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					IP Address Allocation, Resolution

          CIS 81 and CST 311
             Rick Graziani
            Cabrillo College
              Spring 2006
Obtaining an IP Address

•    Static addressing
      – Each individual device must be configured with an IP
•    Dynamic addressing
      – Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
      – Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
      – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
      – DHCP initialization sequence
      – Function of the Address Resolution Protocol
      – ARP operation within a subnet

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Static IP Addressing
                                      • You have to go to each
                                        individual device
                                         – Meticulous records must
                                            be kept
                                         – No duplicate IP addresses

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Dynamic Addressing

Current Technology
• Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
   – Successor to BOOTP
   – Allows host to obtain an IP address quickly and dynamically
   – Uses a defined range of IP address

Legacy Technologies
• Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
   – Binds MAC addresses to IP addresses
• BOOTstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
   – Uses UDP to carry messages
   – Uses broadcast IP datagram
   – MAC address pre-matched to IP address
   – Can contain additional information (default gateway)

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•   Allows a host to obtain an IP
    address using a defined range of
    IP addresses on a DHCP server.
•   As hosts come online, contact the
    DHCP server, and request an
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DHCP – Getting more than the IP Address

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From Microsoft
•     Use server-side conflict detection on DHCP servers only when it is needed.
•     Conflict detection can be used by either DHCP servers or clients to determine
      whether an IP address is already in use on the network before leasing or using the
• DHCP client computers running Windows 2000 or Windows XP that obtain an IP
      address use a gratuitous ARP request to perform client-based conflict detection
      before completing configuration and use of a server offered IP address. If the
      DHCP client detects a conflict, it will send a DHCP decline message
      (DHCPDECLINE) to the server.
• If your network includes legacy DHCP clients (clients running a version of
      Windows earlier than Windows 2000), you can use server-side conflict detection
      provided by the DHCP Server service under specific circumstances. For example,
      this feature might be useful during failure recovery when scopes are deleted and
      recreated. For more information, see DHCP Troubleshooting.
• By default, the DHCP service does not perform any conflict detection. To enable
      conflict detection, increase the number of ping attempts that the DHCP service
      performs for each address before leasing that address to a client. Note that for
      each additional conflict detection attempt that the DHCP service performs,
      additional seconds are added to the time needed to negotiate leases for DHCP
• Typically, if DHCP server-side conflict detection is used, you should set the
      number of conflict detection attempts made by the server to use one or two pings
      at most. This provides the intended benefits of this feature without decreasing
      DHCP server performance.
• For more information, see Enable address conflict detection.
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• RARP, or Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.
• Like ARP, used to map MAC address to IP addresses.
• Unlike ARP, used by devices to find their own IP address, not MAC
•   What kind of device would not know its own IP address?
•   Dumb terminals are diskless workstations.
•   Diskless workstations have no permanent storage (like a hard drive) to
    store network configurations.
•   Dumb terminals will know their own MAC address because it’s burned
    in to the card, but they have to use RARP to find their IP.

Dumb Terminals
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RARP reply

• Only a RARP server can respond to a RARP request.
• RARP servers maintain a table of IP to MAC address mappings for
    RARP clients.
•   During the boot process, RARP clients call the RARP server to obtain
    their IP configuration information.
•   Disadvantage: RARP only returns an IP address, no subnet mask,
    default gateway, DNS address, etc.

     RARP Broadcast: I know
     my MAC address, but                 RARP Server Unicast:
     what is my IP address?              Here is your IP address.

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BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol)
• The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) operates in a client/server
  environment and only requires a single packet exchange to obtain IP
• Provides IP address, subnet mask, default gateway IP address and
  DNS IP address.

• BOOTP is not a dynamic configuration protocol (like DHCP).
• When a client requests an IP address the BOOTP server looks up its
   MAC address in a table to find the IP address.
• This binding is predetermined.
• What if the computer is moved to another subnet/network?
• Use DHCP!

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                                          ARP enables a computer
                                          to find the MAC address
                                          of the computer that is
                                          associated with an IP

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ARP Operation Within a Subnet (Local)

                                      All devices on the network
                                      receive the packet and pass to
                                      network layer; only one device
                                      responds with an ARP reply.

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 How ARP Sends Data to Remote

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 The ARP Process

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The ARP Table

• The ARP table is stored in area of Random-Access Memory on each
•   Such an area of memory is often called a cache. The ARP table is
    often referred to as an ARP cache.
•   Entries in the ARP table “age out.” They are removed from the table
    after a period of inactivity.

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Aging Out

• For Microsoft Windows hosts:
      – Initial mappings have a 2-minute time-to-live.
      – An entry that is used twice in 2 minutes is automatically given a
        10-minute time-to-live.
•    For Unix/Linux hosts:
      – Initial mappings have a 20 minute time-to-live.

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 ARP Table Funtions

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ARP Request

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 Default Gateway

A default gateway is the IP address of the interface on
the router that connects to the network segment on
which the source host is located.

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Using a default gateway

• If the destination IP address is not on the same subnet (or network), a
     computer must use the services of a router.
•    Routers are sometimes called gateways for this reason.
•    Sending computer checks for a default gateway in its TCP/IP
•    If no default gateway is installed, the sending computer cannot send
     the message.

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Proxy ARP

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Domain Names and IP Addresses

• Many times we communicate with other hosts using domain names
    such as
•   Hosts and routers route packets using IP addresses, NOT domain
•   The host must translate the domain name to an IP address.
•   The host will have the DNS Server do this translation for it.
•   The Domain Name System (abbreviated DNS) is an Internet directory
•   DNS is how domain names are translated into IP addresses, and DNS
    also controls email delivery.
•   If your computer cannot access DNS, your web browser will not be
    able to find web sites, and you will not be able to receive or send email.

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Domain Names and IP Addresses

                                We usually use domain names,
                      , but the IP
                                packets are sent using the IP
Data link destination address   Data link source address Other data link fields   IP Destination Address   IP Source Address Other IP fields and data


Rick Graziani                                                                                                            24
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