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					Richard Jimmerson

Chief Information Officer
American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)




 I shoulda’ had a v6!
     Why IPv6 Adoption is Necessary
     for the Future of Your Organization


NTEN, March 2008
Overview

• IP Addresses and the Domain Name System

• Regional Internet Registries and ARIN

• IPv4 Depletion

• IPv6 Adoption




NTEN, March 2008
IP Addresses and the
Domain Name System
On the Internet, you are nothing but an
IP address!


                            www.afrinic.net
                              196.216.2.1

          www.nro.net
          193.0.0.131                         www.apnic.net
                                               202.12.29.20



        www.icann.org
         192.0.34.163       202.12.29.142       www.arin.net
                                                192.149.252.7




            www.isoc.org
           206.131.253.68
                                              www.lacnic.net
                                               200.160.2.15

                             www.ripe.net
                              192.0.0.214



NTEN, March 2008
What is an IP Address?



          An Internet Protocol (IP)
          address is a number that
           identifies a device on a
             computer network.



NTEN, March 2008
IP Addresses Are:

• Necessary for Internet routing

• A finite common resource

• Not dependent upon the DNS




NTEN, March 2008
What is a Domain
Name?



      A domain name is label that a
       person uses in place of an IP
      address to locate a site on the
        Internet, like www.arin.net.



NTEN, March 2008
What is the Domain
Name System (DNS)?



         The Domain Name System
        (DNS) is a way to store and
         retrieve information about
           domain names and IP
                 addresses.


NTEN, March 2008
IP Addresses are Not Domain
Names

  IP Address                 Domain Name

  Computer-friendly          People-friendly

  Identifier                 Reference

  Unique number identifies   Host name mapped to an
  computer on the Internet   IP address

  Used for routing           Not used for routing



NTEN, March 2008
Regional Internet Registries
RIR System

• The Regional Internet Registry (RIR) system began in
  1992

• There are five RIRs

• RIRs coordinate closely with the Internet Assigned
  Numbers Authority (IANA)

• RIRs are nonprofit organizations



NTEN, March 2008
The Regions




NTEN, March 2008
RIR Structure

                            Membership-         Community-
        Nonprofit
                              driven             regulated

   Fee for services, not                         Community-
                                 Open
        resources                             developed policies

    100% community-                           Member-elected
                             Broad-based
        funded                                executive boards

• Registration services    • Public sector
                                                  Open and
• Organization services    • Private sector
                                                 transparent
• Policy Services          • Civil society


NTEN, March 2008
Registration Services



                        • Coordination & management
                          of Internet number resources

                        • Internet number resource
                          transfers




NTEN, March 2008
Registration Services

            Directory Services
                   – Registration transaction
                     information (WHOIS)
                   – Record maintenance
                   – Routing information
                     (Internet Routing Registry)




                        Reverse DNS



NTEN, March 2008
Organization Services




        Public Policy & Members
                Meetings




                    Executive Board
                       Elections



NTEN, March 2008
Organization Services



           Information publication
           and dissemination




                             Education
                             & Training



NTEN, March 2008
Policy Development Services

                  Need




   Evaluate                    Discuss    Manage the Internet Resource
                                          Policy Evaluation Process
      Implement          Consensus




                                         Maintain e-mail
                                         discussion lists


                         Publish policy documents


NTEN, March 2008
Policy Development Process

                         Community Proposes,
            BOTTOM-UP    Discusses, and Approves Policy




                        Open Participation
                           • Inclusive        OPEN
                           • Accessible



                   Documented, Published &
     TRANSPARENT   Accessible PDP, Policies, and
                   Procedures



NTEN, March 2008
Policy Development Process

• The regional community decides how ARIN will manage
  and administer Internet number resources.

• Anyone may participate in the process.

• The ARIN Board of Trustees ratifies policies only after:

    – discussion on mailing lists and at biannual Public Policy
      meetings;

    – the ARIN Advisory Council recommends adoption after
      finding consensus in favor of a proposal.

NTEN, March 2008
Policy Development Process

• Participation includes:
   – Subscribing to the Public Policy Mailing List (PPML)
     and joining in the discussions

    – Attending biannual Public Policy Meetings or
      participating remotely through meeting webcasts

    – Submitting a policy proposal to create new policy or
      revise current policy



NTEN, March 2008
IPv4 Depletion and
 Transition to IPv6
IPv4 and IPv6
       Internet Protocol        Internet Protocol
           version 4                version 6

  32-bit* number            128-bit* number


  Dotted Decimal Notation   Hexadecimal Notation
   199.43.0.202              2001:500:4:1::80

                            340 billion-billion-billion-
  ~4 billion IP addresses
                            billion IP addresses

                                           * bit = binary digit

NTEN, March 2008
                                                     IPv4 Allocations
                                                     RIRs to LIRs/ISPs
                                                                Yearly Comparison
                   4.5

                    4

                   3.5
   Number of /8s




                    3
                                                                                               AfriNIC
                   2.5                                                                         APNIC
                                                                                               ARIN
                    2                                                                          LACNIC
                                                                                               RIPE NCC
                   1.5

                    1

                   0.5

                    0
                         1999   2000   2001   2002      2003    2004    2005     2006   2007


Dec 2007                                             Internet Number Resource Report
                   RIRs are consistently allocating over
                             10 /8s per year


                   The RIRs collectively allocated over
                     12 /8s for the first time in 2007


                    Number of /8s remaining in IANA’s
                           unallocated pool:


                                   42
                                               /8 = 16,777,216 IP addresses

NTEN, March 2008
IPv4 - Address Space Trend




NTEN, March 2008   /8 = 16,777,216 IP addresses.
IPv4 - Address Space Utilization

                    Available
                     16.4%



          Unavailable
            13.3%


                                   Allocated
                                    70.3%




NTEN, March 2008
Projections

• ARIN makes no predictions
    – But we watch others’ predictions closely


• What we know
    – RIRs allocated 13 /8s last year
    – There are 42 /8s left as of December 31
    – Allocation requests may increase as demand continues




NTEN, March 2008
Situation



                   • Current Source of Contiguous
                     Address Space is IPv4

                   • This Supply is Diminishing




NTEN, March 2008
The Simple Solution



• Get New Source of Contiguous
  Address Space

• This Supply is IPv6




NTEN, March 2008
What Could Happen?


• IPv4 Demand Continues

• NAT Use Increases

• Frantic IPv6 Deployment




NTEN, March 2008
Consequences

• Today, there are organizations attempting to
  reach mail and web servers via IPv6.

• In the near future, there will be organizations
  that have NO CHOICE but to reach mail and
  web servers via IPv6.




NTEN, March 2008
Consequences

• No Access to Internet Services
       IPv6-only Networks
       IPv6-only Users


• Routing Table Fragmentation
       NAT Use Increase
       Other Markets Develop




NTEN, March 2008
The Bottom Line


                   • We’re running out of IPv4
                     address space.

                   • IPv6 provides much more
                     address space.




NTEN, March 2008
What to Do?


                   • Raise Public Awareness

                   • Facilitate IPv6
                     Deployment

                   • Implement IPv6
                     Accessible Services


NTEN, March 2008
ARIN Actions

• Community Outreach
    – Advisories
    – Educational Materials
• Policy Actions
    – Public Policy Mailing List
    – ARIN XXI
      Denver, CO
      6-9 April 2008
• Facilitate IPv6 Deployment
    – Mail and Web Servers Available via IPv4 and IPv6

NTEN, March 2008
ARIN IPv6 Wiki
www.getipv6.info

• Facilitate discussion
  and information
  sharing on IPv6

• Includes real-world
  experience in
  transitioning to IPv6



NTEN, March 2008
Board Resolutions


                    • Encourages transition to
                      IPv6

                    • Orders more scrutiny of
                      IPv4 resource requests

                    • Requests Advisory Council
                      to consider policy changes


NTEN, March 2008
Board Resolutions


• Assures ARIN will continue to
  facilitate the community-driven
  policy development process


• Reaffirms ARIN policies do not
  encourage profit-driven
  speculation in IP addresses



NTEN, March 2008
Current ARIN Policy Discussions


• 2007-27: Cooperative distribution of the end of the IPv4
  free pool

• 2007-23: End Policy for IANA IPv4 allocations to RIRs

• 2007-16: IPv4 Soft Landing




NTEN, March 2008
RIR Actions

• Allocation Policy Liberalization

• Waiver of IPv6-related Service Fees

• Training, Workshops, Projects

• Recovering IPv4 Space



NTEN, March 2008
                   YOUR TURN!




NTEN, March 2008
Transition Needs

• IPv6 address space

• IPv6 connectivity

• Operating systems, software, and network
  management tool upgrades




NTEN, March 2008
Transition Needs

• Router, firewall, and other hardware upgrades

• IT staff and customer service training




NTEN, March 2008
What the Future Holds

• The Internet will have two IP versions at the same time (IPv4 &
  IPv6) - this is the “dual-stack” approach.

• For a brief while, IPv6 poses no benefit at all and real work to
  support (as all customers who have IPv6 also have IPv4)

• At some point, there will be IPv6-only Internet users being
  connected by the ISP community

• Your content clients are not going to accept not being reachable
  to newer Internet customers, and will find a way to fix this quickly.




NTEN, March 2008
Your Next Steps


• Make mail and web servers reachable via IPv6 in
  addition to IPv4

• Introduce IPv6 support into your product cycle as soon
  as possible

• Encourage customers to use IPv6 and test their
  applications over it as soon as possible.




NTEN, March 2008
Learn More and Get Involved

• Learn more about IPv6
    – Visit the ARIN website – www.arin.net
    – Visit the ARIN IPv6 Wiki – www.getipv6.info


• Get Involved in ARIN
    – Read and Participate on the Public Policy Mailing List
    – Attend a Meeting
         • ARIN XXI in Denver 6-9 April 2008




NTEN, March 2008
                   •Tutorials / Training
                   • Technical Presentations
                   • BoFs
                   • Policy Discussions
                   • Help Desks
                   • Social Events




NTEN, March 2008
Policy Proposal Topics

• Active
  – IPv4 end of free pool life proposals
  – Expanding timeframe for IPv4 allocations
  – IPv6-related

• Potential
  – WHOIS (changes to what is displayed)
  – ARIN transfer policy
  – Legacy holder policies

NTEN, March 2008
Public Policy Mailing List
(PPML)

      Forum
        Raise
                      Policy-Related Issues
        Discuss

    All   Policy Proposals Introduced on PPML
      Subscribe
       http://lists.arin.net/mailman/listinfo/ppml



NTEN, March 2008
                   Thank You




NTEN, March 2008

				
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