QUESTIONNAIRE by asafwewe

VIEWS: 1,185 PAGES: 14

QUESTIONNAIRE

More Info
									OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




     BLUETONGUE IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN AND
                 BALKANIC COUNTRIES

                 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR NEEDS ASSESSMENT


COUNTRY:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………


Name and address of the person replying to the questionnaire


Name : ………………………………………………………………………………………………...

Family name: ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Institution: ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

Position: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

Address: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

Phone No: .………………………..……………                               Telefax No: ………….….…..….………………

E-mail address: …………………………………………..


Date             |__|__| |__|__| |__|__|__|__|




                                                 1 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




Part A: Disease surveillance
One of the first signals of bluetongue presence in a territory is the occurrence of clinical symptoms
in sheep, especially when highly pathogenic BTV serotypes are involved and a large population of
susceptible ovine animals is available. Therefore, the ability of promptly recognizing the occurrence
of the disease is a pre-requisite for establishing an efficient early warning system.


1. Is bluetongue a notifiable disease in your country?

                                        Yes               No 


2. Have you recently (1-5 years) implemented a clinical surveillance program for bluetongue in
   your country?

                                        Yes               No 


3. Where is the surveillance carried out?

    All over the country                          
    Close to the border of risk or infected zones 
    In infected zones                             
    Others (please, give details)                 
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


4. If Yes, when did it start?        |_d_|_d_| |_m_|_m_| |_y_|_y_|_y_|_y_|


5. What type of information is collected and recorded in case of the suspicion of a clinical
   outbreak? (more options are possible)

    Unique farm identification code                   
    Date of visit                                     
    Date of clinical onset                            
    Number of susceptible animals present in the farm 
    Animal species                                    
    Number of sick animals                            
    Number of dead animals                            
    Number of slaughtered animals                     
    Type of specimen colleted                         
    Others (please, give details)                     
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

                                              2 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




6. What kind of system, if any, do you use to identify the geographical position of the farm?
   ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…
   …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
   …………………………………………………………………………………………………….


7. What type of laboratory tests are used for bluetongue outbreak confirmation? (more options are
    possible)

    Serology:
    c-ELISA                                               
    Agar gel immuno-diffusion (AGID)                      
    Serum neutralization                                  

    Virology
    Virus isolation on embryonated eggs or cells cultures 
    Virus neutralization                                  
    PCR                                                   
    Others (please, give details)                         
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


8. Do you think that it might be useful for the veterinarians involved in your surveillance program
   to attend an international training course on bluetongue clinical identification?

                                       Yes              No 




                                            3 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




PART B: Entomological surveillance
To elucidate the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases that can affect livestock in the
Mediterranean Basin and elsewhere, it is essential to obtain a fairly intimate understanding of the
distribution, the life-cycle and the habits of the vector Culicoides involved. The most important first
step is to be able to identify the vector accurately; unfortunately the identification of insects is a
“yes/no” and not a “maybe” activity. Only accurate identifications provide the firm foundation for
subsequent studies (all of which depend upon information that is reliable). These studies include the
following, which can be divided into a preliminary Phase (A) and a secondary Phase (B).
Phase A:
1. Mapping the geographic distribution of all species in the Imicola, Obsoletus and Pulicaris
    complexes (the rock upon which predictive risk maps are built);
2. Assessing the abundance levels of each species
Phase B:
3. Establishing their periods of peak flight and feeding activity (both daily and seasonal);
4. Knowing their specific (or catholic) host preferences and biting rates;
5. Unraveling the biology of each species (with special emphasis on defining its larval habitat);
    and
6. Clarifying, in the laboratory, its capacity for transmitting such arboviral diseases as bluetongue
    (BT) in sheep, goats and cattle, and African horse sickness (AHS).

It has also becomes necessary to establish (once again in detail) the type of information required
and how the specimens in the field are to be collected. This requires, in turn, that the method and
instrument of capture be standardized so that all data are as complete as possible, are comparable
and are informative at many levels.


1. Have you recently (1-5 years) implemented an entomological surveillance system in your
   country?

                                          Yes                No 


2. If YES, please, give details on the type of traps used. (more options are possible)

    Ondersterpoort                                    
    Others (please, describe the trap and its origin) 
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


3. How many traps are used?            |__|__|__|__|




                                                4 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




4. Please give details when the traps are operated.

    Throughout the year           
    Seasonally                    
    Others (please, give details) 
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


5. How often are the samples collected from the traps?

    Daily                             
    Weekly                            
    Fortnightly                       
    Monthly                           
    Others     (please, give details) 
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


6. What kind of information is collected and recorded for each insect capture? (more options are
    possible)

    Unique identification code                      
    Date of capture                                 
    Animal species present in the farm              
    Number of animal present in the farm            
    Maximum temperature during the night of capture 
    Minimum temperature during the night of capture 
    Others (please, give details)                   
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


7. What kind of system, if any, do you use to identify the geographical position of the traps?
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………




                                             5 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




8. What kind of information is recorded after sample identification ?

    Presence/absence of Culicoides                      
    Total number of insects                             
    Total number of Culicoides                          
    Total number and/or percentage of C. imicola group  
    Total number and/or percentage of Obsoletus complex 
    Total number and/or percentage of Pulicaris complex 
    Identification code area of collection              
    Others (please, give details)                       
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


9. Do you have information regarding the seasonal dynamic of the vectors(s) population?

                                       Yes               No 


10. Where are collected traps samples sent to?

    National Laboratory               
    International laboratories        
    Others     (Please, give details) 
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


11. Please, give details on the number and type of laboratory involved
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
    …..…………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..


12. Do you have a well equipped laboratory to carry out samples identification/differentiation of C.
    imicola group, Obsoletus complex and Pulicaris complex?

                                       Yes               No 


13. How many microscopes are available in the laboratory? |__|__|__|__|


14. Do you have entomological expertise in Culicoides identification?



                                             6 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04


                                       Yes               No 


15. Indicate the breakdown and the number of personnel involved in your entomological
    surveillance program.

                                         Number
     Entomologist                        ______
     Biologist                           ______
     Veterinarian                        ______
     Virologist                          ______
     Technician                          ______
     Field staff                         ______
     Others (please, give details)       ______
     ……………………………….                       ______
     ……………………………….                       ______
     ……………………………….                       ______


16. Indicate the breakdown and the number of personnel you anticipate being involved in your
   entomological surveillance program.

                                         Number
     Entomologist                        ______
     Biologist                           ______
     Veterinarian                        ______
     Virologist                          ______
     Technician                          ______
     Field staff                         ______
     Others (please, give details)       ______
     ……………………………….                       ______
     ……………………………….                       ______
     ……………………………….                       ______


17. Are you interested in taking part in an entomological training program?

                                       Yes               No 




                                             7 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




18. If YES, how many people will participate in the training program and what is his/her
    background?

                                             Number
     Entomologist                            ______
     Biologist                               ______
     Veterinarian                            ______
     Virologist                              ______
     Technician                              ______
     Field staff                             ______
     Others (please, give details)           ______
     ……………………………….                           ______
     ……………………………….                           ______
     ……………………………….                           ______


19. Have you published any scientific papers on this subject? (If YES, please, enclose a copy of the articles)

                                           Yes                No 




                                                 8 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




PART C: Serological surveillance
To elucidate bluetongue epidemiology in the Balkans it is important to deeply understand the
serological surveillance methods, if any, adopted in these countries.
A serological surveillance system aims for the:
a. early detection of virus circulation in the territory by regular testing of a large number of
    animals distributed throughout the country;
b. monitoring of the bluetongue virus serotypes that are circulating;
c. evaluation of the sanitary status of susceptible populations;
d. monitoring of the health status in areas free from infection;
e. identifying seasonally free areas;
f. checking population immunity by testing vaccinated animals (if vaccination is implemented).

Sentinel animals are often used in bluetongue serological surveillance plans. Sentinels are sero-
negative animals and the same animals are periodically tested. The implementation of a net of
sentinel animals guarantees an early detection of virus circulation if the animals seroconvert, and
consequently farms and areas are considered infected. The health state of the territories affects the
possibilities of animal movements.
On the other hand, a serological system might be based on periodically testing of samples not
necessarily collected from the same animals. This system might not guarantee an immediate
detection of virus circulation with the risk of having the virus spreading into other zones.


1. Have you recently (1-5 years) implemented a serological surveillance system in your country?

                                                  Yes                  No 


2. If YES, which species of animals are tested? (more options are possible)

       Cattle                          
       Sheep                           
       Goats                           
       Others (please, give details)    ………………………………………………………………………


3. Which type of serological surveillance system have you implemented? (more options are possible)

       Sentinel system1             
                            2
       Periodical surveys           
       Other (please, give details) 
       …………………………………………………………………….………………………………




1
    It means the use of the same negative animals, periodically tested.
2
    It means the periodical testing of samples not necessarily collected from the same animals.



                                                         9 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




4. Where is the serological surveillance performed?

    Throughout the country                        
    Close to the border of risk or infected zones 
    In infected zones                             
    Others (please, give details)                 
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


5. When is the serological surveillance performed?

    Throughout the year                                   
    During specific periods of the year (please, specify) 
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


6. How often are the animals bled?

    Weekly                       
    Fortnightly                  
    Monthly                      
    Other (please, give details) 
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


7. What type of information is collected and recorded during the blood sampling ? (more options are
    possible)

    Unique farm identification code                
    Postal address                                 
    Animal species present on the farm             
    Date of samples collection                     
    Individual identification code of animals bled 
    Individual samples identification code         
    Age of animals bled                            
    Type of specimens                              
    Type of tests requested (serology, virology)   
    Others (please, give details)                  
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………




                                            10 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




8. What kind of system, if any, do you use to identify the geographical position of tested farms?
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


9. What type of tests are used within the serological surveillance scheme? (more options are possible)

    Serology:
    c-ELISA                                                  
    Agar gel immuno-diffusion (AGID)                         
    Serum neutralization                                     

    Virology
    Virus isolation on embryonated eggs or cells cultures 
    Virus neutralization                                  
    PCR                                                   
    Others (please, give details)                         
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


10. Please, indicate which type of diagnostic tests are performed by national or foreign laboratories.


                                            Performed by      Performed by
                                               national          foreign
     Serology:                               laboratories      laboratories
     c-ELISA                                                       
     Agar gel immuno-diffusion (AGID)                              
     Serum neutralization                                          

     Virology:
     Virus isolation on embryonated
     eggs or cells cultures                                        
     Virus neutralization                                          
     PCR                                                           
     Others (please, give details)
     ……………………………….                                                 
     ……………………………….                                                 
     ……………………………….                                                 




                                              11 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




11. Please, indicate the breakdown and the number of personnel involved in the labs for sample
    analysis within the serological surveillance scheme.

                                       Number
     Biologist                         ______
     Chemist                           ______
     Veterinarian                      ______
     Virologist                        ______
     Technician                        ______
     Others (please, give details)     ______
     ……………………………….                     ______
     ……………………………….                     ______
     ……………………………….                     ______




                                          12 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




PART D: Information system
The existence of an information system is indispensable for evaluating and properly planning
surveillance activities and control/preventive measures. In particular, a system able to collect and
analyze relevant epidemiological data, facilitates the generation of reliable information for decision
making and disease management.


1. Where is all information regarding clinical, serological, entomological surveillance stored? (more
    options are possible)

    On paper                      
    Computer                      
    Others (please, give details) 
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


2. What type of software is used to analyze the data? (more options are possible)

    Microsoft Excel                                         
    Microsoft Access                                        
    SPSS                                                    
    Epi Info                                                
    GIS softwares (ArcView, ArcGis, MapInfo, MapGuide, etc) 
    Others (please, give details)                           
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


3. What kind of other information, useful to understand bluetongue/vectors epidemiology, do you
   collect or will be able to collect?

    Climatic variables (temperature, rainfall, humidity, etc.) 
    Environmental variables                                    
    Lithologic variables                                       
    Satellite images                                           
    Others (please, give details)                              
     ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
     ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
     ……………………………………………………………………………………………………




                                              13 / 14
OIE CC-IZSAM - Italy
Bluetongue questionnaire ver 1.0
March 04




4. Indicate the breakdown and the number of personnel that are involved in data analysis.

                                           Number
     Epidemiologist                        ______
     Statistician                          ______
     Mathematician                         ______
     Physicist                             ______
     Veterinarian                          ______
     Others (please, give details)         ______
     ……………………………….                         ______
     ……………………………….                         ______
     ……………………………….                         ______


5. Are the results of your data analysis released/spread to stakeholders ?

                                         Yes               No 


6. If YES, how do you circulate the results of your data analyses ? (more options are possible)

    Through newsletters or bulletins published on paper                   
    Through newsletters or bulletins sent by e-mail or on the internet    
    Through internet pages                                                
    Through scientific papers published on national/international reviews 
    Others (please, give details)                                         
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………


7. Do you think that it might be useful for your staff involved in data analysis to take part in an
   international training course on the implementation and management of surveillance systems?

                                         Yes               No 


8. Do you think that it might be useful for the staff involved in data analysis to take part in an
   international training course on the implementation and management of Geographical
   Information Systems (GIS)?

                                         Yes               No 




                                              14 / 14

								
To top