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					   http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/cultural-heritage/events/mw-2009/workshop/

SaaSy API (Openness in the Cloud)
or Approaches to Exploiting the Potential of Cloud
Computing and APIs
Brian Kelly                           Acceptable Use Policy
UKOLN                                 Recording of this talk, taking photos,
University of Bath                    discussing the content using email,
Bath, UK                              instant messaging, blogs, SMS, etc.
                                      is permitted providing distractions to
Email:                                others is minimised.
b.kelly@ukoln.ac.uk
Twitter:                                 Blog:
http://twitter.com/briankelly/           http://ukwebfocus.wordpress.com/

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    Introduction   About The Session
                   Abstract
                   “What are the potential benefits which Open APIs and
                   Software as a Service (SaaS) seek to provide? What
                   about the associated risks in moving from an
                   environment in which software is installed and managed
                   either locally or by a hosting agency with formal
                   contractual agreements to a environment in which there
                   may be no formal agreements, the services may be
                   hosted in different countries and governed by different
                   legal frameworks? And at a time of global economic
                   uncertainties, is it sensible to be seeking to make use of
                   Open APIs and SaaS? …”
                   Workshop will “explore strategies for exploiting the
                   benefits of and managing the risks associated with
                   these services”.
                   A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
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    Introduction   About Me
                   Brian Kelly:
                        • UK Web Focus: a national Web advisory post
                        • Based at UKOLN, a national centre of expertise in
                            digital information management
                        • Located at the University of Bath
                        • Funded by JISC and the MLA
                        • Involved in Web since Jan 1993
                        • Currently advising on best practices for Web 2.0 &
                            the Social Web
                        • Not a software developer!
                        • Colleague of Paul Walk, UKOLN Technical
                            Manager & author of paper for workshop (who is a
                            software developer)
                   A centre of expertise in digital information management www.ukoln.ac.uk
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    Introduction   About The Mini-Workshop
                   Introduction
                      • About me, about you, about the session
                      • What are we talking about (primer)?
                   Benefits
                      • Why are we interested?
                   Risks
                      • Why should we be concerned?
                   Strategies
                      • What do we do next?

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    Introduction   About You
                   Please:
                      • Introduce yourself, giving your name, your
                        organisation & what you do
                      • Describe what you hope to gain from this
                        session




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    The Hype




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     Barriers   Take-up Of New Technologies
                                                               The Gartner curve

                     Rising expectations


                                                                                  Service plateau


                                                                                      Enterprise
                              Chasm                                                   software
                              Failure to go beyond developers                         Large
                              & early adopters (cf Gopher)                            budgets
                              Need for:                               Trough          …
                                  • Advocacy                          of despair
                                  • Listening to users
Developers                        • Addressing concerns
     Early                        • Deployment strategies This workshop looks at
     adopters                     • …
           A centre of expertise in digital information management
                                                                                  avoiding the
                                                                   approaches for www.ukoln.ac.uk
 7                                                                 chasm & reshaping the curve
             What Do We Mean By “The Cloud”?
                                                             Cloud computing is Internet
                                                             ("cloud") based development
                                                             and use of computer
                                                             technology ("computing").
                                                             It is a style of computing in
                                                             which dynamically scalable and
                                                             often virtualised resources are
                                                             provided as a service over the
                                                             Internet.
                                                             Users need not have
                                                             knowledge of, expertise in, or
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cloud_computing.svg        control over the technology
                                                             infrastructure "in the cloud" that
                                                             supports them.
                                                                       From Wikipedia


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    What Is Cloud Computing?
     “.. a broad array of
         web-based services aimed at
         allowing users to obtain a wide range of
          functional capabilities
         on a „pay-as-you-go‟ basis
         that previously required tremendous
          hardware/software investments
         and professional skills to acquire.”


    Via Irving Wladawsky-Berger
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     Example: Amazon
                   Amazon Web Services:
                    • CPU: 1.0Ghz x86              @ $0.11 /hour
                    • Blob Storage                 @ $0.12 /GB month
                    • External Data Transfer       @ $0.10 /GB
                   Used, for example, by Slideshare.net




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     Introduction   What About SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, etc?
                    “The concept incorporates infrastructure as a service
                    (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as
                    a service (SaaS) as well as Web 2.0 and other recent
                    (ca. 2007–2009) technology trends which have the
                    common theme of reliance on the Internet for satisfying
                    the computing needs of the users.”        Wikipedia

                    “Everything as a service (EaaS, XaaS, *aaS) is a
                    concept of being able to call up re-usable, fine-grained
                    software components across a network”         Wikipedia


                    “I think there is a world market for maybe five
                    computers” Thomas Watson mis-quote            Wikipedia

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     Introduction   Definitions
                    SaaS: Model of software deployment where provider
                          licenses an application to customers for use as a
                          service on demand. SaaS software vendors may
                          host application on their own web servers or
                          download the application to consumer‟s device.
                    PaaS: Delivery of a computing platform and solution
                          stack as a service. It facilitates deployment of
                          applications without the cost and complexity of
                          buying and managing the underlying hardware
                          and software layers.
                    IaaS: Delivery of computer infrastructure (typically a
                          platform virtualization environment) as a service
                          … an evolution of Web hosting.
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 Peter Laird‟s
 „Cloud Map‟




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     Introduction   Open APIs
                                              Programmeable Web
                                                                              “Open API
                                                                              (often referred to
                                                                              as OpenAPI) is a
                                                                              word used to
                                                                              describe sets of
                                                                              technologies that
                                                                              enable websites
                                                                              to interact with
                                                                              each other by
                                                                              using SOAP,
                                                                              Javascript and
                                                                              other web
                                                                              technologies.”
                                                                                   Wikipedia


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                                                                                                Q


     Introduction   What‟s Missing?
                    What is missing from this introduction to the
                    Cloud, SaaS, Open APIs?




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                                                                                            E


     Benefits   Why The Interest?
                Small group exercise
                  1. What benefits can use of „the cloud‟
                     provide?
                  2. Why should museums publish open APIs
                     for their services?
                  3. Why should museums consume open
                     APIs provided by others?
                Include both tangible examples & possibilities



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                                                                                            D


     Benefits   Case Studies
                Case studies illustrating benefits of the Cloud
                and open APIs (from Sebastian Chan,
                Powerhouse Museum).




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     Barriers     The Challenges
                                               Money           Expertise
                           Resources                                         Time

                    Reliability                                               Understanding

                Sustainability                  Challenges:                            Cultural
                                            Web 2.0 (and Clouds,                       issues
           Interoperability                      APIs, …?)
                                                                                    Colleagues
       Technical Issues

                Privacy, DPA, FOI, ..                                             Management

                        Accessibility                                             Council
                                      Legal Issues                  IT Services
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                                                                                            E


     Barriers   What About The Barriers?
                Small group exercise
                 1. What problems might be envisaged in
                    making use of „cloud services‟?
                 2. What are the dangers in museums
                    publishing open APIs for their services?
                 3. What are the dangers in museums
                    consuming open APIs provided by others?
                 4. What approaches can be taken to
                    addressing such problems and minimising
                    the dangers?

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     Barriers   What Do We Mean By „Risk‟?
                “Risk is a concept that denotes the precise probability
                of specific eventualities”
                When should we take risks?
                     • Never
                     • If the probability is low
                     • If the dangers are insignificant
                     • If the context if appropriate
                But what if human life is at risk:
                     • In the army
                     • Driving a car
                     • Travelling on the train
                     • …
                We can‟t ignore the context, the potential benefits and
                the costs in digital information management
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    Barriers   Core vs Chore
          What type of services can you provide via the cloud?
                                                     • Chore services: Services you
                                                       have to provide even though they
                                                       aren‟t part of your organisation‟s
                                                       key mission (e.g. email, payroll,
                                                       …). Keep the core services that
                                                       you care about in-house.
                                                     • Core services: Services key to
                                                       organisation‟s mission. Global
                                                       organisations (Google, Amazon,
                                                       etc.) are better placed to provide
   From David Harrison, (Cardiff Uni.) such services, especially if you
   and developed by Paul Walk                          have limited technical expertise,
  What‟s the most appropriate                          resources, … Keep the chore
           for museum services? services
  context A centre of expertise in digital information management in-house, allowing you to
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                                                       manage internal IT services.
                                                                                www.ukoln.ac.uk
     Barriers   Sustainability Concerns
                What happens if SaaS services:
                   • Are unreliable?
                   • Change their terms and conditions (e.g start
                     charging)?
                   • Become bankrupt
                Things to remember:
                   • Services may be unreliable e.g. Twitter
                   • Market pressure is leading to changes to T&C – &
                     paid-for services may become free (e.g. Friends
                     Reunited)
                   • Banks may go bankrupt too – but we still use them
                   • Need for risk assessment and risk management
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     Barriers   Interoperability Issues
                What happens if SaaS services host your data and:
                   • You can‟t get the data back out?
                   • You only get the unstructured or poor quality data
                     back out?
                   • You can‟t get the comments, annotations, tags
                     out?
                There‟s a need to:
                   • Ensure data export capabilities or
                   • Upload data from an alternative managed sources
                   • Understand limitations of data export / import and
                     make plans around limitations


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     Strategies   Deployment Strategies
                  What strategies do we need for exploiting the
                  benefits of Cloud services and open APIs whilst
                  minimising the risks?
                  Possible areas:

                    • Educating senior managers / policy makers
                    • Identifying appropriate areas
                    • Carrying out risk assessment
                    • Testing risk management strategies
                    • …
                  What else?
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     Strategies   Deployment Strategies

                                   Developers
                                                                            Senior Managers

                                                  Deployment
                   Colleagues                      Strategies                       Other
                                                                                 Stakeholders

                                   Users
                                                                  Funders



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     Strategies   Deployment Strategies
                  Interested in exploiting the Cloud and Open APIs in
                  your organisation?
                  Worried about corporate inertia, power struggles, etc?
                  There‟s a need for a deployment strategy:
                      • Addressing business needs
                      • Low-hanging fruits
                      • Encouraging the enthusiasts
                      • Gain experience of the browser tools – and see
                        what you‟re missing!
                      • Staff training & development
                      • Risk and opportunity management strategy
                      • …

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     Strategies   Risk Management
                   JISC infoNet Risk Management infoKit:
                      “In education, as in any other environment, you can’t
                       decide not to take risks: that simply isn’t an option in
                       today’s world. All of us take risks and it’s a question of
                       which risks we take”
                  Examples of people who are likely to be adverse stakeholders:
                        • People who fear loss of their jobs
                        • People who will require re-training
                        • People who may be moved to a different department /
                            team
                        • People .. required to commit resources to the project
                        • People who fear loss of control over a function or
                            resources
                        • People who will have to do their job in a different way
                        • People who will have to carry out new or additional
                            functions
                        • People who information management
                  A centre of expertise in digitalwill have to use a new technology
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     Strategies   IWMW 2006 & Risk Management
                  IWMW 2006 has taken a risk management approach to
                  its evaluation of Web 2.0 technologies:
                    • Agreements: e.g. in the case of the Chatbot.
                    • Use of well-established services: Google &
                      del.icio.us are well-established and have financial
                      security.
                    • Notification: warnings that services could be lost.
                    • Engagement: with the user community: users actively
                      engage in the evaluation of the services.
                    • Provision of alternative services: multiple OMPL tools.
                    • Use in non-mission critical areas: not for bookings!
                    • Long term experiences of services: usage stats
                    • Availability of alternative sources of data: e.g.
                      standard Web server log files.
                    • Data export and aggregation: RSS feeds, aggregated
                      in Suprglu, OPML viewers, etc.
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            Critical Friends
                                                                      JISC U&I
                                                                      programme is
                                                                      encouraging
                                                                      establishment of
                                                                      “Critical Friends”
                                                                      Paul Walk
                                                                      (UKOLN) was
                                                                      described as a
                                                                      „critical friend‟ of
See <https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?
 See <http://dev8d.jiscinvolve.org/2009/
 See <http://critical-friends.org/>                                   JISC
A2=ind0903&L=MCG&T=0&F=&S=&P=19929>
 02/10/five-minute-interview-paul-walk/>
                                                                      But is such open
                                                                      debate encouraged
                                                                      in other sectors?
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              Towards a Framework
                                         Biases
     • Critical friends                  Intended
                                                                  • Sharing
     • Application to                    Purpose
                                                                    experiences
       existing                         Benefits                  • Learning from
       services                         (various                    successes
     • Application to                 stakeholders
                                                                    & failures
       in-house                           Risks
                                        (various                  • Tackling biases
       development
                                                                  •…
     •…                               stakeholders
                                      Missed Opps.
                                        (various
                                      stakeholders
                                         Costs
                                        (various                      “Time To Stop Doing and Start
                                      stakeholders                    Thinking: A Framework For
                                      Subjective factors              Exploiting Web 2.0 Services”,
                                                                      Museums & the Web 2009
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           Using The Framework
     Twitter for individuals Organisational Fb Page
         Community               Intended               Marketing
         support                 Purpose                                 Critical friends:
                                                        events,…
                                                                          • Paul Walk / Brian
                                Benefits
          Rapid                                         Large               Kelly blog posts)
                                (various
          feedback                                      audiences         • MCG discussions
                              stakeholders
                                  Risks                                  Learning
         Justify ROI            (various                Ownership,        • UKOLN cultural
         Org. brand           stakeholders              privacy, lock-in    heritage guest
                              Missed Opps.                                  blog post
          Community-                                    Marketing
                                (various                                  • Conferences
          building                                      opportunity
                              stakeholders                                • Papers
          Low?                   Costs                                    •…
                                (various                Low?
                              stakeholders
                                                                     Note personal biases!
           Use of approach in two scenarios: use of Twitter & Facebook
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              Use The Framework Yourself
            What is the purpose?            Intended          Feel free to you apply
            Who are the users?              Purpose           framework to:
            What are the benefits?
                                            Benefits            • Services you‟re
                                            (various
            To whom?                      stakeholders            planning
            What are the risks?
                                              Risks             • Existing services
                                            (various
            To whom?                      stakeholders          • Large scale
           What are the risks of          Missed Opps.            initiatives (e.g.
                                            (various
           doing nothing?
                                          stakeholders
                                                                  Creative Spaces)
           What are the costs –              Costs
           to developers, to                (various
                                          stakeholders
           users,…
     Remember the biases! Is the              Remember the need for the
     service really intended to               critical friend and the need
                                              for sharing?
     sustain the service provider? information management
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     Conclusions




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