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					TWOWS Third General Assembly
REPORT
25 November 2005
Bangalore, India
Rapporteur: Prof. N.O. Simelane

1. TWOWS President’s Report 1999-2005
Prof. Makhubu presented her report (attachment 1). In addition to her report she
presented her vision of the organization‟s „Strategic Plan‟ for 2005-2009 (attachment
2)

2. TWOWS Regional Reports
It was noted that only two regions presented their reports, namely: Latin America
and the Caribbean (attachment 3) and Asia and the Pacific (attachment 4). Reports
from Africa and the Arab regions were not received.

3. Discussion of Reports
The plenary meeting discussed these              reports,   and   suggestions    and
recommendations were made as follows:

3.1 President’s Report
Members appreciated the report of the President. It was however, noted that the
name of Professor Abdus Salam, former President of TWAS (The Academy of
Sciences for the Developing World), was not highlighted. However, Professor
Makhubu underscored the fact that throughout TWOWS existence, the organization
remains indebted to Professor Salam who was instrumental in its founding.
The concept of establishing an endowment fund for TWOWS was welcomed and
members recommended that national chapters should also establish their own
endowment funds for sustaining their chapters.
A representative from Vietnam observed that the Vietnamese delegation of three
representatives to the Second General Assembly and Conference (Cape Town,
South Africa, February 1999) was not mentioned in the President‟s Report.

3.2 Regional Reports
The report from Latin America and the Caribbean was applauded for its
inclusiveness of the countries represented. Members felt that the Asia and the
Pacific report was not very inclusiveness of other countries in the region.
Participants hoped that subsequent reports from Asia and the Pacific would be more
detailed and encompass other countries.
For all regions the issue of financial resources was identified as being a major
constraint for regions to conduct in country and regional activities.
3.3 General Discussion
The meeting further made observations and suggestions on a wide variety of issues:
    It was recommended that more national chapters should be established.
    The idea of having an interactive website was suggested. The idea was to
     encourage collaboration and interaction among researchers across the
     regions.
    The issue of having the definition of scientists expanded was raised, that
     social sciences and humanities should be included. It was agreed that this
     issue should be addressed in a more systematic way during the next general
     assembly.
    The issue of the change of name of TWOWS was also raised. Specifically,
     the issue was to remove “third World” from the description. Again it was
     agreed that this issue should be strategically dealt with. The idea of having
     members sending suggestions for change of name to the TWOWS office was
     suggested.
    The manner in which elections were conducted was critiqued. Specifically,
     the issue of members not knowing the candidates standing for elections.
     TWOWS conceded the weakness of the current system and noted that this is
     why an amendments committee for the Constitution was established.

4. Amendments to the TWOWS Constitution
Dr. Beoku Betts presented a report from the Committee (attachment 5)

5. Presentation on Science and Education
Professor Elvira Williams of Shaw University presented the Physics for Successful
Living: WHAM. Her presentation focused on five pillars of support for successful
living, these include the spiritual, intellectual, physical, social and financial. Her
discussion was presented on the four laws of Newton necessary for reaching one‟s
goal.

6. Recommendations of the General Assembly
Presented by the Chair of the Committee.

7. Remarks of the Outgoing President
Professor Makhubu made her remarks (attachment 6).

8. Short Presentations by Nominees
A brief presentation by each of the nominated candidates was made to the meeting.
Each gave academic, research and other related professional experience.

9. Closing of General Assembly
The TWOWS Third General Assembly was closed by the newly elected President,
Dr. Kaiser Jamil.


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ATTACHMENT 1


PRESIDENT’S REPORT 1999-2005
Lydia P. Makhubu


TWOWS Third General Assembly
25 November 2005
Bangalore, India


A. Introduction
This report contains brief accounts of activities undertaken by the President of
TWOWS. Most of these activities served to raise the profile of TWOWS
internationally and worked towards fulfilling its objectives. It covers the period since
the last General Assembly and International Conference held in Cape Town, South
Africa in February 1999, with the generous support of the Foundation for Research
Development (FRD) and the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology
(DACST) of the Republic of South Africa.

I must, from the onset, acknowledge with highest appreciation the support given to
TWOWS by TWAS, the Academy of Sciences for Developing World without which
our organisation would have ceased to exist many years ago. I would like to
acknowledge in particular the assistance given by Prof. Mohamed Hassan,
Executive Director of TWAS who has provided an office and staff and other services
for the TWOWS since its inception and showed amazing sensitivity to its mandate,
and to what the organisation stands for. I wish to extend appreciation to Professor
CNR Rao, President of TWAS whose assistance was instrumental to the holding of
this meeting in India.

I will preface my report by recalling the objective (there are specific objectives) and
some activities of TWOWS which were formulated at its founding in 1989 and which
have guided the operation of the organisation throughout its existence.

B. General Objective
The general objective of the Organisation shall be the promotion of women in
science and technology in the Third World with a view to strengthening their roles in
the development of their respective countries. The organisation shall also promote
scientific and technological co-operation on both regional and global levels giving
due consideration to different existing cultural and socio-economic systems. In the
first instance the Organisation shall concentrate on the areas of the natural and
exact sciences, both pure and applied, bearing in mind the need to incorporate the
contributions of the human and social sciences.

C. General Activities

                                                                                       3
The objectives shall be met through the following activities to be sponsored by the
Organization:
The identification of a focal point in every Third World country to further the
attainment of the objectives. Since 1999 TWOWS has campaigned to establish
national/regional chapters to initiate activities which address national concerns,
working with all levels of society (Annex 1)
The collection and analysis of information and compilation of a bibliography relating
to the role of women in science and technology in the South. This resulted in the
publication Science, Women and the Developing World.
The compilation of inventories of active Third World women scientists and
technologists was suspended due to the lack of funds.
The provision of TWOWS Postgraduate Training Fellowships was designed to
redress the gender imbalances in postgraduate training in science and technology in
Sub-Saharan Africa and LDCs by providing opportunities for talented female
graduates in these countries to pursue postgraduate training at Centres of
Excellence in developing countries other than their own.
With the generous funding of the Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC,
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), a fellowship
scheme for talented female graduates for Sub-Saharan Africa and LDCs to enable
them to train to the PHD level in Centres of Excellence in the South was initiated. To
date TWOWS has accomplished the following:

               Year         Applications received       Fellowships awarded
               2000                  158                         39
               2001                  323                         46
               2002                  247                         33
               2003                  305                         25
               2004                   74                         17
               2005                  105                         17


To date 36 M.Sc/PhD candidates have completed their PHD degrees

Encouragement of the inclusion of women lectures in scientific congresses; and
research programmes by advising international organizations and bodies of active
women scientists from developing countries.
Recommendation of eminent women scientists for international prizes in science
and technology, such as the L‟Oreal Prize, and nominations to the Academy of
Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS).
Encouragement of the inclusion of programmes aimed at inculcating a scientific
temper, communication and popularization of science and technology.
Establishment of permanent contacts with international bodies in order to encourage
them to include women in their scientific and technological activities.
Undertaking of other activities that will further the objectives of the organisation by
the TWOWS membership.
Fundraising has been a major activity of TWOWS, proposals presented to date:
       UNESCO and regional offices, The Ford Foundation (USA), John D. and
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, (USA), U.S. Agency for International

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Development (USA), Carnegie Corporation of New York, (USA), UNIFEM, (USA),
Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC, Swedish International Development
Cooperation Agency (Sida), The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, (USA),
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), The World
Bank, (USA), The Rockefeller Foundation, (USA), Norwegian Development Agency
(NORAD), Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Ministries and
Research Councils (developing countries).

D. Some Activities Undertaken by the President 1999 – 2005


UNESCO/ICSU World Conference on Science
Budapest, Hungary, June 1999
Theme: Science for the Twenty-First Century A New Commitment
The conference sought to strengthen ties between science and society. I was invited
to give a plenary lecture on the topic Science: The Gender Issue, which featured
mainly the under-representation of women in science and technology and
highlighted the efforts of TWOWS to narrow the gap between men and women in
these areas. It also gave TWOWS data on the concentration of the membership in
the life science and their paucity in physics and engineering.

11th Annual Meeting of the Caribbean Academy of Sciences, and the Academia de
Ciencias de Cuba
Havana, Cuba, 19 – 26 April, 2000
Paper: Women, Science and Technology, Towards a New Commitment
Travel to Cuba was generously sponsored by ICSU and hospitality generously given
by the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. I also represented TWAS as the Executive
Director who could not attend due to prior commitments. In Cuba I met with the
Minister and Vice Minister of Science and Technology and discussed the possibility
of holding the General Assembly and International in that country in 2003.
Women scientists in Cuba were given equal opportunities with men. Indeed the
booklets of indicators of Science and Technology progress given to me showed
equal numbers of men and women in all fields.

Meeting with TWOWS Members Pakistan
Karachi, Pakistan, September 2000
With the assistance of active TWOWS member, Prof. Bina Siddiqui, I met other
TWOWS members from Pakistan. The main focus of the meeting was formation and
establishment of a TWOWS national chapter

World Summit on Sustainable Development
Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August – September, 2002
As President of TWOWS I was invited to serve on the UN Secretary General Panel
to prepare for the World Summit. At the Summit TWOWS was accorded a slot at the
Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation of Sustainable Development under
the Chairpersonship of Dr. Brigette Mabandla, Deputy Minister of Science and


                                                                                  5
Technology of South Africa. It was possible to assembly as team of women
scientists to make presentations at the session as follows:
Prof. L.P. Makhubu – Swaziland Women‟s Perceptions of Science and Technology
for Sustainable Development
Dr. Elizabeth Muzungaile - Zambia The Role of Universities and Other Training
Institutions in Redressing Gender Inequity in Science and Technology
Dr M.O. Dlamini – Swaziland       Mainstreaming Gender Equity in Science,
Mathematics and Technology Education for Sustainable Development
Dr. Wendy Annecke – South Africa         Women Working in the Energy Sector
Ms. L. Von Tonder – South Africa Gender in Science and Difficulties Experienced by
Women
Dr. Kaiser Jamil – India                 Biocomputing Opportunities for Women
I am glad to say TWOWS did feature well in the programme.

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina Conference on Ethical and
Social Responsibilities in Science and Technology
Alexandria, Egypt, 19-21 October 2002
The focus of the conference were the issues of ethics, the social contract between
science and society, the responsibility and the role of scientists in the practice of
scientific research and in the deployment of new technologies, the precautionary
principle and the role of public education.

African Studies Association, Women‟s Caucus Luncheon
Washington D.C., Princeton University, December 2002
Paper: Women in Science: Potential Contribution of African Women Scientists to
Science-led Development of the African Continent
Travel to Washington and hospitality was generously funded by African Studies
Association – Women‟s Caucus

UNESCO/ICSU/TWAS Conference on Science, Follow up to the World Conference
Symposium
Venice, Italy, 2–5 March 2005
Paper: Empowerment of Women in Science
This conference aimed at assessing progress and achievements made by women in
science since the 1999 World Conference.

E. TWOWS Headquarters Activities
Postgraduate Training Fellowships
With the generous support of SIDA/SAREC, TWOWS has developed a fellowship
scheme for women from Sub-Saharan Africa and Least Developed Countries
(LDC‟s) to train to the PhD level in Centres of Excellence in the South. The specific
aims of the scheme are in line with the original specific objectives of TWOWS
formulated in 1989 and are to:
    Improve access to educational and training opportunities in science and
       technology for talented young women graduates from sub-Saharan Africa
       and LDCs;

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    Increase the scientific productivity and creativity of women scientists in sub-
     Saharan Africa and LDCs; and
    Empower a new generation of talented women to assume leadership roles in
     science and technology and to apply their skills to issues critical to
     sustainable development.

Collaboration with International Organizations and Memorandums of Understanding
(MOU)
TWOWS has established ongoing collaboration and/or MOUs with various
organizations:
The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS), International Forum of
Mediterranean Women (FORUMMED), Italy, the International Foundation for
Science (IFS), Sweden, Network of Arab Women Scientists and Engineers
(NAWSE).

TWOWS has been involved in Building Women‟s Capacity in Science and
Technology in the South, a project of the Millennium Science Initiative and the
Science Institutes Group (MSI/SIG)

TWOWS has also been invited to collaborate in contributing to the UNESCO Report
on Science, Technology and Gender (WRSTG).

In my capacity of President of TWOWS I have been invited by the Director General
of UNESCO, Mr. Matsuura, to serve on the Scientific Board of the International
Basic Sciences Programme (IBSP).

The InterAcademy Council (IAC) invited TWOWS to participate in a study Women
for Science. TWOWS was represented by Dr. Ana Maria Cetto (former TWOWS
Executive Board Vice President, and presently Deputy Director-General,
Department of Technical Co-operation, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),
Austria).

F. Conclusion
In conclusion I would like to recall just briefly the lively debates which characterised
the meetings of the founding Executive Committee of TWOWS. The debates
centred on several questions, prominent among these was:
Was it wise to form a women‟s organisation in science at a time when science and
technology were becoming major international influences which were determining
the direction and pace of socio-economic development of countries. Wouldn‟t such
an organisation further marginalize women instead of drawing them into
mainstreaming scientific and technological activities?
Did we foresee women scientists in the developing world playing a unique role in the
upliftment of the standard of living of the majority in their countries?

It seems to me that the wisdom and justification for establishing TWOWS is no
longer in doubt after TWOWS‟ decade of existence. We are at a stage where the
membership must revisit the organisation‟s objectives and activities. We must focus

                                                                                       7
our activities and not dissipate our energy in doing too much. We must select our
niche. Training has proved popular among our members and so has research. Our
strategic plan must help TWOWS focus; we must move steadily but surely towards
the upliftment of women scientists and societies in the developing world. TWOWS is
a worthy cause for the advancement of women in science in the developing world.




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ATTACHMENT 2


THIRD WORLD ORGANIZATION FOR WOMEN IN SCIENCE (TWOWS)
Promoting Women’s Participation and Contribution to Science in
Developing Countries
DRAFT STRATEGIC PLAN
2005 - 2009
Professor Lydia P. Makhubu
President, TWOWS


1. PREFACE
The Third World Organization for Women in Science (TWOWS) has been in existence
since 1989 following the recommendation of the CIDA/TWAS meeting in October 1988
in Trieste. The formation of TWOWS followed intense exchanges among members of
the interim Executive Committee, on the wisdom of establishing an organization for
women outside mainstream international scientific bodies such as TWAS and ICSU.
After much debate, a consensus was reached which envisaged TWOWS as an
international organization which would play a vital role in increasing women‟s access to
science and technology and in promoting greater participation of women scientists and
technologists in the development process of their respective countries and in the
international community.
The TWOWS constitution was adopted in March, 1989 and ratified at the First General
Assembly in Cairo, Egypt in January 1993 and further refined with amendments at the
Second General Assembly in Cape Town, South Africa in February 1999.
The vision which aligned TWOWS with the development aspirations of Third World
countries was reflected in the objectives of the organization at its inceptions.
During 1989–2003 a number of activities have been undertaken with donor funding and
with considerable success. There, however, has not been a systematic plan to guide
the organizations‟ work and to exploit its position as a forum for women scientists in the
developing world.
This plan will propose future programmes of TWOWS to be guided by strategic
objectives which are influenced by current global realities. It lists TWOWS past
achievements, new challenges, and opportunities and more importantly highlights the
need for a management, administration and fundraising strategy. It emphasises the
need for monitoring and evaluation to assess progress which the organization will make
at regular intervals.

2. BACKGROUND
TWOWS was founded under the auspices of the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) in response
to the widespread under-representation of women in science in the Third World. It
came into being as a result of a recommendation of the study group set up by a
TWAS/CIDA conference on the “Role of Women in the Development of Science and
Technology in the Third World” held in Trieste, Italy in October 1988. TWOWS was
formalized through the adoption of its constitution on March 21, 1989 in Trieste and
ratified in Cairo, Egypt in January 1993 during the first General Assembly. An Interim

                                                                                             9
Executive Committee set up in 1989 operated until the first general elections during the
General Assembly in January 1993.
    The rationale to create an organization such as TWOWS was influenced by:
    The under representation of women in science and technology;
    The realization that the role of science and technology in the development process is critical;
    A conviction that the full participation of all scientists male and female is essential in the process;
    Realization that international cooperation is central to the promotion of science and technology
    An appreciation that while there is often no deliberate intention to discriminate, access of women
        to science and technology is limited.

General Objective
The general objective of the Organization shall be the promotion of women in science
and technology in the Third World with a view to strengthening their role in the
development of their countries through directing their high level scientific activities to
the improvement of the quality of life of the majority of their people. The Organization
shall also promote the scientific and technological co-operation on both regional and
global levels giving due consideration to different existing cultural and socio-economic
systems.
In the first instance the Organization shall concentrate on the areas of the natural and
exact sciences, both pure and applied, bearing in mind the need to incorporate the
contributions of the human and social sciences.

3. ACHIEVEMENTS OF TWOWS 1989-2003
This period of TWOWS existence may be regarded as the first phase during which a
wide spectrum of activities has been undertaken with donor assistance. TWOWS has
attempted to define its agenda and identify its niche in the promotion of women in
science. Although a structured plan has not been followed its objectives have been met
and the organization‟s profile has been raised in the international scientific community.

3.1 Membership
TWOWS membership has grown since 1993 and currently stands at 3014 from 102
countries.
3.2 Publications
Biannual Newsletter
Directory of TWOWS Members (2 editions), 1993, 1996
Profiles of Third World Women Scientists, 1998
Proceedings of the First General Assembly and International Conference held in Cairo,
Egypt in 1993
Report of the NGO Forum on Women in Science at the UN Fourth World Conference,
Beijing 1995
Proceedings of the Second General Assembly and International Conference held in
Cape Town, South Africa in 1999
3.4 Participation at International Conferences
This has been a widespread activity by the TWOWS President, the Executive Board
and other TWOWS members. This has made the organization visible and has


10
facilitated links and networks with other organizations and donors. Notable among the
conferences have been the:
UNESCO/ICSU World Conference of Science - Budapest 1998 and the
Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women, China, 1995.
World Summit on Sustainable Development Johannesburg, South Africa, 2001.
In addition, the organization has held two General Assemblies. The First General
Assembly and International Conference, Cairo Egypt, 1993, and the Second General
Assembly and International Conference, Cape Town, South Africa 1999. Both
conferences were strongly supported by the Governments and scientific communities of
Egypt and of South Africa respectively.
3.5 Grants for Research Development Projects
This has been a very popular activity although limited by the availability of funds.
Research and Development Grants with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation were
awarded in previous years. The conditions of the awards were among others that the
research projects should aim to improve the quality of life at the grassroots level.
3.6 Postgraduate Training Fellowships
With the generous support of SIDA/SAREC TWOWS has developed a very popular
fellowship scheme for women from Sub-Saharan Africa and Least Developed Countries
(LDCs) to train to the PhD level in centres of Excellence in the South. To date 180
fellowships have been awarded since 1998 in different areas. Seven fellows have
completed their PhD studies. TWOWS has received well over USD 1 million from
SIDA/SAREC for the fellowship programme:
1998/99             USD 150,962
2001/02             USD 280,977
2001/02             USD 614,947
2002/03/04/05       USD 1,512,000
3.7 Travel Grants
In the early 1990s TWOWS enjoyed support from CIDA for travel of TWOWS members
to scientific conferences and conferences
3.8 Grants for the Publication of Ph.D. theses and National/Regional Publications
CIDA also generously supported these grants. The PhD grants were established to
assist graduating students to publish their theses. The National/Regional publication
grants were intended to promote the publication of newsletters related to women and
science.
3.9 TWOWS Prize
Professor Jose Israel Vargas, of Brazil former President of the Third World Academy of
Sciences (TWAS) has pledged a prize – in honour of his late daughter to be awarded to
TWOWS members from Portuguese speaking countries).
3.10 Collaboration with International Organizations
Memoranda of Understanding with IFS and Forummed have been signed for
collaboration with organizations.

4. DEMANDS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
As the millennium begins the need for increased participation of women in science and
technology has never been greater. The world has seen unprecedented scientific and
technological advances which touch upon the human condition and bring to focus

                                                                                    11
serious ethical issues and yet offer prospects for the improvement of the quality of life.
Women scientists must be galvanised through education, training and research to face
the challenges of education, health, the environment and the far reaching effects of
information and communication technologies.
TWOWS should emphasize greater collaboration with international scientific
organizations, and among TWOWS members in the different regions of the Third World
and fund-raising for specific activities.
The following strategic objectives indicate the direction which TWOWS would need to
follow in order to answer the demands of the millennium, rise up to the challenges and
take advantage of the available opportunities.

4.1 STRATEGIC PROGRAMMES

4.1.2 Strengthening Participation of Women in Science
Goals
Improving the quantity and quality of participation
a. Research training, workshops/conferences specifically focussing on overcoming
obstacles which women encounter within university/research institutions.
b. Travel grants for international scientific conferences and workshops.
Postgraduate Training fellowships
a. Strengthen and expand current TWOWS Postgraduate Fellowships by:
-       Including applications from all developing countries;
-       Establish memorandum of understanding with leading universities and research
institutes to provide fee waivers to TWOWS scholars;
-       Follow up meetings with scholars for project evaluation and progress in order to
make the fellowships effective for the scholars.
Dissemination of opportunities – news, website, fellowships
a. TWOWS website to act as linking mechanism for flash news info concerning latest
information pertaining to opportunities available to women scientists living and/or
working in developing countries

4.1.3 Mobilising the Participation of Women in Science
Goals
Organizing women scientists strategically
a. Research grants which target issues of concern to the developing world.
Membership drive
a. Increase membership and participation by encouraging feedback and contributions.
National Chapters
a. Create national chapters in the 113 countries where there are TWOWS members.
TWOWS members in many countries have initiated activities at the local level. The aim
is to promote women in science and technology within the context of their cultural and
socio-economic systems.
Web fora


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a. Newsletter – e-bulletins, editorial board for TWOWS
b. Thematic networks – gender dimensions, discussion groups
c. Encouraging members to submit articles on general theme of women, science and
development

4.1.4 Acting at the Interface with Science in Partnerships with other
Organizations, Professions and Communities
Goals
Encouraging women scientists in policy research
a. TWOWS/LEAD project
b. Building strong links with international scientific organizations such as ICSU, TWAS,
IFS, UNESCO, SIDA-SAREC and others to build collaborative programmes that involve
TWOWS in the advancement of women in science and capacity-building.
Leadership of women scientists – advocacy
a. Increase participation of TWOWS members in advocacy meetings of UNESCO UN,
CSW, INSTRAW etc.
Prizes, medals for outstanding women scientists
a. Establish joint prizes in scientific fields with specialist international organizations, eg.
WMO (meteorology), WHO (Health), OPEC (Environment), UNEP (Environment), GEF
etc.
b. TWOWS Prizes for recognition of excellence among members



5. FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR PROJECTS AND TWOWS

5.1 Programme Funds
Programme/Fundraising Committee
Consisting of members from the each region of the developing world to design
programmes in research and training in which TWOWS should be involved, to be
submitted for donor funding.
This committee will also be responsible for formulating programmes to link TWOWS
members with grassroots groups to enhance the applications of science and
technology in the alleviation of poverty.
This committee will also be responsible for pursuing links with international
organizations.
Overall monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness and impact of the TWOWS
programmes in promoting women‟s participation in science and technology

5.2 Endowment Fund
It is recognised that the causes for the low participation of girls and women in science
are many and mainly socio-cultural. These causes therefore demand the design of
long-term strategies and multiple interventions. It is thus necessary to create a stable
framework from which to launch programmes and activities to address the different
problems in the different regions of the Third World. It is for these reasons that a
campaign to launch an endowment fund should be considered to give the Organization

                                                                                            13
the necessary financial stability to enable it to shoulder its responsibilities and achieve
the important objectives.
The appeal is arranged as follows:
Government Appeal which is directed to governments, ministries of science and
technology of all countries;
Membership Appeal which is directed to all members of TWOWS;
Individual Appeal which is directed for to individuals all over the world;
Institutional Appeal which is directed to universities, foundations, private companies
etc. all over the world.
It is our hope that the promotion of the involvement of women in science will be seen as
an important endeavour, worthy of support by all.

5.3 Italian Law
It is absolutely essential that TWOWS has an SEAT agreement with the Government of
Italy in order to obtain funding and legal status in Italy.

6. MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

6.1 Executive Secretary
The overall administration and management if TWOWS and financial operations is
assured by TWAS, There is a great need to establish an office for managing and
administering the affairs of the organization with an Executive Secretary and support
staff. This will ensure a more proactive move to promote TWOWS activities and
enhance its visibility.

6.2 Finance Committee
Establishment of Finance Committee consisting of members from the each region of
the developing world, who will oversee the financial budget of the Organization.

7. CONCLUSION
During the last 10 years, TWOWS has benefited from donor support to seek and define
its areas of strength in building capacities among women scientists of the Third World.
It is now time to evolve a plan of strategic activities to guide the future of the
organization.

8.     ANNEXURE


8.1    TWOWS Executive Board

Representation of members to the executive board has aimed to reflect regional
distribution. The current board (1999 – 2003) stands as follows:

Prof. Lydia Makhubu, President – Swaziland
Prof. Farkhonda Hassan, Vice President, Arab – Egypt

14
Prof. Grace Alele Williams, Vice President, Africa – Nigeria
Dr. Kaiser Jamil, Vice President, Asia and the Pacific – India
Dr. Lillian Alvarez Diaz, Vice President, Latin America & the Caribbean – Cuba
Prof. Farida Habib Shah, Member, Asia and the Pacific – Malaysia
Ms. Hilweh A. Malhas, Member, Arab – Jordan
Dr. Christiana Nso Mbi, Member, Africa – Cameroon
Prof. Elsa Quiroga, Member, Latin America & the Caribbean - Bolivia

8.2    TWOWS Constitution

The TWOWS Constitution was adopted in Trieste on 21 March 1989 and ratified at the
First General Assembly in Cairo, Egypt in January 1993, and further ratified with
amendments at the Second General Assembly in Cape Town, South Africa in February
1999.

CONSTITUTION
Preamble
•      Realizing the importance of the role of science and technology in the
development process;
•      Convinced that the full participation of all scientists is essential in this process;
•      Realizing that international co-operation is central to the promotion of science
and technology;
•      Realizing that while there is often no intention of discrimination, access of
women to science and technology is limited;
•      Referring to the broad objectives in the recommendations adopted by the
Conference on "The Role of Women in the Development of Science and Technology in
the Third World" (Trieste, Italy, 3-7 October 1988);
the Study Group, set up as a result of that Conference, declares the establishment of
an international organization with the title of "Third World Organization for Women in
Science", which shall play an important role in increasing women's access to science
and technology and in promoting greater participation of women scientists and
technologists in the development process of their respective countries and in the
international community.

Article 1
Name and Headquarters
The Third World Organization for Women in Science, hereinafter referred to as the
"Organization", is a non-profit, international, non-governmental organization.
The headquarters of the Organization shall be located at the seat of the Third World
Academy of Sciences (TWAS) and the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations
(TWNSO).

Article 2
Objectives
a)     General Objective



                                                                                          15
The general objective of the Organization shall be the promotion of women in science
and technology in the Third World with a view to strengthening their role in the
development of their countries through directing their high level scientific activities to
the improvement of the quality of life of the majority of their people. The Organization
shall also promote the scientific and technological co-operation on both regional and
global levels giving due consideration to different existing cultural and socio-economic
systems.
In the first instance the Organization shall concentrate on the areas of the natural and
exact sciences, both pure and applied, bearing in mind the need to incorporate the
contributions of the human and social sciences.

b)       Specific Objectives
(i)      To survey and analyse the status and prospects of women in science and
         technology in the Third World;
(ii)     To improve the access to educational and training opportunities for women in
         science and technology;
(iii)    To increase scientific productivity and efficiency of women scientists in the Third
         World;
(iv)     To promote the recognition of the scientific and technological achievements of
         women;
(v)      To promote collaboration and communication among women scientists and
         technologists in the Third World and with the international scientific community
         as a whole;
(vi)     To promote the participation of women scientists and technologists in the
         decision-making processes both at the national and international levels;
(vii)    To popularize and promote science and technology for the general welfare of
         society;
(viii)   To encourage other international organizations to increase their activities
         concerned with promoting the role of women in science and technology in the
         Third World;
(ix)     To develop joint activities with other bodies.
(x)      To make science more responsive to the needs of society;
(xi)     To link modern science to indigenous knowledge;
(xii)    To make cognisance of the ethical and traditional circumstances of different
         societies when implementing scientific and technological activities.

c)       Activities
The objectives of the Organization shall be met through the following activities to be
      sponsored by the Organization:
(i)   The identification of a focal point in every Third World country to further the
      objectives;
(ii)  The collection and analysis of information and compilation of a bibliography
      relating to the role of women in science and technology in the Third World;
(iii) The compilation of inventories of active Third World women scientists and
      technologists and of organizations concerned with the promotion of women in
      science and technology;



16
(iv)    The provision of fellowships, travel grants and research grants to women
        scientists and technologists;
(v)     The organization of training programmes for science educators;
(vi)    The organization of technical workshops on skills such as proposal writing and
        presentation of scientific results through publications or congress presentations;
(vii) Preparation of a book containing profiles of eminent women scientists;
(viii) Encouragement of the inclusion of women lecturers in scientific congresses;
(ix)    Recommendation of eminent women scientists for international prizes in science
        and technology;
(x)     Publication of a regular Newsletter to serve as a communication vehicle for the
        Organization;
(xi)    Facilitating the participation of women scientists and technologists in scientific
        meetings;
(xii) Supporting the formation of local associations concerned with promotion of
        women in science and technology;
(xiii) The preparation of material relating to the choice of scientific and technological
        careers of women;
(xiv) Encouraging the inclusion of programmes aimed at inculcating a scientific
        temper, communication and popularization of science and technology;
 (xv) Establishing permanent contacts with international bodies in order to encourage
        them to include women in their scientific and technological activities;
(xvi) The examination of previous successful projects in order to identify reasons for
        non-implementation on a large scale;
(xvii) The formation of strong alliances with organizations working for the scientific and
        technological projects at the grassroots levels;
(xviii) Undertaking any other activities that will further the objectives of the
        Organization.

Article 3
Membership
There shall be three types of members of the Organization:
(a)   Full Members shall either be individual or institutional:
      An Individual Member shall be a woman scientist or technologist who has
      completed her first degree in natural and/or exact sciences, both pure or applied,
      national of the Third World, committed to the objectives of the Organization.
      An Institutional Member shall be a scientific body located in the Third World
      whose objectives include the promotion of the role of women in science and
      technology.
(b)   Associate Members shall be:
      Individuals and Institutions who shall be non-scientists and non-technologists or
      non-scientific bodies interested in furthering the objectives of the Organization.
(c)   Candidate Members shall be:
      Young women, nationals of the Third World, who have not yet completed their
      first degree in science and technology and are therefore not yet eligible for full
      membership.




                                                                                        17
Article 4
Structure, Governing Bodies and Duties
The decision-making bodies of the Organization shall be:
a)    The General Assembly:
The General Assembly shall be the supreme body of the Organization comprising all
members. The Assembly shall determine the guiding principles and policies of the
organization, take appropriate action to enable the Organization to further its objectives
and provide a forum to discuss issues related to these.
The Assembly shall elect the members of the Executive Board including the President.
General Assemblies shall be held every four years.
Full members shall have a single vote each.
b)    The Executive Board:
The Executive Board shall direct the affairs of the Organization between sessions of
the General Assembly, recruit suitable staff for the secretariat and monitor the work of
the secretariat. The Executive Board shall regularly report on all of its activities to the
General Assembly.
Members of the Board shall be:
i)      The president;
ii)     Four vice-presidents, representing the four regions of the South;
iii)    The treasurer;
iv)     Four ordinary members from the four regions of the South, and;
v)      The executive secretary who shall be an ex-officio member.
The terms of the office of the Members of the Board shall be so determined that there
is a rotation of membership which insures that not all members begin their terms at the
same time. The Board will generally meet once a year.
The secretariat of the Organization shall be located at the headquarters and shall be
charged with executing the programme of the Organization and all its day-to-day
business under the direct authority of the Executive Board. The secretariat shall
specifically be responsible for continually providing information about the activities of
the Organization to its members through the publication of the Newsletter and other
means.

Article 5
Finances of the Organization
The funds of the Organization shall be obtained from:
a)      the contributions of its members: US$ 20 per full individual member, and US$ 10
        per associate individual member, per year, and US$ 50 per institutional member
        per year;
b)      subventions, donations, levies and legacies accepted by the Executive Board on
        behalf of the Organization; and
c)      revenue from capital investments.
Difficulties in paying dues shall be treated on an individual basis.
A yearly audited report shall be prepared and submitted to the members of the
Organization.




18
Article 6
Amendments to the Constitution
Any part of this Constitution may be modified after a proposal to that effect has been
circulated to all members at least sixty days before a General Assembly and provided
that, at the said General Assembly, the proposal is carried by a two-thirds majority.




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ATTACHMENT 3


REGIONAL REPORT
LATIN AMERICAN AND THE CARIBBEAN
Dr. Lilliam Alvarez
Dr. Elsa Quiroga

TWOWS Third General Assembly
25 November 2005
Bangalore, India



Introduction
Since the Second General Assembly in Cape Town, February 1999, much work has
been done.
Without any doubt, the UNESCO World Conference on Science, held in Budapest in
June 1999, was a crucial moment in the organization of an Action Plan and sensitizing
the decision makers and authorities in the more urgent problems facing women in
science and technology, especially in the Third World. In Budapest, the active
participation of all the TWOWS Executive Board, the speeches in the Main Hall
pronounced by Lydia Makhubu and Rosa Elena Simeon, (the recently sadly lost
Minister of Science and Technology of Cuba), were very impressive and prepared the
participants for the panels in the subsequent days.
Some of the main items approved in the Action Plan were the following:
“Government agencies, international organizations and universities and research
institutions should ensure the full participation of women in the planning, orientation,
conduct and assessment of research activities.
It is necessary that women participate actively in shaping the agenda for the future
direction of scientific research.
All countries should contribute to the collection of reliable data, in an internationally
standardized manner, for the generation of gender-disaggregated statistics on S&T, in
cooperation with UNESCO and other relevant international organizations.
Governments and educational institutions should identify and eliminate, from early
learning stages on, educational practices that have a discriminatory effect, so as to
increase the successful participation in science of individuals from all sectors of society,
including disadvantaged groups”.
An important step in this period was the organization of the TWOWS National Chapters
in our countries. This task was difficult to organize, because of different causes. The
activism of the members was required and not in every case was a successful project.
In general in the region there is the constant lack of financial support to organize joint
meetings, projects, publications or fellowships for young women scientists. Certainly,
there have been two main causes: one is a poor activism of some members in seeking
funds, and second is the difficulties in the electronic communication which has been
intermittent. For us it is clear that funds raised by TWOWS are directed to the


20
Postgraduate Training Fellowships for Sub-Saharan Africa and Least Developed
Countries (LDCs). We need administrative and financial support.

TWOWS Actions in Different Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean
In Cape Town, we agreed to assign the region due to its complexity as follows: Lilliam
Alvarez (Cuba) Central America and the Caribbean; and Elsa Quiroga, (Bolivia, elected
as member of the Executive Board) South America.
In this section, we include the TWOWS activities held in some countries of the Region.
We include the notes and reports received by some TWOWS members, but not all the
countries are mentioned.
Argentina
Argentinean TWOWS members have a tradition in being very active and creative in
legitimate women‟s issues in all levels of the society.
TWOWS members as Sylvia Kochen in the University of Buenos Aires and Bibiana Vila
of Profauna have been key factors in many activities, conferences and seminars,
especially in publishing and reporting papers on statistics of the presence of women in
the S&T system and experiences of communitarian women participation, respectively.
The foundation of the UNESCO Chair for Women in Science and Technology in Latin
America, directed by Dr. Gloria Bonder from Argentina was a very important step, in
particular the development of a research project with the participation of 8 countries of
the region consisting in the application of a standardized questionnaire to ten
authorities of S&T, (men or women), and to establish patterns, identify stereotypes,
common perceptions, etc. The final report of the 8 focal points was completed at the
end of 2004, after a meeting in Buenos Aires and a book with the results will be
published soon.
Bolivia
From Bolivia, there were called two initiatives, through official letters by post:
Organization of a TWOWS Network for Latin America and the Caribbean, having a
focal point in and to spread the nodes in every important city in each country.
To organize the National Chapters, especially in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru,
Venezuela, México and Guatemala.
At the beginning, there were enthusiastic responses, however, the lack of country
membership information, poor electronic communications within each country logistical
problems, and lack of funds, have hindered our objectives and have limited successful
results.
In spite of this situation, in Guatemala, Bolivia and Cuba there have been more
activities. More recently, from Bolivia we have been asking national reports on the
TWOWS issues in each country.
Other important steps were the continuous exchange of different scientific events,
workshops and symposiums, organized in the region, promoting and recommending
the TWOWS members participation.
In relation with the TWOWS National Chapter in Bolivia, we report the following steps
and results:
In March 1999, Elsa Quiroga initialized a request to the President of the National
Academy of Sciences of Bolivia, ANCB, to organize the Organización Boliviana de
Mujeres en Ciencia,(OBMC), asking the support of the Board of Directors of the
Academy.


                                                                                       21
The positive answer allowed Elsa Quiroga, to initialize contacts and invitations to
professional women from different areas, institutions, and universities of S&T. She
translated all TWOWS main documents into Spanish so that a dialogue about
objectives, activities and membership or the OBMC could be established.
In May, 1999, the OBMC was founded with a founding document, statutes and
requested recognition as Bolivian TWOWS National Chapter.
Elsa Quiroga is the President of the OBMC, since 1999 and the organization joined
Bolivian women in the following areas: medicine, biochemistry and pharmacy, biology,
chemistry, physics, mathematics, ecology and environment, different sectors of
engineering, economics, law, psychology, pedagogy, social communication, etc.
To date the OBMC has developed many activities promoting women in science, and
has published and communicated the results of Bolivian women scientists. Special
emphasis has been in the area of the popularization and scientific literacy in S&T for
all.
The Bolivian Chapter has organized programs for environmental health, teaching of
science and technology, teaching based on experiments carried out in primary schools,
etc.
Last year, 2004, the OBMC participated in the formulation of the Law for Science and
Technology, recently presented for approval to the Bolivian Senate.
The Organization already has sub-chapters in 6 different Bolivian cities: La Paz, Santa
Cruz, Cochabamba, Oruro, Sucre y Tarija.
Despite facing enormous economical problems, the Bolivian TWOWS Chapter has
organized two national meetings of women in science, with more than 100 active
women form different branch of the Science and the Technology. The reports of these
two encounters were sent to our President Lydia Makhubu.
Brazil
From Brazil we have received information for this Report from the renowned Professor
and TWOWS Member, Fanny Tabak. She has informed that they have not been able to
organize the TWOWS Chapter in Brazil. However, the Individual Brazilian members
have been very active in their different States, universities and scientific institutions.
In particular in Rio de Janeiro in October, 2004 place an important meeting on Women
in Basic and Natural Sciences was held with the assistance of many Brazilian,
Argentinian and Cuban TWOWS members, actively participated. The commitment to
create a Network for Women in Science and Technology in Latin America was under-
taken. The next meeting will take place in Mexico in 2006.
Women in Physics had financial support from the Working Group; this was due to the
International Year for Physics which was held in Brazil in May 2005.
Another relevant fact is the publication of the book Laboratorio de Pandora by Dr.
Fanny Tabak. This book has had a wide distribution and strong repercussions, and has
been reviewed in different publications and Fanny Tabak has taken part in many
interviews for radio and television.
Brazilian colleagues also report the success of a Conference held in Mexico, in
February 2004, where our TWOWS member Norma Blazquez was a very active
participant and where they decided to organize and write a new publication.
Colombia
The main activities from the TWOWS Colombian team were, in 2003:
Participation in the Simposia Internacional, Hacia un Nuevo Contrato Social en Ciencia
y Tecnlogía Para un Desarrollo Equitativo, organized by the Universidad de Antioquia


22
in Medellin, Colombia during the celebration of 200 years of this institution. The most
important purpose of the symposia was to present the current status and the future of
scientific and technological development of Colombia taking into account the missions
of science, education, and the development and laws regarding science and
technology. The symposia also proposed alternatives for the governments‟
commitments for a decisive and permanent participation for a more sustainable, equal
and prosperous society.
Creation of a section for Women in Physics within the Sociedad Colombiana de Fisica,
with 20 members.
In 2004, the TWOWS members in Colombia developed the following activities:
Participation in the Colloquium How can Female Scientists Contribute to Development,
of the Department of Physics, Universidad de los Andes, 29 March 2004
2) Establishment of a committee to offer conferences in several universities in Bogota
motivating young girls in physics in preparation of activities of 2005, and the
International Year of Physics.
The leadership of the well known Colombian Biotechnologist and TWOWS member, Dr.
Lucia Atehortua, from the University of Antioquia in Medellin, has been recognized by
many Latin American authorities. She has been a key factor and an example of role
model for women in science in our region and constitutes an example for young girls
working in her country.
Costa Rica
TWOWS activities of individual members in Costa Rica have been directed to the
organization of different events, conferences and seminars on scientific and gender
topics.
An example is the Simposio Internacional Sobre Manejo Integrado de Aguas
Subterráneas, held in November, Costa Rica, 2000, one of the organizers was Dr.
Jenny Reynolds, TWOWS member, who successfully contributed to the participation of
many regional researchers and in particular the contribution of a specialized woman
from Bolivia.
Cuba
In particular in Cuba, the TWOWS National Chapter was founded in June 2000. The
Chapter, together with a Section of Women in Sciences under the Cuban Academy of
Sciences now has 120 members.
Cuban women in physics have been especially active, participating and organizing
conferences, roundtables, etc, in different universities and scientific institutions. Among
them, Aurora Perez, Margarita Cobas, Norma Gonzalez, Marlena Castellanos,
developed a strong activity, studying and popularization of gender issues.
In Cuba, an annual prize was created to motivate five of the best scientific research
where the principal author is a woman. The prizes are dedicated to the fields of exact
and natural sciences, biomedicine, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and technical
sciences and engineering. The women in science prizes are selected on the basis of
the National Awards of the Cuban Academy of Sciences, guaranteeing rigorous
scientific analysis.
In 2003 an award was founded, in collaboration with the Sofia Kovalevskaia
Foundation, directed by the prestigious personalities of USA, Ann and Neal Koblitz.
This is awarded every two years, for the best three research work in basic sciences
conducted by Cuban women. This year, 2005, will be the second edition of the award.



                                                                                         23
The Caribbean Academy of Sciences (CAS) Conferences held in Guadaloupe in 2000
and in Havana in 2001 were good opportunities for women scientists from the
Caribbean and interested in gender issues to meet and discuss important issues in this
area.
Especially remarkable was the visit of our TWOWS President Lydia Makhubu to the
CAS meeting in Havana and the good deep debate that took place with the
participants. This action opened the idea and the financial support of CAS for
organizing, in Trinidad and Tobago the Conference on Key Issues Facing Women in
Science in the Caribbean held from 29th April to 2nd May, 2001. Many of us had the
possibility to share information, which resulted in a paper entitled Preliminary Remarks
on the Situation of Women in Science and Technology in the Caribbean, by Lilliam
Alvarez, Veronica Broomes, Grace Sirju-Charran and Rinia Doelhalasori.
Some young Cuban women scientists were recommended to participate in conferences
and were also supported for fellowship proposals. One of the more relevant was the
participation of one theoretical physicist in short term training in Fermilab in USA,
supported by the APS.
The Conference of the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics on Women in
Physics was celebrated in Paris in 2002, and some physicists from Latin American
countries could participate, especially from Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Colombia and
Cuba, many of them TWOWS members. We had the opportunity to discuss our
problems and to compare different points of views with European and North-American
women in Physics.
Guatemala
In Guatemala, the most active TWOWS full member is Dr. Amarillis Saravia. Thanks to
her sustained efforts the Asociación de Mujeres Científicas (ADEMCIT), was founded in
Guatemala City.
Nowadays the ADEMCIT has more than 50 members from different areas of sciences
and technology: medicine, biochemistry and pharmacy, biology, chemistry and
mathematics, different fields of engineering, architecture, economic sciences and social
sciences. This Association can be considered as Guatemala‟s TWOWS National
Chapter.
Among the many activities developed by this Association we can mention in this report
the following capacity building courses and seminars for different age groups:
Courses of orientation for young scholars in the Eastern secondary schools, to help
them to select their professional choices at the beginning their university studies.
Capacity building for the male and female population in general, through conferences,
forums, courses on relevant topics on mining, the free commerce alliances, all of them
dependant on the socio-economical context, and educational and cultural level of the
audience in Guatemala.
Related to the topic of dissemination of scientific and technological knowledge, the
Guatemalan Association of Women in Sciences publishes every three months, a
bulletin including the topics of courses and conferences and also scientific papers.
The Association has a social branch which has the responsibility of helping the
Asociación del Niñito Quemado, (Association of Burned Child), with the collected funds
of the different organized events.
Mexico




24
In Mexico, we must record in this report, of the absence of our dear Mary Glazman, a
very well known Mexican mathematician, who in a very enthusiastic and constructive
way accompanied us in Cape Town, who passed away in 2000. To her, our memory.
Mexican TWOWS members have the most active group in the region. Evidently the
path and the activism led by Ana Maria Cetto in this country continues to have vigorous
roots and new followers.
Many activities, meetings, conferences, seminars, publications, social communication
actions in radio, in television have been organized by our Mexican colleagues from
different and prestigious institutions in Mexico City, Puebla, Guanajuato, etc.
V Congreso Iberamericano de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Genero, held in Mexico City, on
February 2004 deserves a special reference. The coordinator and main organizer and
promoting person was Norma Blazquez Graf. The Congress was at the Universidad
Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), with the main purpose of joining those persons
in Iberoamerica working or interested in themes related with S&T from a Gender
perspective.
The objective was to analyze the current situation of women in the science and
technology systems in Latin America and Spain, to explore the negative consequences
that could cause the exclusion of gender issues in the practice, content and
organization and future strategies. Also, the Conference had the purpose of promoting
the equal presence of women in all levels: education, creation and production,
contribution, recognition and participation in decision position.
The main output of the Conference, was to compile the diagnostics, experiences and
analysis carried out from different point of views and disciplines. The Conference
multidisciplinary contributions from areas such as: History, philosophy, sociology of
science and technology, education, psychology, economy and management and public
politics for S&T.
Special recognition in the organization of this conference goes to the Universidad
Nacional Autónoma de México, and the Centro de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias en
Ciencias y Humanidades.
Other TWOWS Mexican members have been working and developing different gender
activities within the Mexican societies, such as UNAM, CONACYT, CINVESTAV.
A good example is the work developed by TWOWS members in Puebla University,
BUAP, especially the activism of Dr. Lilia Meza who has published some important
papers:
La conferencia internacional sobre mujeres en física organizada por IUPAP, by L.
Meza-Montes, X. Lopez-Lozano y A.M. Cetto published in Boletin de la Sociedad
Mexicana de Física, 16, 77 (2002).
Possible strategies for improving the situation of women in Physics in Mexico, by L.
Meza-Montes and A.M. Cetto, published in Women in Physics, The. IUPAP
International Conference on Women in Physics, B. K. Hartline and D. Li, Eds., AIP
Conference Proceedings, Vol. 628, New York 2002.
Another important fact to be reported is the publication of the Book: Multipurpose
Native Trees of Guanajuato, México, by Terrones-Rincón Teresita del R. L., Ríos Ruíz
Santa A. Gonzáles-Sánchez Cristina, from the Institute of Forestry, Agriculture and
Livestock Research (INIFAP), Guanajuato, with the objective of identifying multipurpose
native trees species that have relevant value for the habitants of rural areas with
extreme poverty conditions; and to generate clean nursery technology to produce MNT
that could be applied by women and children using local materials, and as a source of
employment supported by government reforestation programs.


                                                                                     25
The Caribbean: Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname
For the past five years individual Caribbean members have been very active promoting
gender issues in their countries. We have had very good reference on the work of
Helen Asemota and other colleagues form the University of West Indies, Mona
Campus.
Through the Caribbean Academy of Sciences, we had contact with women in Trinidad
and Tobago and Guyana, such as Grace Sirju-Charran and Veronica Broomes, we had
the possibility to study some statistics and to discuss common problems facing women
doing science in the Caribbean: leadership problems; tendency of girls to medical
sciences and education as traditional vestiges; under representation of women in basic
sciences such as mathematics, physics; migration and the brain drain (common
problem for males and females in all Third World countries); under representation of
women at scientific decisional levels; gender bias in the text books at all levels and in
scientific vocabulary and scientific literature; masculinity of science, stereotypes
(masculine equals good scientist, masculine equals good head of department,
masculine equals good Dean, to be a good boss!); poor science education in the basic
sciences in primary and secondary levels, (Cuba is an exception to this point);
occupational segregation.
In our countries the work force is still almost entirely sex-segregated, i.e., most
occupations are either predominantly female or predominantly female. In a weak way
(and there are some representatives), some occupational barriers have fallen but in
general, in the Caribbean Region women are clustered to jobs that demand service,
patience, subordination status, and in general jobs with low salaries and little chance of
advancements known in literature as the „pink-collar ghetto‟. The „glass-ceiling‟
phenomenon is also present in women doing basic sciences in the Caribbean: they do
not have access to decisional positions.
Each one is consequence of others. That means, if in the Region there is poor
representation of women at decisional levels, this is consequence of stereotypes,
occupational segregation, gender bias in education, etc.
Also it is very interesting to notice that some issues that face women in sciences in the
Caribbean are common to first world colleagues. Obviously, some of the referred
problems are intrinsically gender issues and not related to the economic situation of
each country but with historical assumptions of an andocentric world.
It is necessary to recall that, concentrating the analysis in the Caribbean Region, big
gaps appear in the socio-economic conditions of our small countries, going from
Mexico and Cuba to Central American countries (except Costa Rica, maybe) and Haiti
as the extreme case.
Cuba exhibits the best situation in the subjective aspects, and in this sense is already
way ahead of its neighbours. However women in sciences still face serious economical
problems in their everyday and scientific lives.
Trinidad and Tobago is in a better economic situation, but economical inequities still
prevail as well as many subjective and subjacent andocentric and pre-conceived
assumptions.
As Maureen Mounchouk, referred to in her wonderful draft in a recent Conference in
T&T, concerning the Cuban and Singapore models, there is no unique recipe, but each
country has to take into account its traditions, its cultural background, its socio-
economic system, and many different point of views and experiences to fight
discrimination against women.
Concluding Facts


26
It is crucial to inform, in this report of the activities of TWOWS members of Latin
America and the Caribbean, that the lack of allocation of government or international
funds to develop and maintain our work has been the “Aquiles talon”, of our job and
responsibilities.
It has been really a hard work to find support to successfully organize the actions
reported. Moreover, we have had many opportunities, especially for girls and young
scientists to participate in high level scientific conferences; however, we have not been
able to find resources. Specifically from TWOWS we have not obtained any funds for
our Region.
Actions for the Near Future
We must put on first level priority, the biographies of relevant women in sciences in
general, in the region, and to publish and distribute this material in our colleges and
universities, because is not the same to say that we have been underrepresented in
some fields, that to consider the contributions of the women in Sciences, undervalued
or perceived as marginal.
Legitimate women‟s issues as an area of concern in higher education.
Collect, analyze and report of gender disaggregated data, documenting constraints and
progress in expanding the role of women in sciences in the Caribbean.
To adopt a non-sexist inclusive language policy to cover all written and verbal
communications. Screen and edit curriculum materials for gender bias.
To identify and to fight against subtle forms of discrimination against women in
sciences that are harder to prove and much harder to deal with and resolve.
The activism is the only way to change current situation and to correct the future.




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ATTACHMENT 4


REGIONAL REPORT
Asia and the Pacific
Dr. Kaiser Jamil

TWOWS Third General Assembly
25 November 2005
Bangalore, India


When I accepted the responsibility of the Vice-President of TWOWS (Asia-Pacific
Region), I did not know that the subject of under representation of women would
become a form of risk taking. In the last two decades the Asian women have made
much progress, at the turn of the century, women are playing important roles in their
country‟s economy and society. But it was for a long time a passive role, staying mostly
at home looking after their families or taking humble jobs to supplement family income.
However the new millennium has seen women in top positions and entering almost
every field of economic, social and political life. Without indulging in statistics or
economics, I wish to present the activities which were organized by me with the support
of my president Prof. Lydia Makhubu.

Conducting an International Conference on Women-Biotechnology, Environment
and Non conventional Energy during Oct 17-21st 2000. Jointly organized by Council
of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) & Third World Academy of Sciences,
Trieste, Italy (CSIR-TWAS). at Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad,
India, under the patronage of Prof MHA Hassan (TWAS), Dr. Manju Sharma (DBT), Dr.
Sheela Bhida (Govt. of A.P), Dr. R.A. Mashelkar (CSIR), Dr. G. Thyagarajan
(COSTED) and our president Prof Lydia Makhubu (TWOWS). We had participants from
9 different Asia countries and this event was covered in TWAS newsletter.

Participated in the TWAS Conference and General Meeting, in New Delhi during 19-
23 October 2002 as representative of TWOWS along with Prof. Lydia Makhubu. It was
an enriching experience where many issues of education and social problems were
highlighted, and also the recent development in Science and IT were discussed at
length. The Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) and the Third World Network of
Scientific Organizations (TWNSO) meet every two years in a developing country to
review the status and future of science and technology in various regions of the South
and to promote South-South and South-North cooperation. The 8th General
Conference of TWAS and 7th General Meeting of TWNSO was held in New Delhi,
India.

I was happy to present an invited lecture as TWOWS representative on Women and
Bioinformatics at the UNESCO South Africa Conference - The World Summit on
Sustainable Development, the Johannesburg Summit, United Nations sponsored
this meeting that was held in the Sandton Convention Centre, Johannesburg from 26
August to 4 September 2002. In addition to governments, representatives from all of

28
the Major Groups identified in Agenda 21 participated in the Summit, namely: farmers,
local authorities, women, business, science and technologists, youth, workers,
indigenous people and NGOs. I was an active participant of some of the activities
which aimed to the implementation of international agreements in four issue areas:
energy, freshwater, food security and health.

Awards and Honours
National Achievement award for corporate leadership in Delhi (International Achieves
Development organization) National Achievement Award for Corporate Leadership
for Dr. (Mrs.) Kaiser Jamil General Secretary, All India Biotech Association-
Southern Chapter, and Vice President of TWOWS. The Award was bestowed to me
on August 28, 2003, at the function held in the Auditorium of India Habitat Centre, New
Delhi where Honourable Balaram Jakkar, Mr. Oberoi, President of IADO and other
dignitaries participated. The Award function was given full press and TV coverage
nationally and was also published in the "Global Business Newspaper". The Advisory
Board consisted of Honourable B. Satyanarayan Reddy, Former Governor of UP and
Orissa, Honourable G. V. G. Morena, Mp, Dr. Krishnamoorty M Rao, Surheon,
Bangalore, Prof. S. S. Bhatt, general Secretary, IADO and several other dignitaries.
The Citation
"Dr. (Mrs.) Kaiser Jamil, Eminent Scientist of IICT, CSIR organization heading the
Genetics Department at Mahavir Hospital & Research Centre, Hyderabad and Guest
Faculty at Bioinformatics Institute, Hyderabad has several achievements to her credit.
With her dynamic leadership qualities, she has guided several students for Ph.D.
Degree programs completed several international projects and participated in several
conferences in India and abroad. Knowledgeable in various disciplines of science and
technology, she has led her team to greater achievements for science and society. This
Award is for her dynamic leadership and international recognition
Invited lecture presentation Award in ITRC Lucknow. The Industrial Toxicology
Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow, organized an International Symposium on 'Molecular
Toxicology and Environmental Health' during 5-8 November 2003. The lecture delivered
by me was on: The effects of certain organochlorin and Organo phosphorus
pesticides on peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Invited Lectures Presented in Conferences
WHO workshop conducted by EPTRI, Hyderabad, Feb 2003 – The lecture
concentrated on the public awareness in case of environmental pollution and methods
to reduce it.
International conference conducted by Institute of Genetics, Hyd, 17-20 August 2004. I
presented a lecture on Pharmacogenomics of breast cancer genes. The number of
SNPs in normal and cancer genes was identified and their importance in disease
progression was elucidated.
Lectures on Toxicogenomics was given by me during the Bioinformatics workshop
conducted by IICT, Oct 2004- the workshop was conducted to signify the importance of
bioinformatics in biology.
29th Annual Conference of Indian Science of Human Genetics (ISHG), at Bangalore, 7-
10 Jan 2004. I discussed the importance of SNPs in bioinformatics and how they could
help in solving some diseases problems in biology.
Presented some of my research work at the International Conference on B2B
Translational Research conducted by CCMB, 19-20 March 2004 – this conference

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concentrated on the current advances in the field of modern biology by implementation
of new techniques. Three papers were presented along with my students which dealt
on the gene polymorphisms in breast cancer and leukaemia and also the biochemical
alterations in ALL.
More recently presented 3 papers at ISSX Conference at Maui, Hawaii (21-27 Oct
2005) the papers were on the evaluation of pesticides and their toxicity profiles on the
non-target organisms.

Other Achievements
National Institute of Research and Social Action (NIRSA) was established by Prof. D.
Swaminathan (former Vice chancellor of JNTU). The Centre for Bio-Technology (CBT)
was established with a view to develop a Centre of Excellence in Bio-Technology which
should be different from other Centres. The Centre would be known distinctly for certain
areas of Bio-technology. I have been appointed as Director for the Centre for
Biotechnology of MGNIRSA.
Wrote many articles in papers such as Pharma convergence via bioinformatics for
awareness in the field of modern medicine and biotechnology. The article
concentrates on the flow of information from the Human Genome Project and related
worldwide efforts has revolutionized many fields of biosciences. This knowledge of the
human genome code will revolutionize medical practice and biological research in the
coming century, including understanding of most inherited diseases.

Formation of the Regional Chapter (of India) of TWOWS
Patrons: Prof. Lydia Makhubu, Prof. MHA Hassan, Dr. Ramamurthy, Dr. R A
Mashelkar, Dr. BS Bajaj, Dr. Manju Sharma, Ms. Deepanvita

Executive Committee: Chairperson, Dr. Kaiser Jamil; Vice-Chairperson, Dr. Mahtab
Bamji; Vice-Chairperson- Dr. Mala Rao (Pune); Vice-Chairperson, Dr. Archana Gupta
(Delhi); Secretary, Dr. Vinita Sharma (DST- New Delhi); Treasurer, Dr. Sibani
Sadhukhan; Joint Treasurer, G. Prabhavathy Das; Member; Dr. Vijayalakshmi/Dr.
Vijayapushpam (whoever is IWSA Secretary); Member, Dr. Qamar Rahman (Lucknow);
Member, Dr. Pushpa Shrivastav (Rajasthan); Other members: Dr. Ratna Sudha*; Dr.
Lalitha; Dr. Archana Sharma; Dr. Neelima Saikia; Prof. Ramanibai; Dr. Mithra Hegde;
Ms. Kapesa Lokho; Dr. Pushpa Shrivastav; Dr. Krishna Kumari; Dr. Zehra Hasan; Dr.
Qudsia Tahseen; Dr. M Satyakala

This will be formally inaugurated at the TWOWS Conference in Bangalore this year
November 2005. The mission of this committee is as described in the TWOWS regional
chapter guidelines given by TWOWS.




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