ARIN_IPv4-Depletion_slides by liaoxiuli


									Richard Jimmerson

Chief Information Officer
American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)

 I shoulda’ had a v6!
     Why IPv6 Adoption is Necessary
     for the Future of Your Organization

NTEN, March 2008

• IP Addresses and the Domain Name System

• Regional Internet Registries and ARIN

• IPv4 Depletion

• IPv6 Adoption

NTEN, March 2008
IP Addresses and the
Domain Name System
On the Internet, you are nothing but an
IP address!






NTEN, March 2008
What is an IP Address?

          An Internet Protocol (IP)
          address is a number that
           identifies a device on a
             computer network.

NTEN, March 2008
IP Addresses Are:

• Necessary for Internet routing

• A finite common resource

• Not dependent upon the DNS

NTEN, March 2008
What is a Domain

      A domain name is label that a
       person uses in place of an IP
      address to locate a site on the
        Internet, like

NTEN, March 2008
What is the Domain
Name System (DNS)?

         The Domain Name System
        (DNS) is a way to store and
         retrieve information about
           domain names and IP

NTEN, March 2008
IP Addresses are Not Domain

  IP Address                 Domain Name

  Computer-friendly          People-friendly

  Identifier                 Reference

  Unique number identifies   Host name mapped to an
  computer on the Internet   IP address

  Used for routing           Not used for routing

NTEN, March 2008
Regional Internet Registries
RIR System

• The Regional Internet Registry (RIR) system began in

• There are five RIRs

• RIRs coordinate closely with the Internet Assigned
  Numbers Authority (IANA)

• RIRs are nonprofit organizations

NTEN, March 2008
The Regions

NTEN, March 2008
RIR Structure

                            Membership-         Community-
                              driven             regulated

   Fee for services, not                         Community-
        resources                             developed policies

    100% community-                           Member-elected
        funded                                executive boards

• Registration services    • Public sector
                                                  Open and
• Organization services    • Private sector
• Policy Services          • Civil society

NTEN, March 2008
Registration Services

                        • Coordination & management
                          of Internet number resources

                        • Internet number resource

NTEN, March 2008
Registration Services

            Directory Services
                   – Registration transaction
                     information (WHOIS)
                   – Record maintenance
                   – Routing information
                     (Internet Routing Registry)

                        Reverse DNS

NTEN, March 2008
Organization Services

        Public Policy & Members

                    Executive Board

NTEN, March 2008
Organization Services

           Information publication
           and dissemination

                             & Training

NTEN, March 2008
Policy Development Services


   Evaluate                    Discuss    Manage the Internet Resource
                                          Policy Evaluation Process
      Implement          Consensus

                                         Maintain e-mail
                                         discussion lists

                         Publish policy documents

NTEN, March 2008
Policy Development Process

                         Community Proposes,
            BOTTOM-UP    Discusses, and Approves Policy

                        Open Participation
                           • Inclusive        OPEN
                           • Accessible

                   Documented, Published &
     TRANSPARENT   Accessible PDP, Policies, and

NTEN, March 2008
Policy Development Process

• The regional community decides how ARIN will manage
  and administer Internet number resources.

• Anyone may participate in the process.

• The ARIN Board of Trustees ratifies policies only after:

    – discussion on mailing lists and at biannual Public Policy

    – the ARIN Advisory Council recommends adoption after
      finding consensus in favor of a proposal.

NTEN, March 2008
Policy Development Process

• Participation includes:
   – Subscribing to the Public Policy Mailing List (PPML)
     and joining in the discussions

    – Attending biannual Public Policy Meetings or
      participating remotely through meeting webcasts

    – Submitting a policy proposal to create new policy or
      revise current policy

NTEN, March 2008
IPv4 Depletion and
 Transition to IPv6
IPv4 and IPv6
       Internet Protocol        Internet Protocol
           version 4                version 6

  32-bit* number            128-bit* number

  Dotted Decimal Notation   Hexadecimal Notation              2001:500:4:1::80

                            340 billion-billion-billion-
  ~4 billion IP addresses
                            billion IP addresses

                                           * bit = binary digit

NTEN, March 2008
                                                     IPv4 Allocations
                                                     RIRs to LIRs/ISPs
                                                                Yearly Comparison


   Number of /8s

                   2.5                                                                         APNIC
                    2                                                                          LACNIC
                                                                                               RIPE NCC



                         1999   2000   2001   2002      2003    2004    2005     2006   2007

Dec 2007                                             Internet Number Resource Report
                   RIRs are consistently allocating over
                             10 /8s per year

                   The RIRs collectively allocated over
                     12 /8s for the first time in 2007

                    Number of /8s remaining in IANA’s
                           unallocated pool:

                                               /8 = 16,777,216 IP addresses

NTEN, March 2008
IPv4 - Address Space Trend

NTEN, March 2008   /8 = 16,777,216 IP addresses.
IPv4 - Address Space Utilization




NTEN, March 2008

• ARIN makes no predictions
    – But we watch others’ predictions closely

• What we know
    – RIRs allocated 13 /8s last year
    – There are 42 /8s left as of December 31
    – Allocation requests may increase as demand continues

NTEN, March 2008

                   • Current Source of Contiguous
                     Address Space is IPv4

                   • This Supply is Diminishing

NTEN, March 2008
The Simple Solution

• Get New Source of Contiguous
  Address Space

• This Supply is IPv6

NTEN, March 2008
What Could Happen?

• IPv4 Demand Continues

• NAT Use Increases

• Frantic IPv6 Deployment

NTEN, March 2008

• Today, there are organizations attempting to
  reach mail and web servers via IPv6.

• In the near future, there will be organizations
  that have NO CHOICE but to reach mail and
  web servers via IPv6.

NTEN, March 2008

• No Access to Internet Services
       IPv6-only Networks
       IPv6-only Users

• Routing Table Fragmentation
       NAT Use Increase
       Other Markets Develop

NTEN, March 2008
The Bottom Line

                   • We’re running out of IPv4
                     address space.

                   • IPv6 provides much more
                     address space.

NTEN, March 2008
What to Do?

                   • Raise Public Awareness

                   • Facilitate IPv6

                   • Implement IPv6
                     Accessible Services

NTEN, March 2008
ARIN Actions

• Community Outreach
    – Advisories
    – Educational Materials
• Policy Actions
    – Public Policy Mailing List
    – ARIN XXI
      Denver, CO
      6-9 April 2008
• Facilitate IPv6 Deployment
    – Mail and Web Servers Available via IPv4 and IPv6

NTEN, March 2008
ARIN IPv6 Wiki

• Facilitate discussion
  and information
  sharing on IPv6

• Includes real-world
  experience in
  transitioning to IPv6

NTEN, March 2008
Board Resolutions

                    • Encourages transition to

                    • Orders more scrutiny of
                      IPv4 resource requests

                    • Requests Advisory Council
                      to consider policy changes

NTEN, March 2008
Board Resolutions

• Assures ARIN will continue to
  facilitate the community-driven
  policy development process

• Reaffirms ARIN policies do not
  encourage profit-driven
  speculation in IP addresses

NTEN, March 2008
Current ARIN Policy Discussions

• 2007-27: Cooperative distribution of the end of the IPv4
  free pool

• 2007-23: End Policy for IANA IPv4 allocations to RIRs

• 2007-16: IPv4 Soft Landing

NTEN, March 2008
RIR Actions

• Allocation Policy Liberalization

• Waiver of IPv6-related Service Fees

• Training, Workshops, Projects

• Recovering IPv4 Space

NTEN, March 2008
                   YOUR TURN!

NTEN, March 2008
Transition Needs

• IPv6 address space

• IPv6 connectivity

• Operating systems, software, and network
  management tool upgrades

NTEN, March 2008
Transition Needs

• Router, firewall, and other hardware upgrades

• IT staff and customer service training

NTEN, March 2008
What the Future Holds

• The Internet will have two IP versions at the same time (IPv4 &
  IPv6) - this is the “dual-stack” approach.

• For a brief while, IPv6 poses no benefit at all and real work to
  support (as all customers who have IPv6 also have IPv4)

• At some point, there will be IPv6-only Internet users being
  connected by the ISP community

• Your content clients are not going to accept not being reachable
  to newer Internet customers, and will find a way to fix this quickly.

NTEN, March 2008
Your Next Steps

• Make mail and web servers reachable via IPv6 in
  addition to IPv4

• Introduce IPv6 support into your product cycle as soon
  as possible

• Encourage customers to use IPv6 and test their
  applications over it as soon as possible.

NTEN, March 2008
Learn More and Get Involved

• Learn more about IPv6
    – Visit the ARIN website –
    – Visit the ARIN IPv6 Wiki –

• Get Involved in ARIN
    – Read and Participate on the Public Policy Mailing List
    – Attend a Meeting
         • ARIN XXI in Denver 6-9 April 2008

NTEN, March 2008
                   •Tutorials / Training
                   • Technical Presentations
                   • BoFs
                   • Policy Discussions
                   • Help Desks
                   • Social Events

NTEN, March 2008
Policy Proposal Topics

• Active
  – IPv4 end of free pool life proposals
  – Expanding timeframe for IPv4 allocations
  – IPv6-related

• Potential
  – WHOIS (changes to what is displayed)
  – ARIN transfer policy
  – Legacy holder policies

NTEN, March 2008
Public Policy Mailing List

      Forum
        Raise
                      Policy-Related Issues
        Discuss

    All   Policy Proposals Introduced on PPML
      Subscribe

NTEN, March 2008
                   Thank You

NTEN, March 2008

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