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					                                             Appunti d’Inglese
SIMPLE PRESENT
Si usa in quattro situazioni:
1. Eternal truth                     es: Water boils at 100°C
2. Habitual actions (opportuno usare avverbio di frequenza)
    es: On Monday we always have english lesson
        I never get up at 6.30
3. Future (timetable event)
   es: The train leaves at five o’ clock this afternoon
        The exam starts at ten o’ clock tomorrow
4. Past (in newspaper headlines)
  es: “Dog bites a child”
      “Bush visites Rome”


FUTURE
Si può fare in tre modi:
1. con il present continuous. Evento programmato che avverrà con certezza.
   Es: I’m flying to Paris tomorrow morning
2. con will. Evento programmato con minore certezza.
Si usa per instant decision, when you make an offer, or you accept an offer.
Es: Are you cold? I’ll close the window.
    What do you want to eat? I’ll take a sandwich, thank you.
3. con to be going to. Indica piuttosto un’intenzione di fare qualcosa.
 Si usa “when there is evidence of something”.
Es: There’s a hole on the bottom of the boat. It’s going to sink.
    There are many clouds in the sky: it’s going to rain.

SUFFIXES
less                  ful
restless = irrequieto, agitato                        restful = very relaxed
useless = privo di utilità, inutile                   useful = utile
Hopeful         I’m hopeful I’ll pass the exam
Careful is who never makes mistakes
Helpless            A baby is helpless (he cannot help himself)
Helpful             A shop assistant (commessa) is helpful        (contrario unhelpful)
Powerful            Bush is powerful
Attenzione:
Weightless         Molto leggero, come una piuma
Weightful         non esiste
Priceless         So precious to have no price
Priceful           non esiste
Spoonful          cucchiaio pieno
Handful           manciata

PLURALE DEI NOMI
Quando il nome finisce con S CH O              SH   X          si aggiunge    ES
Attenzione fish non ha plurale, non si dice fishes!
Quando finisce in Y :
      se questa è preceduta da consonante si toglie la y e si mette IES (city  cities)
      se è preceduta da vocale si aggiunge S (play  plays)
Quando finisce in F o FE si mette VES.
Es: wife  wives, life  lives, half  halves
Volcano – volcanoes                                         index – indexes (or indices)
Mouse – mice                                                basis – bases
Postman – postmen                                           reply – replies
Medium – media                                              society – societies
Housewife – housewives                                      virus – viruses
Criterion – criteria                                        foot – feet
Charity – charities                                         dynamo – dynamos
Thesis – theses


                                                                                           1
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
Si usano sia con valore singolare che plurale:
Information work luggage/baggage research             blood
Furniture      money      hair     music
Si possono usare “al singolare” usando:
A piece of
Some
Much (non many)
A little
Non si può usare “a few”
Alcuni nomi sono uncountable ma nel colloquial english diventano countable: tea, coffee, beer, ….
Es: I’d like two coffees (two cups of coffee)
    I’d like two beers (two glasses of beer)
Experience can be countable or uncountable
Es: She hasn’t got enough experience.
    She’s going to write a book about her experiences

COLLECTIVE NOUNS
People, bank, jury, family, government, team, management, council, union….
Si possono usare con il verbo al singolare o al plurale:
Es: The government is (are) worried about education
Es: My family isn’t rich anymore (la famiglia è intesa come singular entity)
   My family are perfectly normal (famiglia come insieme di individui)
Es: Two thirds of the earth’s surface is covered in water (singular entity)
    60% of the world’s treasures are in Italy (many things)

PREFIXES
Si usano all’inizio del nome e generalmente ne modificano il significato al negativo.
Un                        unusual              unlucky           unsafe
               (unpack  disfare le valigie)
dis                       dislike              disabile          dishonest
                          disagree             disreputable (non rispettabile)
im                        impossible           immature          impatient
                          improper             impolite
il                        illegal              illogical         illetterate
in                        invisibile           incomplete        insane
                          incomprehensible
ir                        irregular            irrational        irresponsible
                          irrelevant
non                       nonsmoking (area) nonviolent

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Si usa per:
1. Something that is happening now. L’azione avviene mentre la si descrive.
   Si usa anche per descrivere una fotografia o un quadro.
2. change or trend.
  Es: The temperature is rising
       The dollar is falling
3. Futuro

STATE VERBS
Sono verbi statici (not dynamic) per cui non si usa il present continuous. Appartengono a cinque gruppi a seconda che
esprimano:
1. feeling (love, hate, prefer, fear, …)
2. thinking/believing (understand, remember, think, believe, follow (nel senso di capire), ….)
3. want/need (want, need, desire, …)
4. being/having/owning (appear, seem, belong, contain, …)
5. perception (see, hear, smell, …)

CAUSE AND EFFECT SENTENCES
Si usano le espressioni :
so, therefore, because, as, since, owing to, as a result of, as a consequence of, due to, thanks to, on account of
es: Since (as, because) medical care is better, people are living longer.
     Medical care is better so (therefore) people are living longer

                                                                                                                        2
PAST SIMPLE
Si usa per qualsiasi azione compiuta nel passato (sia recente che remoto senza distinzione) e conclusa. Vale sia per
qualcosa avvenuto cinque minuti fa che mille anni fa.
Es: Yesterday I went to the seaside
    Colombo discovered America in 1492
Si fa aggiungendo ed o d all’infinito del verbo se è regolare. E’ uguale per tutte le persone.
La forma negativa si fa usando did not infinito,
l’interrogativa did you infinito
es: Last year I didn’t go to Rome
    Did you see Ann yesterday?

ADVERBS
Words that can describe a verb or an adjective.
Si ottengono normalmente aggiungendo ly all’aggettivo: slightly, basically, safely, drastically
Alcune parole però pur finendo in ly non sono avverbi ma aggettivi: friendly, ugly, silly, lively (vivace)
Attenzione:
good (aggettivo)      well (avverbio)
hard è sia aggettivo che avverbio:
es: Susan is a hard worker
    Susan works hard
Mentre: Susan hardly works significa che non lavora quasi mai (hardly means rarely)
Anche fast è sia aggettivo che avverbio.

THE PASSIVE
Si costruisce con il verbo to be + il past participle
Es. Companies still use DBCP (active form)
    DBCP is still used (by companies) (passive form)
Non sempre è necessario conoscere the agent, a volte lo si tralascia poichè si è più interessati all’azione che a chi la
compie.
Es. Bananas are grown in the tropics
    Worldwide trade is controlled by a few multinationals
                                                         Active                                      Passive
Present simple                             Someone makes the pizza                 The pizza is made
Present continuous                         Someone is making the pizza             The pizza is being made
Present perfect                            Someone has made the pizza              The pizza has been made
Past simple                                Someone made the pizza                  The pizza was made
Past continuous                            Someone was making the pizza            The pizza was being made
Past perfect                               Someone had made the pizza              The pizza had been made
Going to                                   Someone is going to make the pizza      The pizza is going to be made
Will                                       Someone will make the pizza             The pizza will be made
Must                                       Someone must make the pizza             The pizza must be made
Have to                                    Someone has to make the pizza           The pizza has to be made

- ING FORM (GERUNDIO)
Si usa nelle seguenti situazioni:
1. nel Present Continuous
2. nel verbo sostantivato
   es: eating is enjoyable
3. as an adjective
   es: an interesting book, my dining-room, the swimming pool
4. reduced relative clause
   es: Globalization is an economic nightmare (which is) threatening the poor
5. after prepositions
   es: a child born today has better chance of surviving infancy and living a long life.

CONDITIONAL (four types)
0 conditional         present simple + present simple
used for events that always happen.
Es: When the phone rings I always answer it
1st conditional        present simple + future
for highly probably situations
es: When (if) the phone rings I’ll answer it
     Unless (means if not) they buy a car they will not go to disco
                                                                                                                           3
2nd conditional         simple past + conditional
for highly unlikely (improbable) situations
es: If I won the lottery I would (could/might/may) buy a new car
3rd conditional         past perfect + perfect conditional (would have + past participle)
for impossible situations
es: If I had taken the umbrella I wouldn’t have got wet
(Would you mind if I opened the window?)

  COMPARATIVE/SUPERLATIVE
Monosillabi: si aggiunge er per il comparativo e (the) st per il superlativo
Es: higher, the highest       faster, the fastest
Bisillabi: come i monosillabi o come quelli a tre sillabe o più. Si può scegliere.
Es: cleverer, more clever         the cleverest, the most clever
   happier, more happy           the happiest, the most happy
Trisillabi o più: si usa more e the most
Es: more interesting, the most interesting
Analogamente con gli avverbi:
Slowly, more slowly, the most slowly
fast, faster, the fastest
Alcuni aggettivi sono irregolari:
Good, better, the best
Bad, worse, the worst
Little, less, the least
Comparing two things that are equal:
The HP600 is as powerful as the CP300X
Comparing two things that are unequal:
This year’s profits are higher than last year’s
     1. Two or more things/people that are equal:
As …………as
Es: She is as tall as me
In negative sentences we use not as …………. as, or not so …………… as
 Es: You don’t know about cars as much as I do.
     2. Gradual increase or decrease
Si usa to get or to become e la double comparative form.
Es: It’s getting colder and colder
    It’s becoming more and more cold
    It’s getting less and less hot
     3. Two things increasing or decreasing in parallel
Es: The more money they earn, the happier they are
    The harder I study, the more tired I become
     4. Intensifier
Si possono usare come rafforzativi i termini much, somewhat, far, rather, a little
In colloquial english we use a lot, a bit, lots, a touch
Es: He’s much taller than I thought
    The situation is somewhat better
Very is an intensifier, but not used in comparative form

TO GET
Has many meanings
     1. GET + NOUN (means receive, obtain, catch,..)
Es: Get me a beer
    I got a letter
    I’ve got to get a train

     2. GET + PREPOSITION
Es: She got off the bus (scendere)
    I got in the car (salire)
    I get up at 6.00 in the morning (alzarsi)

     3. GET + PAST PARTICIPLE
Es: My books got lost when I moved house       (got sta per were, forma passiva)
    I got my hair cut yesterday (got sta per had)



                                                                                            4
    4. GET + COMPARATIVE
To get better - to improve
To get worse – to deteriorate
To get older – to age
To get faster – to accelerate
To get slower - to decrease in speed
To get bigger – to increase in size

PRESENT PERFECT
E’ un tempo presente, ci dice qualcosa che riguarda l’adesso. Il past simple invece parla di azioni avvenute nel passato.
Il past simple si usa quando si fa riferimento ad un momento preciso nel passato, il present perfect si riferisce ad un
passato non definito.
Es: I lost my phone yesterday.
    I’ve lost my phone (I don’t exactly when)
I can’t say “I’ve been to the cinema yesterday”
Es: Dear Chris, lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you (accadute in un passato indefinito)
Es: I’ve bought a car (la possiedo ancora)
    I bought a car (potrei anche averla venduta)
Es: Margaret has broken her leg. When has she broken it? She broke it yesterday.
Just e already si usano con il present perfect.
Es: Joe went out two minutes ago
    Joe has just gone out
Si usa anche per parlare di esperienze vissute:
es: Have you ever ridden a horse?

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Come il present perfect ma pone l’accento sul fatto che l’azione ha avuto una durata continuativa per un certo tempo.
Es: You look sunburst. Have you been sitting in the sun?
(deve essere stato al sole a lungo per essersi scottato)
es: Have you been waiting long?

FOR/SINCE
Utilizzo for quando faccio rilevare la durata dell’azione
Es: I’ve lived in Italy for three years
Uso since quando faccio rilevare il momento di inizio dell’azione
Es: I’ve lived in Italy since 2002
   It’s a long time since I’ve not eaten in a restaurant

NATIONALITIES
Mexican    South Korean                              Chinese           Japanese
Irish             Polish (a Pole)                              Spanish         Peruvian
Brazilian         Israeli                                      Lebanese                Danish (a Dane)

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES
They are made up of two or more words, usually written with hyphens between them.
    a) ADJECTIVE or NUMBER + PAST PARTICIPLE
Old-fashioned theory
    b) ADJECTIVE or ADVERB + PAST PARTICIPLE
Heavily-populated regions
    c) ADJECTIVE or ADVERB or NOUN + -ING FORM
coal-exporting nation          low-lying areas
    d) NUMBER +SINGULAR COUNTABLE NOUN
A five-year plan         a six-week training course

More examples:
Red-handed            con le mani nel sacco
Well-to do            ricco
Well-rounded          who knows a lot of things
Short-sighted         miope
Good-looking          di bell’aspetto
Mouth-watering        appetitoso, che fa venire l’acquolina in bocca
Hard-up               povero
Mass-produced
Open-mouthed          a bocca aperta

                                                                                                                            5
User-friendly          amico dell’utente, che facilita l’uso
Half-price             metà prezzo
Hard-pressed           sotto pressione

CERTAINTY can be expressed by:
Will (definitely, certainly)
Certain, sure
Without a doubt, without question
Es: I will certainly come to the meeting tomorrow

POSSIBILITY can be expressed by:
Probable, probably, likely
Most/highly probable, most probably
Most/high likely
Es: It’s light likely that the project will complete by the end of the month

PROBABILITY can be expressed by:
May (not), might (not), can, could
possible, possibly, perhaps
Es: Perhaps I will go to London next week
    I might go to Paris next month

IMPROBABILITY can be expressed by:
Improbable, unlikely
Doubtful, questionable
Probably not
Most/high improbable, unlikely
Most/high doubtful, questionable
Most probably not

IMPOSSIBILITY can be expressed by:
Cannot, could not
Not possible, impossible
Es: It’s impossible for him to come next week

It’s possible to express different levels of certainty about the likelihood of the condition (in the if-clause) by
changing the tense of the verbs from present simple – future (1st conditional) to past simple – conditional (2nd
conditional).
We use 1st conditional for likely situations, 2nd conditional for unlikely situations.

DESCRIBING TRENDS OR CHANGES
      - verbs of change
es: Profits are falling
    Unemployment is rising in many areas
      - prepositions
es: Our business grew by 10% last year
     Sales grew to 5.8 million
      - different tense
es: In recent months our profits have risen dramatically
    In January we were making a loss
    We’ve been going through a difficult period
Changes which have not reached their end are expressed by using the –ing form
If the change is complete we use a perfect tense
To describe changing circumstances we can use verbs of movement:
Improve                 increase             recover         rise
Decline                 decrease             drop                     fall
To recover means that something has gone back to the original position (recupero).
To drop means a very fast decline
The amount of increase can also be indicated using these verbs:
Halve double                triple           quadruple
Fivefold, …..tenfold
A dramatic movement can be expressed by:
Rocket or soar (increase)
Dive or plummet (decrease)

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A slight movement by:
Edge up
Edge down or dip

DEFINITE – INDEFINITE ARTICLES
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE
      used with singular and plural countable nouns in specific context
Es: I studied the program
    The programs are interesting
      not used before uncountable nouns in generic context
Es: Time goes faster as you get older
    Hardware is becoming less expensive
      not used before plural countable nouns in generic context
Es: Philosophical texts can be hard to understand
   Computer hackers can cause a lot of damage
Note: the use of a clause can make something specific
Es: The time (that) he spent at university
      used with singular nouns for a class of animals or things
Es: The dog is man’s best friend
   The computer is very important in the financial world
      used with superlatives and ordinary numbers
Es: The biggest users of SMS are young people
   The robotics department is on the 7th floor
      not used with possessive adjectives
      not used with names of meals
Es: I had breakfast this morning
But if the meal is a specific meal then we use the
Es: The dinner we had together last week was wonderful
      not used with names of games
Es: I enjoy watching and playing rugby
      not used with means of transport
Es: I go to work by train
      not used with names of people
      not used with names of countries and cities unless defined in some way or they are plural
Es: The Netherlands, the USA
      not used with names of single mountains (but used with mountain ranges)
Es: Everest is in the Himalayas
      not used with names of lakes
      not used with months, years, %

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE A/AN
      AN is used with vowel sound (note: not vowel letter)
Es. A university, a European, an MBA
      used with singular countable nouns
Es: He is an economist (used with jobs)
      not used when referring to office or person
Es: She became CEO (Chief Executive Officer) in 2002
    He will become Prime Minister
      no article with countable nouns in generic context
Es: They are students
      can be used with singular countable nouns for general classification
Es: A dog is a faithful animal
      used in expressions of frequency or ratios
Es: once a month                  100 km an hour
      used after adverbs
Es: They had quite a good time (abbastanza)
    He is rather a difficult person (piuttosto)




                                                                                                   7
MODAL AUXILIARIES
These verbs are used together with the infinitive of the verb in order to modify its meaning.
    a) always followed by the infinitive without to
    b) no –s in the third person
    c) negative form adding “not”
    d) interrogative form inverting the modal verb and the subject
    e) most modal verbs refer only to the present and future
    f) past and future are usually supplied by other verb forms

CAN (to be able to)
(In)ability: I can read Spanish
Generic possibility: You can do a lot to help him

COULD (was/were able to)
General past (in)ability: She could read, when she was four
Specific past (in)ability: I wasn’t able to finish the job on time
Conditional possibility: Gold reserves could provide significant relief

MAY
Permission: May I open the window? (Shall I? means an offer to do something)
      You can also use “can” but may is more polite
Real possibility: My father may lend us he money, but I’m not sure

MIGHT
More remote possibility: He might lend us the money, but I don’t think he will.
* In realtà may e might sono piuttosto intercambiabili

MUST (to have to)
Intrinsic necessity (reflects the wishes or feelings of the person speaking/writing):
You must do what I say
I must go to the dentist because last night I had a toothache
External necessity (rules and regulations)
He has to wear a tie at work
I have to go to the dentist at 4.00 (ho un appuntamento)
Past necessity (non esiste il passato di must)
We had to walk because the buses were on strike
“Must not (mustn’t)” is a strong form of prohibition
You mustn’t open that door without my permission
“Don’t have to” indicates an absence of necessity
You don’t have to buy the tickets today: we can easily get them tomorrow

SHOULD (OUGHT TO)
Moral obligation, advice or recommendation
I think you should (ought to) drive more carefully.
Ought to is slightly stronger than should

RELATIVE CLAUSE (two types)
     1. DEFINING
Es: The man who gave me the information told me not to worry
     2. NOT DEFINING (cannot use that)
Es: John Maynard Keynes, who died in 1946, was a famous british economist
      We use who or that in a relative clause to identify people
Es: The people (who/that) we employ are very highly qualified
      As people is the object of the clause the relative pronoun can be left out
Es: The people we employ are very highly qualified
      If a relative pronoun defines the subject of the sentences, it must be included
Es: A counterfeiter is a person who copies goods in order to trick people
      We use which or that in a relative clause to identify things
Es: Have you read the report (that/which) I left on your desk?
      As the thing is the object of the clause the relative pronoun can be left out
Es: Have you read the report I left on your desk?
      If a relative pronoun defines the subject of the sentences, it must be included
Es: Organisations that are flexible can respond to change

                                                                                                8
NON-DEFINING clauses provide extra-information about the subject or object of a sentence. The extra-information is
separated by commas.
Es: Philip Condit, who is chairman of Boeing, wants the airline to become a global company.
(it’s not possible to use that)
Es: The Dorfmann Hotel, which is situated 30 kms outside Vienna, charges US$ 1400 per person
(again, it’s not possible to use that)

PAST PERFECT (THE PAST BEFORE THE PAST)
      It is formed by the past simple of to have + past participle
Es: The debt crisis had officially begun
      The main function of this tense is to indicate which of two connected past actions happened first.
Es: The IMF lent Mexico some money. The country had declared itself bankrupt some months earlier.
      The past perfect is not necessary if the order of he events is made clear by the use of a time expression. The
          simple past can be used in that case.
Es: They received the loans after they agreed to restructure their economies.
      The connection between the two events is often indicated by an adverb of time : as soon as, when, after, before, .
      The past perfect is also used in reported speech (in which I’ve to go back one tense)
Es: “I wrote two letters” – She said she had written two letters
      The past perfect is used in the 3rd conditional. The verb in the if clause is in the past perfect tense and the verb in
          the main clause is in the perfect conditional (would have + past participle). This structure refers to past
          situations which did not happen..
Es: If they had done extensive market research, their product would have been more successful.




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