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Birmingham Children and Young People's Strategy 2004 – 2010

FINAL DRAFT (8.8) To go to agencies for approval




                  ACHIEVE OUR VISION


                  3.1         Core Commitments
                  3.2         Health and Well-being
                  3.3         Information, Advice and Guidance
                  3.4         Trust, Respect and Honesty
                  3.5         Enjoyment, Learning and Improving Life Chances
                  3.6         Personal Safety and Security
                  3.7         Choice, Independence, Participation and Citizenship
                  3.8         Family Support



Appendix 1        Glossary
Appendix 2        Partnership Members
Appendix 3        Profile of Birmingham Young people and Tiered
Appendix 4        Matrix of Plans



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Birmingham will be an inspiring place where all young people will enjoy living,
learning, developing and achieving, and where they will feel secure in a child and
family friendly city, with its diverse communities and neighbourhoods. 1


     Influence the development of the city by placing young people at the heart of our

     Promote effective, high quality, co-ordinated services which are easily accessible
      for all, responsive to need and locally delivered where possible

     Listen to, support and engage with young people and their families

     Listen to, support and engage with people who are delivering services for young
      people and their families

There are over a 250,000 young people up to age 19 living in Birmingham, about a quarter of
the City‟s population. Many more visit the city because they use our services, or come for
sports, leisure, entertainment or shopping. The city is rich in the variety of backgrounds and
cultures of our young people. Almost half of Birmingham children have a minority ethnic
heritage and contribute to making Birmingham a very special and vibrant city.

What is this Strategy?

Birmingham‟s Children and Young People's Strategic Partnership (CYPSP) is publishing this
Strategy as part of its commitment to improving services for all young people in the City and
in response to government guidance.2 The Partnership consists of all the services and
agencies which focus on the needs of young people in the city.

The Children and Young People‟s Strategic Partnership aims to put young people's views at
the heart of policy-making in Birmingham, and to inspire a culture in which all young people
are valued, loved, respected and well provided for in our City. Young people, families and
local agencies have informed the development of this strategy.

Dialogue with young people and their families will be ongoing in order to be responsive to
their needs and views. This will help to ensure that services are organised around the needs
of young people and families, rather than for the convenience of service providers.

The strategy will be summarised in formats accessible to young people and families.
Progress on implementing commitments will be monitored on a continuous basis and
reported at least annually to the CYPSP. The strategy will be reviewed at least every three
years after the first review in April 2005. It will influence the annual service plans of partner
agencies, with an implementation plan produced each year.

  To avoid constant repetition, the words “young people” will be used throughout to refer to all children and young
people of whatever age. Similarly when “family” is used it is intended to include parents, all types of carers,
siblings and any form of family unit or extended family.
    „Coordinated Service Planning for Vulnerable Children and Young People in England‟ (May 2001)

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Who and what does this Strategy cover?

The Strategy covers all services relating to young people aged 0-19. It also includes young
people up to 25 years old in special circumstances, such as care leavers.

It is intended to cover universal services, which are used by all young people and families or
impact on all young people (such as schools, health services and leisure), as well as
services, which are designed to meet particular needs. Appendix 3 shows the numbers of
young people in each of these groupings.


There are many services for young people and families in Birmingham. In recent years many
new initiatives have been developed to improve support to young people and their families.
These are aimed at both improving core services and developing new ones where gaps are

This Strategy promotes a more co-ordinated approach to service planning for young people
in Birmingham. We want young people and their families to find it easier to access support,
as service providers work together to offer flexible and joined up services. It is our intention
that this will provide greater clarity for service users and ensure a greater impact in helping to
make young people's lives better now and improving life chances for the future.

Whilst there is evidence of improvements, innovation and enterprise, Birmingham needs to
integrate services for young people through an overall planning process. Birmingham‟s
Children and Young People‟s Strategic Partnership has a key role in this process.

The focus will be on the delivery of quality accessible services, which are well co-ordinated at
local and strategic levels. Some of the major services have been subject to significant
changes in recent years. Establishing more integrated services is likely to be more
successful in Birmingham if based on improving existing services.

The Strategy is the foundation for the Local Preventative Strategy which will be published
shortly as a supplementary document.

The intention is to establish a holistic approach to meeting the needs of young people,

   Incorporates the views of young people and their families and carers.
   Celebrates diversity, cultural heritage and individual identity.
   Challenges barriers and stereotypes around disability, age, gender, race, sexual
    orientation, economic deprivation, spiritual beliefs, ethnicity, culture and any other areas
    for potential discrimination.
   Improves inter-agency assessment and referral processes at local level.
   Improves integration between universal and particular or targeted services, to identify
    need and ensure timely support.
   Ensures services come together where young people and families use them.

For this Strategy to be effective in the long term, it will require an incremental process that
promotes continuous improvement and builds on previous achievements.

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This Strategy has been informed by key national and international documents including:
 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 3
 The Children Act, 1989
 Every Child Matters (Government Green Paper, September 03)4
 Keeping Children Safe, 20034
 Youth Justice – the Next Steps 20034
 Every Child Matters: Next Steps6

Who is responsible for this Strategy?

Birmingham‟s Children and Young People‟s Strategic Partnership is responsible for this
Strategy. The Partnership was formed in 2002 and brings together all agencies providing
services to young people in Birmingham shown in the diagram below. The CYPSP is one of
the partnerships linked to the City Strategic Partnership.

The CYPSP provides the framework for co-operation and joint planning amongst the partner
agencies, listed in Appendix 2. Each agency is accountable for its service delivery and
deployment of resources through its own governance and scrutiny arrangements. An
Executive Group of Chief Officers from key statutory agencies drives the Partnership
business and co-ordinate developments.

The CYPSP will be responsible for forging strategic links between this Strategy and other
plans in the City that impact on the lives of young people, such as the Community Strategy
and District (Constituency) Community Plans. The expectation is that all agencies‟
operational and service plans should evolve in response to the commitments in this Strategy
and its Implementation Plan. Appendix 4 lists other relevant plans and strategies related to
this Strategy.

The immediate priorities for the Partnership are sustaining service improvement where this is
most needed and evolving local integrated services based on current multi-agency services.
This will involve the development of local structures for collaboration and delivery of multi-
agency services and wider scale inter-agency task groups for strategic planning and

Following the publication of the Green Paper „Every Child Matters‟, the Children‟s Bill 2004
has been published 5. Duties are proposed to ensure relevant agencies co-operate for the
purpose of improving the well-being of young people and this will be best delivered through
development of the CYPSP6. Specific options will be developed further when the
requirements and timescales are finalised by Parliament and Government.


In order to achieve this vision we will support developments intended to improve services,
whilst monitoring their impact through continuous evaluation. We will outline the principles for
these developments under headings informed by consultation with young people.

    http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm and http://www.unicef.org/crc/crc.htm

    “Every Child Matters : Next Steps” (2004) www.dfes.gov.uk/everychildmatters

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3.1 Core Commitments

Core commitments underpinning other developments in specific areas will be:

    a. Ongoing consultation and engagement with young people and their families, leading
       to better informed service design, delivery, and monitoring.
    b. The development of local multi-agency integrated services through which child and
       family support teams will offer support to young people and families and locating
       services together where possible to promote easier access.
    c. Developments to ensure services are effective in meeting the needs of diverse
    d. Information sharing amongst organisations delivering services for young people. This
       will involve:
               Establishment of protocols and systems between agencies to enable
                  sharing of basic information within clear rules to protect confidentiality.
               Early identification of vulnerable young people to help them get support and
                  ensure they do not slip through the net.
               Better information to help in identifying needs and developing services.
    f. Single assessment framework for identifying and meeting the needs of vulnerable
       young people or children in need. This will include :-
               Assessment of needs, risk and resilience, based on shared inter-agency
                  frameworks which will be used to connect people to relevant services.
               One-stop assessments involving services located together where possible.
                  A pilot is being developed in relation to the needs of disabled young people,
                  involving integrated input from health, education and social care linked to an
                  extended school development.
    f. Collaborative commissioning through which agencies can share responsibility and
       resources for planning, delivery and improving services.
    g. Partnership Development. The CYPSP is a new enterprise and needs development
       to be effective in fulfilling its mission, particularly in the light of the Children‟s Bill.

3.2 Health and Well-being

We want to provide the best health services for young people and to enable them and their
families/carers to use those services effectively. We will recognise and work with the
aspirations of young people, their families/carers and professionals.

Young people have expressed concerns about confidentiality and flexible access to services
around sexual health, disease, diet, nutrition, mental health, self esteem and personal safety.
The key health issues identified by health professionals include nutrition, access to health
services (particularly for the most vulnerable), accidents, substance misuse (including
smoking, alcohol and drug misuse), teenage pregnancy rates, sexual health and emotional

We will:
 Promote flexible access to health services through listening to and responding to young
  people and develop partnerships with agencies to reach out to groups of young people
 Encourage physical activity through schools and leisure opportunities, linked to other
  strategies on sports development and leisure
 Ensure that there is a coherent strategy and inter-agency commitment to investment and
  development of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS)

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   Support key inter-agency strategies such as Sexual Health Strategy, Teenage Pregnancy
    Strategy, Substance Misuse Strategy and recommendations from the Scrutiny review on
   Ensure there is a co-ordinated strategy for meeting the health needs of young people
    most at risk of poor health outcomes

We will aim for:
 Improved health outcomes and life chances for more vulnerable young people and those
  at greatest risk of poorer health outcomes
 Reduction in teenage pregnancy rates and obesity amongst young people
 Improvements in mental and emotional health of young people
 Improved parenting capacity

3.3 Information, Advice and Guidance

We want every child and young person to have access to information, advice and guidance
to support them and their families and carers, making informed choices throughout their

Many agencies are already providing information about services including Birmingham
Signposting Service, the Child Care Information Bureau, Disabled Children‟s Register and
Connexions Service but not through a single point of access.

We will :
 Develop easier access to information on services, including an online Service Directory,
  providing up to date information about services for young people and their families/
 Develop integrated signposting support to help all young people aged 0-19 access
  services. This will include access to telephone helplines which offer support to young
  people, families and carers.
 Ensure advice will be available in a variety of languages and formats (e.g. websites,
  email, newsletters, phone, information shops, text messages). This will cover key areas
  identified by young people and their families.
 Work with partner agencies to enable all young people to have a named professional
  support to help in signposting young people to services when needed.

We want to make sure that:
 All young people, families and carers, will know how and where to gain information.
 Young people, families and carers will have access to relevant information and support in
  accessing services which meet their needs.

3.4 Trust, Respect and Honesty

We want all those who provide services to young people to have an agreed way of working
based on trust, respect and honesty. Some agencies already have policies about how they
work with young people but we lack a common set of principles across all agencies working
with young people in Birmingham.

We will:
 Develop a Charter for Children and Young People, establishing common principles for
  agencies working with young people. This will be developed in consultation with young
  people. It will be backed up by confidentiality statements, complaints procedure and
  agreed standards and procedures for safeguarding young people.

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   Encourage all agencies providing services to young people to sign up to the Charter.
   Make explicit to young people the commitments made from those agencies that have
    signed up to the Charter and implement the Charter with publicity and training across all

3.5 Enjoyment, Learning and Improving Life Chances

We want young people to have the opportunity to enjoy and be challenged by their personal
goals and, with support from their families and other significant adults, to make aspirational
choices about their future lives and achieve personal success which is recognised and
which will provide a solid foundation for entering adulthood and lifelong learning.

We want to promote a wide range of choices and support in accessing play, sport, leisure,
learning, arts and cultural/spiritual opportunities in a variety of environments. As part of the
City Council‟s localisation programme much of this provision will be commissioned in future
by local District (Constituency) Committees.

The attainments of Birmingham young people in general at school have risen faster over the
past five years than the national average but yet there are a number of groups of young
people who are underachieving.

Programmes to bring multi-agency services onto school sites have started in our Extended
School and Behaviour Improvement Pogramme.

The Learning Skills Council, Connexions Service and the City Council are working together
to develop collegiate collaborations between schools, colleges and work-based learning
providers for the 14-19 year olds.

Support to the Social Care and Health Inspection Action Plan has been established as a
commitment of CYPSP partner agencies.

We will:
 Promote provision and access for young people in planning for play, leisure and cultural
  activities and seek to expand opportunities through partnerships and external funding.
 Develop protocols amongst partner agencies to ensure young people receiving targeted
  or specialist support from more than one agency have an identified lead professional key
  worker. Consideration will be given to how young people can be involved in the choice of
  lead professionals.
 Increase investment and improve support to foster care and adoption placements.
 Increase extended school provision across the city.
 Support work to raise levels of attainment of underachieving groups, including Looked
  After Children, African Caribbean young people, Bangladeshi young people, Pakistani
  young people, newly arrived young people and disadvantaged young people in “white”
  ethnic groups
 Improve access to learning and training for 14 to 19 year olds through a local “inclusion

We want to make sure that:
 Disadvantaged young people have access to play, leisure and cultural activities.
 Young people have improved support in accessing services.
 Educational attainments of young people across the City continue to improve and under-
  achieving groups achieve at a faster rate to “narrow the gaps”.
 Adopted young people and young people in foster care have improved life chances and

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3.6 Personal Safety and Security

We want young people to be brought up in a safe and secure environment, free from
violence, abuse and harassment at home, at school or in their neighbourhood. We want
young people to have information, which is helpful to them on personal safety, security and

We want services to be accessible and effective for young people when they need

We are committed to continuous improvement in safeguarding young people. The Area Child
Protection Committee (ACPC) has established inter-agency procedures for child protection.
Recent audits have taken place of professional practice management and governance
arrangements in safeguarding young people and the findings are being implemented.

An inter-agency group has been established working on Youth Inclusion and Youth
Offending, through Birmingham Community Safety Partnership.

The Youth Offending Service, in partnership with other agencies, is developing initiatives to
promote personal safety, reduce vulnerability of young people to be victims of crime and
targeted support to young people identified as at risk of being involved in offending. This
includes awareness raising campaigns, local Youth Inclusion Support Panels (multi-agency
identification of young people potentially vulnerable to offending or anti-social behaviour), the
Youth Inclusion Support Team and Restorative Justice interventions.

Schools have access to comprehensive guidance on anti-bullying strategies and Birmingham
Children‟s Fund has commissioned work on bullying and alternatives to physical punishment.

A corporate Domestic Violence Strategy has been established.

We will:
 Promote ongoing engagement with young people and their families about their concerns
  for personal safety.
 Encourage Constituency and Ward Committees and other local structures to respond to
  young people‟s concerns about personal safety.
 Establish a „Local Safeguarding Children Board‟ through the Area Child Protection
  Committee, which will publish a Statement of Purpose outlining the co-ordinating
  functions for Safeguarding Children and Young People.
 Commission preventative services to address issues such as bullying, domestic violence
  and empowering young people to seek help when they need it.
 Promote interventions, which reduce isolation and marginalisation of families.
 Promote further integrated services to reduce youth offending and anti-social behaviour,
  including extending the youth inclusion support panels and support the City‟s anti-social
  behaviour action plan.

We want to make sure that:
 Inter-agency collaboration in safeguarding young people is strengthened.
 Young people are less likely to become victims of crime.
 Young people are diverted from potential criminal careers.
 Children at risk of abuse or harm receive timely and effective services and have better
  protection and support.

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3.7     Choice, Independence, Participation and Citizenship

We want every child and young person to be able to make positive choices, and be included
as individuals in the life of their local community and economy.

We want to support young people in developing as active citizens with an understanding of
their role and responsibilities in a democratic society. They should be empowered to express
their views about their own community and contribute toward the development of flourishing
neighbourhoods and the City as a whole.

Citizenship, as part of the school curriculum, is a statutory requirement in secondary schools,
and is also included in parts of the curriculum in primary schools.

A number of forums have been established in partner agencies for young people to express
their views and some agencies have been active in involving young people in service design
and evaluation. The impact of young people‟s involvement needs to be further examined and
shared amongst partner agencies to encourage best practice.

We will:
 Promote opportunities for young people to be engaged in the design of services, training
  programmes, monitoring processes and the evaluation of services which support young
  people‟s well-being.
 Maintain a network of staff from partner agencies involved in engagement and
  consultation with young people to facilitate access to young people‟s views and exchange
  of information across agencies.
 Promote the involvement of young people in contributing to all aspects of their
  environment, including the planning and design of the physical environment in local
  neighbourhoods and the city centre.
 Work with partner agencies to ensure there is an up-to-date a database about
  consultation activities with young people, and their families/carers.

We want to make sure that:
 Young people‟s views influence service design for public services, the private sector and
  voluntary organisations.
 Young people are engaged as part of the community in local and city-wide consultation
  and decision making.
 Young people have choices in education and leisure activities.
 Young people‟s views are able to influence decisions related to their personal life.

3.8 Family Support

We want parents and carers to have a range of services to assist them in their roles to
provide stable, caring and stimulating home environments for young people.

There are issues to address, including gaps in provision and difficulties in accessing timely
support; a lack of knowledge about services available; and a need for more integrated
assessments involving agencies sharing information and facilitating access to services.

Our approach is to promote family support being provided within a tiered approach, related to
need with clear pathways to services. Support will be built around young people and families,
with all agencies assessing need using common dimensions of risk and resilience factors
based on the Framework for Assessment of Children in Need.

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We will :
 Ensure that family support provision is better integrated and accessible.
 Develop a framework for mapping and planning provision based on a tiered model of
  service delivery. This will include voluntary sector provision.
 Establish new services :-
   Services in Children‟s Centres involving health, education and social care. Our
       aspiration is that all wards will have children‟s centres in time.
   Targeted Family Support Teams, providing support where there is a risk of a child
       coming into care or where a child has come into care recently.
   Multi-agency local integrated support teams with initial pilots starting in 2004.
 Develop a co-ordinated framework for engaging with parents and carers on service
  development with organisations and networks representing parents/carers.

We want to make sure that:
 Fewer young people come into care
 Fewer young people become victims of domestic violence or significant harm
 Young people and families/carers are able to access support services when needed
 Families and carers are better supported and less likely to use physical punishment


Implementation Plan

An Implementation Plan will be published annually, outlining the steps to be taken to firm up
commitments and establish programmes to deliver this strategy. The Partnership‟s
Executive Group will be responsible for ensuring progress on the implementation of the
strategy and establishing a robust monitoring process.

The Implementation Plan will be informed by consultation with young people, families,
carers, statutory and voluntary agencies, and by people working with young people.


Many aspects of this strategy are about doing things differently and can be supported with
no additional expenditure.

Partner agencies will be expected to prioritise proposals in this strategy in their business
planning and forward planning systems.

It is estimated that around £1.2 billion is spent annually on services to young people in the

The CYPSP Executive group will take overall responsibility for identifying resources with the
governance bodies of partner agencies. Developments to meet specific aspirations in this
strategy will be planned with clear agreements between agencies on how resources will be
identified and mechanisms for sharing resources where appropriate.

The CYPSP is able to a call on considerable support from partner agencies through
agreements about collaboration on particular programmes. Partner agencies also have
access to a variety of government funding streams and will explore how these can support
this strategy.

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Inter-Agency Workforce Planning and Training

Workforce development is essential to delivery of commitments in this strategy. Significant
work and funding is going into expanding access for people into learning, work and careers
in the public sector – with specific programmes on offer for those wishing to work with young
people. This work is still not as integrated as it will need to be to achieve the shared
knowledge base and skills mix demanded by the agenda on integration of services. There is
a need to ensure that those entering the workforce through new vocational routes are
grounded in the values of public service.
The CYPSP will establish an inter-agency initiative to pull workforce development strands
together across agencies working with young people.

Key issues will be addressed:
 Training in all relevant agencies to be premised on integrated approaches and
   accountabilities rather than limited „joint‟ approaches.
 New access routes into public sector careers to be further developed, based on
   vocational rather than strictly academic routes. There is potential to make use of a variety
   of vocational opportunities, including modern apprenticeships. Access and qualification
   arrangements must contribute to shared accountability for quality and integrated models
   of delivery.
 Action to extend and protect the growing diversity of the public and voluntary sector
 Integrated action plan to be developed, working with the grain of the growing number of
   initiatives, but with a strategic end in view. This will utilise the opportunity provided by
   initiatives in health, education (eg workforce remodelling), social care and other sectors
   which have potential to support each other and provide a powerful resource for inter-
   agency workforce development.
 Skills and staffing deficits to be prioritised for action
 New skills mix to support integrated services and linkage to appropriate sector skills

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Multi-agency        A number of agencies, including voluntary and community
                    organisations, working together in an organised way, using
                    their combined skills and resources
Local Preventative A strategy involving all agencies in the city to ensure joined up
Strategy            support to vulnerable young people following Government
Engagement       of Providing opportunities for young people to be involved as
young people        leaders, opinion makers, consultees and service users in
                    decisions affecting their lives.
Extended schools    Schools providing access to services on site from a variety of
                    agencies and disciplines.
Collaborative       Three agencies or more pooling resources to plan, pay for
commissioning       services, establish contracts, manage and evaluate services.

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                 West Midlands           NHS Primary Care       Birmingham Youth       Birmingham Race
                 Police Service          Trusts (4)             Offending Service      Action Partnership

  Birmingham & Solihull                                                                      Children‟s Fund
  Learning & Skills Council

Birmingham & Solihull
Connexions Service                                                                     Birmingham Voluntary
                                                                                       Services Council &
Birmingham                                   Birmingham                                Organisations (3)
Children‟s Hospital                            Children
                                           & Young People’s
                                               Strategic                               Birmingham City
Birmingham City Council                                                                Council Social Care &
Housing Service                              Partnership                               Health

  Birmingham Teenage                                                                   Birmingham City Council
  Pregnancy Partnership                                                                Learning and Culture

Early Years Development and                                                          Birmingham Child &
Childcare Partnership                                       Sure Start               Adolescent Mental Health
                                  Birmingham City           Planning                 Services Inter- Agency
                                  Council Local             Group & W                Steering Group
  Birmingham Area Child                                     Midlands
  Protection Committee                                      Government
                                                            Office             Birmingham Drugs
                                                                               Action Team

      Birmingham and Solihull Learning & Skills Council
      Birmingham and Solihull Connexions Service
      Birmingham Area Child Protection Committee
      Birmingham Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Inter-agency Steering Group
      Birmingham Children‟s Fund
      Birmingham Children‟s Hospital
      Birmingham City Council
             Social Care and Health; Learning and Culture; Local Services; Housing Service
      Birmingham Drugs Action Team
      Birmingham Early Years Development and Child Care Partnership
      Birmingham Race Action Partnership
      Birmingham Teenage Pregnancy Partnership
      Birmingham Voluntary Services Council
      NHS Primary Care Trusts
             Eastern Birmingham NHS Primary Care Trust; Heart of Birmingham NHS Primary
             Care Trust; South Birmingham NHS Primary Care Trust; North Birmingham NHS
             Primary Care Trust
      Sure Start
      The Children‟s Society
      West Midlands Police Service

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                                                                           It is intended that this
                                                                           diagram will be tidied up
                                                                           a bit and have pictures of
                                                                           children – kept simple for
                                                                           emailing purposes at this

                                              (Jan 2004)

                                         Children Looked
                                              (January 2004)

                                        Children in Need
                                             (February 2003)

                                     Vulnerable Children
                      (Estimate based on proportion of vulnerable children in
                                          national data)

                                          All Children
                                     (Population Census 2001 )

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The Children and Young People‟s Strategy needs to link to and influence a series of other
related plans and strategies affecting children, young people and families :-

Broad Level Over-arching Plans
      Community Strategy
      City Council Cabinet and Corporate Plan

Major Universal Plans
      Connexions Partnership Business Plan
      Crime Reduction Strategy
      Early Years Development and Child Care Partnership Plan
      Education Plan
      Learning Skills Council Business Plan
      NHS Primary Care Trusts‟ strategic plans for services for children and young people
      Social Care and Health Strategic Directorate Business Plan

Thematic Plans
     Area Child Protection Committee Business Plan
     Child & Adolescent Mental Health Strategy
     Children‟s Fund Delivery Plan
     Core Skills Development Partnership Plan
     Corporate Parenting Plan
     Cultural Strategy
     Domestic Violence Corporate Strategy
     Family Learning Strategy
     Housing Strategy
     Inclusion Strategy
     Library Plan (Annual)
     Local Preventative Strategy
     Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy
     Social Care & Health Children‟s Inspection Action Plan
     Sports Strategy
     Sure Start Strategy
     Teenage Pregnancy Strategy
     Young People‟s Substance Misuse Plan
     Youth Justice Plan
     Youth Service Plan

Local Planning Structures
       District (Constituency) Community Plans
       Ward Development Plans
       Local Inclusion Plans
       Regeneration Initiatives – SRBs, Aston Pride Development Strategy, New Deal etc

Front Line Services' Plans
       Services will have their own specific business plans which will also connect to the
       above plans, for example schools have “School Development Plans”.

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