Arc View 3.0 Desktop GIS An Introduction

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					 GIS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF
ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVENTORIES
      Leonardo García Sanjuán


                                Department of Archaeological Sciences
                                               University of Bradford
        Structure of the Presentation


•   Introduction.
•   A Little Bit of History.
     – c. 1900-1970. From Nothing to a Big Stack of Papers.
     – c. 1970-1990. Rise and Consolidation of Databases.
     – 1990> Internasionalisation Geo-referencing of Databases.
        The GIS Phase
•   Europe 1999. An Overview of the Variable Impact of GIS.



•   Discussions a Decade on. Current Issues of GIS in ARM
                    Introduction (I)
Geographic Information System:                             “ Set of computing tools for the
input, storage, processing, query, manipulation, retrieval and output of spatially referenced
information. “



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                                                                                                                                                                                Introduction (II)
        Geographic Information System:
        Archaeological Component = Location + Alphanumeric Information + Image

               SITE NAME                                                                                                             X COORDINATE                                                                                                                           Y COORDINATE   CHRONOLOGY        CLASS        IMAGE

    LA PAPUA                                                                                                                         715330                                                                                                                                 4175640        EDAD DEL BRONCE   NECROPOLIS


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              # #        #
        A Little Bit of History (I) c. 1900-1970
                        From Nothing to a Big Stack of Papers

                 Creation of Inventories of Archaeological Sites




                     Backbone of the Earliest ARM Policies


•     Establishment of Legal Principles: Denmark (1807), England (1882),
      Italy (1909), Spain (1911), France (1913), Germany (1902-1914), etc
    • Creation of Responsible Organisations: England (1908, Royal
      Commission on the Historical Monuments of Engla nd -RCHMO), Spain (1961
      Servicio Nacional de Información Artística, Arqueológica y Etnológica, Dirección
      General Bellas Artes).

•      Paper base: Both alphanumerical and locational/
                 spatial Information is stored on a paper
                 base: CARD-INDEXES (Pre- Computing
                 stage)
      A Little Bit of History (II) c. 1970-1990
         Rise and Consolidation of Computerised Databases
          Transfer of Inventories to Alphanumerical Databases




    More Speed and Agility in Data Processing
    Explosion Information Rescue Archaeology


•    Technical Progression: software DBMS, capacity, accesibility (PCs 80s),
     interfaces, etc.
•    Normalisation and standardisation: data structures and descriptive
     vocabularies (thesauri).
•    Associated Databases: documents (images, Excavation diaries, etc.),
     descriptions of artefacts.
•    50% Base: Alphanumerical information on-line VS Spatial info off-line.
         A Little Bit of History (III) c. 1990 >
            Internationalisation and Geo-referenciing of Databases
                    Background to the GIS Stage of ARM

•   (1) Internationalisation of Databases of Inventories: Growing
    awareness of the need for international co-ordination and co-operation in the
    framework of globalized processes (information dissemination)
     –    1.a.- Basic Data Structures
     –    1.b.- Vocabulary
     –    1.c.- Accessibility on line through Internet.


•   (2) Computerisation of the Spatial Dimension
     –    2.a.- Growing availability of GIS technology
     –    2.b.- Identification of the limitations of conventional databases


    Transfer of Alphanumerical Databases to a SIG Environment




            More agility in data processing and full insertion
                        within territorial planning
     A Little Bit of History (IV). c. 1990 >
    Internationalisation of Databases containing Inventories of Sites

•   (1.a) Basic Data Structures:

     –   CoE (1992). European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage
         (La Valeta 16/1/1992). European Treaty Series 143. European Council. Strasbourg

     –   CIDOC (1995): Draft International Core Data Standard for Archaeological Sites and
         Monuments. Paris. CIDOC

     –   Dominique Guillot & Henrik Jarl Hansen : A European Core Data Standard for
         Archaeological. Sites and Monuments http://www.natmus.min.dk/cidoc/
         archsite/coredata/e_cds.htm


     –   CIDOC ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES WORKING GROUP. World Survey 177
         inventories (35 countries &- 95 jurisdictions)


•   (1.b) Vocabulary

     –   CoE: (1995): European Bronze Age Monuments. A Multilingual Glossary of
         Archaeological Terminology. Amersfoot. Council of Europe Glossary SS7
         A Little Bit of History (V). c. 1990 >
     Internationalisation of Databases containing Inventories of Sites




•   (1.c) On Line Accesibility:

     –   Inventaire Général des Monuments et des Richesses Artistiques (Base de Datos
         francesa Merimée), accesible en http://www.culture.fr/cgi-bin/mistral/
         merimee/


     –   Scottish National Monuments Record of Scotlad (Base de Datos escocesa
         CANMORE) accesible en http://www.rcahms.gov.uk:80/
A Little Bit of History (VI). c. 1990 >
Internationalisation of Databases containing Inventories of Sites
A Little Bit of History (VII). c. 1990 >
Internationalisation of Databases containing Inventories of Sites
A Little Bit of History (VIII). c. 1990 >
Internationalisation of Databases containing Inventories of Sites



•   (2.a.) Growing availability of GIS technology. Advantages:

     –    Integration of tools and funcitons that had hitherto been used separately
         (DBMS, spatial edition, design, output and plotting of maps, etc.)

     –   Availability of new functions
           •   Integration with other geo-referenced databases
           •   Integration with air photography and satellite images
           •   Spatially referenced queries, analysis and spatial modelling
           •   More sophisticated output tools.
          A Little Bit of History (IX). c. 1990 >
         Internationalisation of Databases containing Inventories of Sites

•     (2.b.) Identifying limitations in Conventional Databases

(i) They required specific collation and input of data for the spatial and environmental attributes
of each particular site (land use, topography, geomorphology, etc.)


(ii) Availability of functions for data querying, retrieval and output on the basis of spatial
criteria was sharply limited.


                 Search and selection of information for land planning purposes was
                 therefore unefficient, because it demande the use of paper maps (off-line
                 components of the information system).


    (iii) Offered few or no possibilities of spatial data analysis and modelling (DEM, viewshed,
    predictive modelling, etc.)

    (iv) The topological relationships between archaeological entities and other spatial entities
    were ill-defined or no defined at all
    A Little Bit of History (X) c. 1990 >
       Computerising the Spatial Dimension of Inventories

•    (2.b.) Identifying the limitations of conventional
     Databases (Maps!)



 MAPS
 ARCHIV
 BIB.CIE.
 AE.PHO
OTHER DB.
 HIS.REF
 PAPER.CI
 ORAL INFO.



                           NUMBER OF INVENTORIES

     SOURCE: CIDOC ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES WORKING GROUP. Archaeological Inventories
     World Survey (1998). http://www.natmus.min.dk/cidoc/archsite/survey/survey.htm
Europe 1998. A General Perspective of the Variable
            Impact of GIS on ARM (I)
NO DATA


SYSTEMS LACKING GIS

CENTRALISED SYSTEMS TESTING
INTRODUCTION OF GIS




DE-CENTRALISED SYSTEM WITH A
VARYING DEGREE OF SIG IMPACT
CENTRALISED, FULLY GIS-BASED
OPERATIONAL SYSTEM
Europe 1998. A General Perspective of the
   Variable Impact of GIS on ARM (II)
•   Denmark (info. 1995):
     –   Fully operational centralised GIS-based national inventory (National
         Museum in Copenhaguen)
     –   Access + Idrisi
•   France (info. 1998):
     –   Fully operational centralised GIS-based national inventory (General
         Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Ministry of Culture)
     –   SCALA Proyect (Système de Cartographie Apliqué a l’Archéologie)
         based on Oracle + Arc/Info
•   Netherlands (info. 1998):
     –   Fully operational centralised GIS-based national inventory(State
         Archaeological Service - ROB)
     –   ARCHIS Proyect based on Informix + Grass.
•   United Kingdom (info 1998)
     –   England. De-centralised national inventory. No central GIS-based
         system so far implemented (RCHME assessment stage). Different
         county-based inventories operate under different GIS and computer
         basis.
     –   Scotland. Centralised GIS-based national inventory (RCHMS)
         operative on a Oracle plus Genamap basis.
Europe 1998. A General Perspective of the
  Variable Impact of GIS on ARM (III)

•   Spain    (info. 1998):
     –   National Inventory de-centralised by autonomous regions
     –   Madrid (Arc/Info) and Andalusia (Access + Arc/Info)
•   Italy (info. 1998):
     –   Centralised national inventories. MARIS (1987) and SITAP (1994)
         Projects run by the Ministry of Culture.
     –   (No data about specific software)
•   Portugal (info. 1998):
     –   Centralised (almost) fully operational GIS-based inventory (Portuguese
         Institute of the Historical Heritage)
     –   Endovelicus Project: Access + Arc/Info.
•   Sweden      (info 1998)
     –   Testing phase for a centralised GIS-based inventory(Swedish Board of
         National Antiques - RAA)
     –   Based on Informix + Arc/Info
             Discussions a Decade on.
         Current Issues in GIS and ARM (I)



•   (1) Funding and Training.
•   (2) Configuration. Predominant Software.
•   (3) Geo-referencing Problems.
•   (4) Conceptual Definition of the Relevant Archaeological Events
    within the databases and...
•   (5) …Spatial Definition of Achaeological Events across the
    Landscape.
•   (6) Cartographic Representation of Archaeological Events.
•   (7) Definition of Analytical Categories and Procedures.
          Discussions a Decade on.
      Current Issues in GIS and ARM (II)



•   (1) Funding and training. The introduction of GIS in the
    management of regional&national inventories of archaeological
    sites is progressing at a slower rate than forecasted in the early
    1990’s:

     –   Costs: Hardware, Software and digital data (prices decreasing but still
         significant impact for most ARM institutions)
     –   Old configurations trap.
     –   Staff training.


•   (2) Predominant Software. ESRI Family of Products
    (Environmental Research Systems Institute):

     –   Founded in 1969 in Redlands, California
     –   Currently largest GIS supplier world-wide(ESRI users conference 1981
         - 18 participants, 1997 - 7000 participants)
         Discussions a Decade on.
    Current Issues in GIS and ARM (III)

(2.1)Software in Action. An example: The ESRI Family
              Discussions a Decade on.
         Current Issues in GIS and ARM (IV)

    (2.2) Software in Action. An example: Arc View properties


•   Description: user-friendly desktop mapping and GIS system:
     – Intuitive GUI.
     – Visualisation tools.
     – Links to several existing database software (Dbase, Access, etc.)
     – Links between maps, charts, tables and images.
     – Data integration.
     – Output tools.
          Discussions a Decade on.
      Current Issues in GIS and ARM (V)
(2.3) Software in Action. An example:. Arc View Modular structure
      Discussions a Decade on.
 Current Issues in GIS and ARM (VII)
(2.4) Software in Action. An example:. Arc View Layout
                Discussions a Decade on.
           Current Issues in GIS and ARM (VI)
     (2.5) Software in Action. An example: Arc View Modular Structure

•   VIEWS MODULE. Viewing, querying and editing of spatially referenced
    information.

•   TABLES MODULE: Management of alphanumeric tables.

•   CHARTS MODULE: Creation of graphical summaries of data.

•   SCRIPTS MODULE: Additional functions performed by Avenue routines,
    external to the program.

•   LAYOUT MODULE: Map preparation and output.
         Discussions a Decade on.
    Current Issues in GIS and ARM (VIII)


•   (3) Geo-referencing. Introduction of GIS within ARM reveals
    problems and issues that had hitherto gone unnoticed:

     – Disparity of co-ordinate systems:
        • Within countries and regions (within inventories Andalusia).
           Historiographic reasons
        • Between countries ( for example, Dutch inventory is based on a
           national co-ordinate grid unique to the Netherlands, not
           international).

     – Precision in locations of sites:
        • Lack of cartographic accuracy (scales lower than 1:10.000)
        • Not widespread use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
            Administration and
REGION
             Scales of Analysis
                                  COUNTRY




 PROVINCE              AREA       SITE
                   Discussions a Decade on.
              Current Issues in GIS and ARM (IX)
                                               2-D DATA BASES

                      POINT SITES                                                POLYGON SITES
                      (SINCE 1985)                                                 (SINCE 1992)



      COVERAGE GENERATION                                              COVERAGE GENERATION
                    1.- Filtering                                                    1.- Filtering
       Ill-defined or missing co-ordinates                                                 No
          2.- Conversion of Format                                           2.- Format Conversion
            CUTM to UTM and others                                                         No
          3.- Conversion UTM zone                                          3.- Conversion UTM zone
                   (Zone 29 to 30)                                                  (Zone 29 to 30)




              VISUALISATION                                                    VISUALISATION
             1.- Further Filtering                                            1.- Further Filtering
             Ill-defined co-ordinates                                                      No
     2.- Problems in data structure                                    2.- Problems in data structure
    Consistency and definition of events                                                   No

                                            1st DIGITAL IYAA
                                                                                                                         SOURCE:
       AMORES CARREDANO, F., GARCIA SANJUAN, L., HURTADO PEREZ, V., & RODRIGUEZ-BOBADA, M.C. (1999): “Geographic
Information Systems and Archaeological Resource Management in Andalusia (Spain).” In BARCELO, J.A., BRIZ, I. & VILA, A. (Eds.): New
                      Techniques for Old Times. Computer Applications in Archaeology 1998. BAR International Series. 351-358. Oxford
              Discussions a Decade on.
          Current Issues in GIS and ARM (X)
•   (4) Conceptual Definition of Archaeological events within DB:
     –   Astray Find = Record?
     –   Site = Record?
     –   Land plot = Record?
     –   Information/Recording Item = Record?


•   (5) Spatial definition of archaeological events:
          • Ideal scenario (very infrequent) : precise semi-micro data such as
          digitised and geo-referenced plans of events and individual contexts
          throughout the landscape (i.e.walls, ditches, burials, etc.)

          • More probable scenario (yet not very frequent): sites represented
          as polygons; a variable number of nodes and arcs that reprsent
          with as much accuracy as possible the shape and size of a site.

          • Normal scenario (very frequent):sites are represented as points
          (pairs of co-ordinates) that do not provide any indication of the
          shape and size of the event.
                     Discussions a Decade on.
                Current Issues in GIS and ARM (XI)
   • (4) and (5) Conceptual defintion and spatial archaeological events
   within the Dutch ARCHIS system

• OBSERVATION.             Item of information                                      Monument                             Complex
containing data (artefact, context, site, square,
etc.) colated at a certain time in a certain way. It                                                Observation
                                                                          Excavation
has a spatial component (co-ordinates) and a                                Permit
temporal component (date):                                                                                       Layer

     • SPATIAL REPRESENTATION: Points.                                   Description
                                                                         Monument                         Artefacts and Features

• COMPLEX.       Re-interpretation of a series of
observations as a functionally meaningful entity                          Aditional
                                                                          Protection                   Description Observation
(i.e. a site of whatever functional nature - a
village, a necropolis, a windmill, a marble quarry,
                                                                          License                    Documentation
etc.):
     • SPATIAL REPRESENTATION: Poligons.
                                                                        Offence                    Publication

• MONUMENT.            Complex scheduled or listed
(legally protected):                                                    Appeal/Petition          Collection

     • SPATIAL REPRESENTATIONS: Poligons.
                                                                        Inspection/Research

                                                                                                                        SOURCE:
            ROORDA, I. -WIEMER, R. (1992a): "The ARCHIS Project: Towards a New National Archaeological Record in The Netherlands. "
             In LARSEN, C. V. (Ed): Sites and Monuments. National Archaeological Records. Copenhaguen. National Museum of Denmark
              Discussions a Decade on.
         Current Issues in GIS and ARM (XII)
• (6) Cartographic Representation of Archaeological Events. Lack of
standards on normalised symbology (whether national or international)
                Discussions a Decade on.
           Current Issues in GIS and ARM (XIII)
• (7) Definition of Analytical Categories. Evaluation of Risk Parameters for
Archaeological Heritage across the landscape.


• Process:

    • Election of Variables
    • Weighting of Variables
    • Relationship among Variables

•MARIS Project (1987):
    • Seismic Risk
    • Industrial Pollution
    • Demographic Flows
    • Abandonment of Historic Buildings
    • Looting Index
    • Climatic Risk

                                                                                                      FUENTE:
                                   VV.AA (1992): La Carta de Riesgo. Una Experiencia Italiana para la Valoración
                                             Global de los Factores de Degradación del Patrimonio Monumental.
                                                                                    Sevilla. Junta de Andalucía
                Discussions a Decade on.
           Current Issues in GIS and ARM (XIV)
• (7) Definition of Analytical Categories.
                                                               • Robbery/looting .
  LEGAL AND       • Municipal: Urban Planning      ANTHROPIC   • Touristic Pressure
ADMINISTRATIVE                                    FACTORS OF   • Potential growth (demo-
   STATUS         • Region:                      DESTRUCTION     graphic& economic).
                  • National:
                  • International: WHS
                                                               • Edafology (soil acidity)
                                                               • Slope/topography
                 • Intensity Survey Macro-         NATURAL     • Erosion
                 Level (administrative units).    FACTORS OF
                                                 DESTRUCTION   • Seismic Risk
DOCUMENTATION    • Intensity Survey Semi-micro                 • Flod risk
   STATUS        level (intra-site surveys
                 excavations, etc.)
                 • Accuracy geo-referencing
                 and representation                            • Surface remotions:
                                                  LANDUSE
                                                               • Massive. Minas, Quarries
                 • Singularity                                 Major Public works
SITE VALUE AND                                                 • Limited. Farming (deep
 IMPORTANCE      • Preservation                                ploughing, terrasing)
                 • Educational/Touristic                       • Very Limited. Forestal,
                                                               urban
                 value
                 • Group value.
                                 GIS & ARM
                              A General Overview
                                                                                                             Quantitative Where
                                                                                                             are the attributes?
                                                                                                             How many within a
     Digitasing tables,                                                                                      certain area?
   scanners, vectorising                   Positional and spatial
        devices, etc                               data                                  Queries             Qualitative How do
                                                                                                             they interact?
                                                                                                             How dense is the
                                               GIS                   Transformation                          distribution?
Existins data and maps and                                           Edition
                                                       Link          Analysis
       new fieldwork
                                                                     Interpretation
                                              SMR
                                                                                                                 • Printer
                                                                                                                 • Plotter
  Keyboard, data fields,                   Non-spatial attributes                      Visualisation
     and other input                                                                                             • Screen
                                                                                       and output
                                                                                                                 • Paper maps
                                                                                                                 • Tables
                                                                                                                 • Charts

                                                                                                                        SOURCE:
        ROBINSON,H. (1993): “The Archaeological Implications of a Computerised Integrated National Heritage Information System.” In
            ANDRESEN,J. et alii (Eds): Computing the Past. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (1992).
                                                                                                   Aarhus. Aarhus University Press