
•   Frontal air bag                      (driver and passenger)
    supresssion switch
    status RF passenger              •   Etc.


                 NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09            24
                                                      NHTSA & EDRs
•   Almost 7,000 “images” to date
      8,000

                                            EDR Images
      7,000

                      Total by Year
      6,000
                      Cumulative

      5,000


      4,000


      3,000


      2,000
                                                             1,072   1,231   1,105
                                                      960
      1,000                   433              738                                     620
                                      525
              51     102
         0
              1999   2000    2001     2002     2003   2004   2005    2006    2007    2008


                       NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division                     5/09         25
      Changes to EDR data Collection


•   Jan ’08 – Vetronix owned by Bosch
•   Software by subscription
    ♦ (1-3 years)
•   Hardware / cables are purchased
    separately
•   Planned - multiple releases a year



           NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   26
                                   NHTSA & EDRs
•   Currently three supported manufacturers
    ♦ General Motors (most 1994 and newer)
       ° Isuzu Hombre 2000 - 2002 and Ascender 2003
    ♦ Ford (some 2001 and newer)
    ♦ Chrysler (some 2004 – 2008)
•   Varying level of data currently available
•   Additional support available for the Ford
    Power Control Module
    ♦ Some vehicles contain “minutes” of looped data –
      which can be overwritten!




             NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   27
Limitation - Must have a Full
  Supporting Investigation




   Was This Seat Belt
        Worn?




NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   28
                   Limitation - Longer Recording
                                   Times Needed
          0
               0    50    100     150    200     250       300     350

          -5
                                                       11FLAE09
         -10                                           12FREW02
                                                       12FLAE08
                                                       12FYEW02
         -15


         -20


         -25


         -30


         -35


         -40

Offset Crashes Longer than 150 ms

                    NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division          5/09   29
                   EDR Program at NHTSA

•   EDR’s provide very useful information to
    crash reconstructions
•   Supports a complete crash reconstruction
    ♦ Crash pulse, time to deployment, restraint usage,
      etc
•   Air bag timing and deployment levels cannot
    be determined by Investigators - EDR is the
    only source
•   WinSmash vs. OEM EDR Delta-V’s are
    comparable
•   There are limitations to the EDR data
              NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   30
                       Jump into Cases




NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   31
www.nhtsa.dot.gov




  NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   32
NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   33
NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   34
NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   35
        Special Crash Investigations
                Notifications

•   24 Hour Voice Mail Telephone Number
     Nationwide Toll Free (877) 201-3172

•   FAX Number
     202-366-3189

•   E-mail Address
     SCI@.dot.gov




            NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   36
 Questions?




John.brophy@dot.gov
Phone: 202-366-0328
  NHTSA’s Crash Investigation Division   5/09   37