A Preliminary Instructional Design Model for High Order Thinking

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					         A Preliminary
Instructional Design Model for
     High Order Thinking
                         Peter Chan
       Associate Professor of Instructional Technology
                 peterchanbyuh@gmail.com




   GCSCE Teacher Forum   •   2-3/05/2008   •   Hong Kong
Contents
                Contents
•   What is H.O.T.?
•   Why is it important?
•   What are current strategies for H.O.T.?
•   What is the proposed model?
•   Q&A
What is High Order Thinking (H.O.T)
What is High Order Thinking (H.O.T)

• Not memorizing and regurgitating data
What is High Order Thinking (H.O.T)

• Not memorizing and regurgitating data
• Not inert knowledge
What is High Order Thinking (H.O.T)

• Not memorizing and regurgitating data
• Not inert knowledge
• Cognitive & meta-cognitive strategies
  in ill-structured environments
What is High Order Thinking (H.O.T)

• Not memorizing and regurgitating data
• Not inert knowledge
• Cognitive & meta-cognitive strategies
  in ill-structured environments
• Analysis, synthesis, & evaluation
  (Bloom’s)
Why is H.O.T. important
   Why is H.O.T. important
• 21st Century:
  – ambiguity, novel, information overload
   Why is H.O.T. important
• 21st Century:
  – ambiguity, novel, information overload
• Need:
  – Creative problem-solvers
    Why is H.O.T. important
• 21st Century:
  – ambiguity, novel, information overload
• Need:
  – Creative problem-solvers
• In schools:
  – Changing form of assessment
Current instructional strategies
Current instructional strategies
Active learning          Motivation strategies
Authentic learning       Problem-based learning
Case-based learning      Project-based learning
Collaborative learning   Reflective learning
Modeling
 Current instructional strategies
 Active learning          Motivation strategies
 Authentic learning       Problem-based learning
 Case-based learning      Project-based learning
 Collaborative learning   Reflective learning
 Modeling

• How these strategies relate to each other?
 Current instructional strategies
 Active learning          Motivation strategies
 Authentic learning       Problem-based learning
 Case-based learning      Project-based learning
 Collaborative learning   Reflective learning
 Modeling

• How these strategies relate to each other?
• When should which be used?
 Current instructional strategies
 Active learning          Motivation strategies
 Authentic learning       Problem-based learning
 Case-based learning      Project-based learning
 Collaborative learning   Reflective learning
 Modeling

• How these strategies relate to each other?
• When should which be used?
• In what situations?
    Current instructional strategies
    Active learning          Motivation strategies
    Authentic learning       Problem-based learning
    Case-based learning      Project-based learning
    Collaborative learning   Reflective learning
    Modeling

•    How these strategies relate to each other?
•    When should which be used?
•    In what situations?
•    How can they be used in e-learning & in the
     classrooms?
The H.O.T. MODEL
       The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
         • Immediate modeling (In-person)
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
         • Immediate modeling (In-person)
   – Applying
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
         • Immediate modeling (In-person)
   – Applying
         • Simulated practice (Virtual reality)
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
         • Immediate modeling (In-person)
   – Applying
         • Simulated practice (Virtual reality)
         • Authentic practice (Problem-based learning)
          The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
         • Immediate modeling (In-person)
   – Applying
         • Simulated practice (Virtual reality)
         • Authentic practice (Problem-based learning)
         • Unguided practice
           The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
         • Immediate modeling (In-person)
   – Applying
         • Simulated practice (Virtual reality)
         • Authentic practice (Problem-based learning)
         • Unguided practice
   – Synergizing
           The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
         • Immediate modeling (In-person)
   – Applying
         • Simulated practice (Virtual reality)
         • Authentic practice (Problem-based learning)
         • Unguided practice
   – Synergizing
         • Learning communities
           The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
         • Immediate modeling (In-person)
   – Applying
         • Simulated practice (Virtual reality)
         • Authentic practice (Problem-based learning)
         • Unguided practice
   – Synergizing
         • Learning communities
         • Video ethnographies
           The H.O.T. MODEL
• EMOTIONAL/PSY FOUNDATION 
   – Connection with self, content, & teacher
• COGNITIVE SOLUTIONS
   – Understanding
         • Non-approximate modeling (Allegory)
         • Approximate modeling (Case-based)
         • Immediate modeling (In-person)
   – Applying
         • Simulated practice (Virtual reality)
         • Authentic practice (Problem-based learning)
         • Unguided practice
   – Synergizing
         • Learning communities
         • Video ethnographies
         • Web 2.0
Emotional/Psychological
      Foundation
    Emotional/Psychological
          Foundation
• Connection within the emotional/psyc. self
   – Neuron research: brain plasticity
    Emotional/Psychological
          Foundation
• Connection within the emotional/psyc. self
   – Neuron research: brain plasticity
• Connection between learners & content
  – Example: U.S. Marine
    Emotional/Psychological
          Foundation
• Connection within the emotional/psyc. self
   – Neuron research: brain plasticity
• Connection between learners & content
  – Example: U.S. Marine
    Emotional/Psychological
          Foundation
• Connection within the emotional/psyc. self
   – Neuron research: brain plasticity
• Connection between learners & content
  – Example: U.S. Marine
• Connection between learners & the teacher
  – Example: Motorola iExpedition
    Emotional/Psychological
          Foundation
• Connection within the emotional/psyc. self
   – Neuron research: brain plasticity
• Connection between learners & content
  – Example: U.S. Marine
• Connection between learners & the teacher
  – Example: Motorola iExpedition
Cognitive Solutions
        Cognitive Solutions
• Level 1: Understanding
        Cognitive Solutions
• Level 1: Understanding
  – From Abstract to Concrete Modeling
        Cognitive Solutions
• Level 1: Understanding
  – From Abstract to Concrete Modeling
  – (1) Non-approximate   modeling (Allegory)
         Cognitive Solutions
• Level 1: Understanding
  – From Abstract to Concrete Modeling
  – (1) Non-approximate      modeling (Allegory)
     • Example: Great thinkers
           Cognitive Solutions
• Level 1: Understanding
  – From Abstract to Concrete Modeling
  – (1) Non-approximate      modeling (Allegory)
     • Example: Great thinkers
  – (2)   Approximate modeling (Case-based)
           Cognitive Solutions
• Level 1: Understanding
  – From Abstract to Concrete Modeling
  – (1) Non-approximate      modeling (Allegory)
     • Example: Great thinkers
  – (2)   Approximate modeling (Case-based)
     • Example: Harvard business cases
           Cognitive Solutions
• Level 1: Understanding
  – From Abstract to Concrete Modeling
  – (1) Non-approximate        modeling (Allegory)
     • Example: Great thinkers
  – (2)   Approximate modeling (Case-based)
     • Example: Harvard business cases
  – (3) Immediate     modeling (In-person)
     • Example: Shadowing in principal training
Deficiency in Understanding




   Zhi Shang Tan Bing




                         9
Cognitive Solutions
        Cognitive Solutions
• Level 2: Applying
         Cognitive Solutions
• Level 2: Applying
   – Simulated practice
         Cognitive Solutions
• Level 2: Applying
   – Simulated practice
      • Example: Virtual Chemistry Lab
         Cognitive Solutions
• Level 2: Applying
   – Simulated practice
      • Example: Virtual Chemistry Lab
   – Authentic practice (Problem-based)
         Cognitive Solutions
• Level 2: Applying
   – Simulated practice
      • Example: Virtual Chemistry Lab
   – Authentic practice (Problem-based)
      • Example: BYUH e-learning program for full-time
        supervisors
         Cognitive Solutions
• Level 2: Applying
   – Simulated practice
      • Example: Virtual Chemistry Lab
   – Authentic practice (Problem-based)
      • Example: BYUH e-learning program for full-time
        supervisors
   – Unguided practice
         Cognitive Solutions
• Level 2: Applying
   – Simulated practice
      • Example: Virtual Chemistry Lab
   – Authentic practice (Problem-based)
      • Example: BYUH e-learning program for full-time
        supervisors
   – Unguided practice
      • Example: Psychiatric e-learning program for general
        physicians in Brazil
Synergizing
                Synergizing
• Synergizing
              Synergizing
• Synergizing
   – Peer-learning vs. Peer-community
                 Synergizing
• Synergizing
   – Peer-learning vs. Peer-community
     • Web 2.0
                 Synergizing
• Synergizing
   – Peer-learning vs. Peer-community
     • Web 2.0
  – Video ethnography
                 Synergizing
• Synergizing
   – Peer-learning vs. Peer-community
     • Web 2.0
  – Video ethnography
     • Example: Teacher training in China
                 Synergizing
• Synergizing
   – Peer-learning vs. Peer-community
     • Web 2.0
  – Video ethnography
     • Example: Teacher training in China
The H.O.T. Model
The H.O.T. Model




                   Emotional/
                   Psyc. Self
The H.O.T. Model

              Understanding
              (Abstract to concrete)




                       Emotional/
                       Psyc. Self
The H.O.T. Model
             Application


                 Understanding
                 (Abstract to concrete)




                           Emotional/
                           Psyc. Self
The H.O.T. Model
             Application


                 Understanding
                 (Abstract to concrete)




                           Emotional/
                           Psyc. Self
  The H.O.T. Model                                  Communities
         Communities

                       Application


                           Understanding
                           (Abstract to concrete)

Communities                                                 Communities




                                     Emotional/
                                     Psyc. Self




         Communities                                Communities
                    Q & A:
A Preliminary Instructional Design
 Model for High Order Thinking
                         Peter Chan
       Associate Professor of Instructional Technology
                 peterchanbyuh@gmail.com




   GCSCE Teacher Forum   •   2-3/05/2008   •   Hong Kong