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					 Effectivness of national and urban
policies and programmes in Europe


                   Cost Effective Control of
                        Urban Air Pollution

                                Jürgen Schneider
                   Leiter der Abt. für Lufthygiene




                                     17.11.2006| Folie 1
                                           Content

   Legal Basis

   Overview of results

   Selected P&P and (Non)Compliance with limit values

   Selected measures

   Conclusions




                                             17.11.2006| Folie 2
                                                      Legal basis
   The Air Quality Framework Directive (96/62/EC; AQ FWD) sets
    the basic principles for air quality assessment and management
   Limit values (LV), margins of tolerance (MoT) and attainment
    dates are set in daughter directives (DD)
   If the sum of LV and MoT is exceeded before the attainment
    date, plana and programmes (P&P) have eo be estalished to
    ensure compliance at the attainment date
   Information on the P&P has to be submitted to the European
    Commission (EC) within two years
   The first reports were due 2003 for exceedances in 2001
   EC has advertised a contract on „Assessment of Plans and
    Programmes reported under 1996/62/EC” to analyse P&P
    submitted so far                                   17.11.2006| Folie 3
                                                        Legal Basis

   Recommendations by Working Group on
    Implementation
   Adopted by Comitology (Commission Decision
    2004/224/EC), requires 7 forms:
       General information on the plan or programme
       Description of the exceedance of the limit value
       Analysis of the causes of exceedance of the limit value
       Baseline level
       Details of measures beyond those already required by
        existing legislation
       Optional: Possible measures that have not yet been taken
        and long term measures
       Summary of measures                               17.11.2006| Folie 4
                                    Introduction


   By 2006 over 100 reports on plans and
    programmes were received.
   These include:
       370 exceedance situations
       1290 measures

   Or, in other words, a lot of valuable
    information on the state of the art in European
    air quality planning


                                           17.11.2006| Folie 5
       Reported exceedance situations


year          PM10    NO2    SO2 Benzene

2001          44     40     21

2002          61     59     28

2003          79     48     10              1

Sum          184     147    59              1

                                 17.11.2006| Folie 6
Geographical distribution




            Good coverage of
             Western Europe.
            Various topographic and
             climatic zones.
            Note: Map contains
             reported locations of
             exceedances only.



                        17.11.2006| Folie 7
                                        Sources of pollution
                    200
                    180                            Other
                    160                            Natural sources
                    140                            Commercial and residential
Number of entries




                    120                            Agriculture
                    100                            Industry

                    80                             Traffic

                    60
                    40
                    20
                     0
                          PM10   NO2               SO2               Benzene
                                       Pollutant


 Traffic was named most often as main source of pollution
                                                                            17.11.2006| Folie 8
             Sources of pollution – ranking the sources
                     400

                     350                          Other
                                                  Natural sources
                     300
                                                  Commercial and residential
 Number of entries




                     250                          Agriculture
                     200                          Industry
                                                  Traffic
                     150

                     100

                     50

                      0
                           1   2    3            4              5        6
                                    Ranking (1 to 6)

Ranking of the sources of pollutions: Number of entries where the six main
sources of pollution were ranked first, second, etc. For 17 exceedance
situations, no ranking was reported.                                  17.11.2006| Folie 9
                              Estimate of the affected area


                            < 1 km2
                                                                    ≥ 1000 km
                ≥1000 km2
                              3%    1 - 10 km2                         11%
                   9%
                                       11%
                                                          100 - 1000 km
                                                               12%                           < 1 km
                                                                                              38%


                                           10 - 100 km2
                                               28%
                2
                                                            10 - 100 km
100 - 1000 km                                                   20%
     49%

                                                                                1 - 10 km
                                                                                  19%


                        Area                                              Road length

                                                                                   17.11.2006| Folie 10
                Estimate of population exposed


                                      ≥ 1 Mio.
                                        14%                    <1000
                                                                23%




                   100 000 - 1 Mio.
                        28%
                                                                 1000 - 10 000
                                                                     20%


                                            10 000 - 100 000
                                                  15%




For 36 % of the exceedance situations, no estimate of the population
exposed was given
                                                                                 17.11.2006| Folie 11
                           Classification of stations

                   Not specified

      Several stations
    Rural                                                 Urban traffic
 background

Rural industrial

Rural traffic

      Suburban
     background
                                       Urban industrial
      Suburban
                 Suburban traffic     Urban
      industrial
                                    background


                                                             17.11.2006| Folie 12
                    Types of measures

                      A (economic /
 Combination of           fiscal)
    types                  13%
     23%



D (other)
  12%


                           B (technical)
   C (education /              45%
    information)
         7%


                                           17.11.2006| Folie 13
                                                                Number of measures




                                                       0
                                                           10
                                                                20
                                                                     30
                                                                          40
                                                                               50
                                                                                      60
                                                                                            70
                                                                                                     80
                                                                                                            90
                                Traffic - Technical
                             Traffic - Management
                          Traffic - Public transport
                              Traffic - Restrictions
                       Traffic - Road construction
                         Traffic - Speed reduction
                           Traffic - Street cleaning
                                     Traffic - Other


                           Stationary - Agriculture
                         Stationary - Construction
                              Stationary - Heating
                             Stationary - Industrial
                                 Stationary - Other




Type of measure
                           Regulation - Incentives
                          Regulation - Information
                           Regulation - Standards


                                    Other - Energy
                                       Other - Fuel
                                                                                            SO2
                                                                                      NO2




                           Other - Urban planning
                                                                               PM10
                                                                                                  Benzene




                                     Other - Other


                       Other activities - Monitoring
                Other activities - Not specified
                          Other activities - Studies
17.11.2006| Folie 14
                                                                                                                 Types of measures




                            Other activities - Other
                                                      Funding and costs
                    80

                    70                                                       Funding
                                                                             Costs
                    60
Number of entries




                    50

                    40

                    30

                    20

                    10

                    0
                         0   < 10 000   10 000 -   100 000 - 1 1 Mio. - 10   ≥ 10 Mio.
                                        100 000       Mio.        Mio.
                                            Amount (€)

Funding available and costs of measures. Funding was reported in 27 % of
cases, and costs were reported in 18 % of cases only.
                                                                                   17.11.2006| Folie 15
                                                 Administrative level


                        Not specified
                             3%
         Combination
           of levels
             22%
Other (e.g.
                                             A (local)                                      yes
European                                                  no
  level)                                       43%                                          49%
                                                         51%
   1%

  C (national)
      11%

        B (regional)
            20%



                       Figure 16: Administrative level at which the measure
                       could be taken (left); regulatory (right).             17.11.2006| Folie 16
                                            Time and spatial scale


                                                              Combination of
Combination of             A (short term)                        scales                A (local)
 time scales                    18%                               19%                    18%
    25%
                                                    E (international)
                                                           3%
                                 B (medium term -
                                                         D (country)
  Other                           about a year)
                                                             4%
   1%                                 16%

                                                             C (region)
                                                                14%                     B (urban area)
          C (long term)                                                                      42%
               40%


              Time scale                                                  Spatial scale

                                                                                 17.11.2006| Folie 17
Selected plans
   •Graz
   •Wien
   •Brüssel
   •München
   •Berlin
   •Stuttgart
   •Kopenhagen
   •Madrid
   •Barcelona area
   •Paris
   •Marseille area
   •Bozen
   •Mailand
   •Amsterdam and other cities
   •Stockholm
   •Bratislava
   •Košice
   •London
           17.11.2006| Folie 18
                                                      Compliance with LV?
City                         Main source         NO2 (2010)   PM10 (2005)
Graz                         Traffic             No           No
Vienna                       Traffic             No           No
                                                                            NO2: 2 from 9
Brussels                     Traffic             Yes          No
                                                                            PM10: non
Copenhagen                   Traffic             Yes          x
Paris                        Traffic             No           No
Marseille                    Traffic, Industry   n.a.         No
Munich                       Traffic             No           No
Berlin                       Traffic             No           No
Stuttgart                    Traffic             No           No
Milan                        Traffic             n.a.         No
Bozen                        Traffic             x            No
Amsterdam and other cities   Traffic             No           No
Bratislava                   n.a.                n.a.         No
Košice                       n.a.                x            No
Madrid                       Traffic             n.a.         No            x: no exceed
Barcelona                    Industry            No           n.a.          n.a.: no info available
Stockholm                    Traffic             x            No
London                       Traffic             No           No
                                                                              17.11.2006| Folie 19
            Reasons for non compliance



   Timing
   Implementation problems
   Technical difficulties
   Other reasons




                               17.11.2006| Folie 20
         Possible reasons for non-compliance -
                                       timing

   Planning (and subsequently also
    implementation) of measures started too late
   Often measures indicated in reports on P&P
    mark the beginning of the planning process
    (studies, monitoring…)
   Some measures require several years of
    planning and implementation (low emission
    zones, public transport infrastructure,…)




                                          17.11.2006| Folie 21
                Possible reasons for non-compliance –
                             implementation problems
 Limited public and political acceptance of measures
  (esp. for traffic)
 However, CC in London and Stockholm show the
  importance of well prepared information campaign and
  public consultations

   High costs of measures versus limited funding (esp. for
    public transport)
   Legal responsibilities split between different administrative
    levels or authorities




                                                           17.11.2006| Folie 22
         Possible reasons for non-compliance –
                           technical difficulties


   Difficulty of allocating sources for PM10

   Inaccurate emission inventories

   Underestimation of real world emission factors
    of certain vehicles

   Uncertainty concerning the date and level of
    attainment of new EURO standards



                                            17.11.2006| Folie 23
              Possible reasons for non-compliance –
                                      other reasons

   High background levels
    for PM10, hence limited
    local possibilities

   High overall
    concentrations, hence
    only drastic measures
    might result in
    compliance




                                           17.11.2006| Folie 24
                     Effectiveness of measures


   Necessary information
       Quantification of emission reduction
       Effect on air quality
       Assessment of costs
       Assessment of benefits




                                               17.11.2006| Folie 25
               Effectiveness of measures - information
                                          given in P&P
City         Emission        Effect on AQ     Assessment of costs   Assessment of
                reduction        quantified                            benefits
                quantified
Graz                 +               –                 +                      –
Vienna               +               –                 +                      –
Brussels             +               –                 –                      –
Copenhagen           +               +                 –                      –
Paris                –               –                 –                      –
Marseille            –               –                 +                      –
Munich               +               +                 –                      –
Berlin               +               +                 –                      –
Stuttgart            +               +                 +                      –
Milan                –               –                 +                      –
Bozen                –               –                 –                      –
Amsterdam            +               +                 –                      –

Bratislava          –                –                 –                      –
Košice              –                –                 –                      –
Madrid              +                –                 +                      +
Barcelona           –                –                 –                      –
Stockholm           +                –                 –                      –
London              +                +                 +                      +

                                                                     17.11.2006| Folie 26
            Effectiveness of measures - analysis of
                                             costs

   Cost-benefit analysis only for very few regions
    available:
       UK
       London (low emission zone, congestion charge)
       Stockholm (congestion charge)
       Madrid
   For some plans administrative costs or
    estimation of costs per ton emission reduction
    are given


                                                   17.11.2006| Folie 27
                                    Selected measures
   Integration of traffic plans
   Communication, stakeholder involvement
   Low Emission Zones (Berlin – DE, Sweden, London – UK)
   Congestion charge (London – UK, Stockholm – SE)
   Ecological management of construction sites (Vienna – AT;
    Berlin, Stuttgart – DE)
   Traffic restrictions during episodes (Graz – AT, Bozen – IT)
   Speed limit restrictions (Graz, Vienna – AT, Berlin, Munich –
    DE, Paris – FR)
   Winter sanding
   Retrofitting of diesel vehicles with particle traps (several
    cities)
   Public transport improvement (several cities)
   Domestic heating (Bozen – IT, Graz – AT)
   Measures on stationary sources (Marseille – F, Košice – SK )
                                                       17.11.2006| Folie 28
                            Ecological management of
                                    construction sites
   Construction sites have been identified
    as major PM and soot sources in various
    countries
   CH: 25% of exhaust PM emissions come
    from construction machinery
   Vienna: 32% of inner city lorries due to
    construction work
   In CH particle filters are mandatory
    since Sept. 03 (besides other measures
   Draft best practice guide for London
   Ecological management pilot studies in
    Vienna (e.g. transport via rail)
   Problem: emission estimates very
    uncertain
   Effect of measures difficult to predict
                                               17.11.2006| Folie 29
            Speed limits - Graz, Vienna, Berlin,
                                  Munich, Paris
   Graz: 130100 kph, 10080,
    5030
   As only limited no. of streets are
    affected, not much influence on AQ:
    -2.6% PM10 emission
   Much larger effect for motorways: -
    17% PM10, 36% NOx, even larger        A12 motorway NOx emissions passenger cars
    if enforced
   Similar result for Rotterdam
   Cost effective measure as only small
    investment necessary (depending on
    scheme)


                                                                17.11.2006| Folie 30
                                   Traffic restrictions

   Bozen: Ban of vehicles older than Euro 2 and
    diesel vehicles if PM10 levels are above
    50ug/m3 for 5 consecutive days
       Ban from 7am to 7pm in environmental zones
       Stepwise plan for the next few years
       Clear indication for improved AQ if traffic decreases by
        30-40%
   Graz: draft ordinance similar to Bozen (but limit
    75ug/m3 in first year, then 50ug/m3)


                                                     17.11.2006| Folie 31
Verkehrsbeschränkungen




                17.11.2006| Folie 32
Traffic restriction – effects on NO2 (blue)
                            and PM10 (red)




                                  17.11.2006| Folie 33
Optimising winter salting and sanding




                             17.11.2006| Folie 34
                                  Conclusions


   Current P&P not sufficient to ensure
    compliance with LV
   Effectiveness of measures is often not
    assessed
   However, several measures have well
    documented effects - ‘good practice examples’
   Political and public support is often missing
   Integrated approaches are needed



                                         17.11.2006| Folie 35

				
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