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									                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors


                            Progress in
                    Micro Pattern Gas Detectors

                                              R. Bellazzini
                                            INFN - sez. Pisa



                   Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001




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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors

                                                 Outline
• Why are we interested in Micro Pattern Gas Detector?
• Performances and limitations
• Solutions with Single-stage Devices
• Solutions with Multi-stage Devices
• Some „exotic‟ applications
• Conclusions
Two recent, excellent reviews:
F.Sauli, 8th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors, Elba 2000
A. Sharma, IEEE NSS and Medical Imaging Conference, Lyon 2000




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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors

             Electric field                                   Signals




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                      Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                    MSGC

                                              Residuals distribution
Ne(25)-DME(75)
Vcath= -530 V
Vdrift= -3000 V


                                                              Overall spatial resolution




                               Spatial resolution = 30.5 ± 0.4 mm

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 MSGC

                       48 minimum bias events in 3 bunch crossings




                  Global Occupancy at different S/N (ORCA2 sim.)


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                                Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                                             MSGC

                              1.1
                                            MSGC


                              1.0




                              0.9
              Relative gain




                                            V d= -1000V, V     c
                                                                   = -564V
                                            D263 uncoated
                              0.8           surf ace =510 17 /square

                                                                                               V d= -3000V, V             c
                                                                                                                             = -460V
                                                                                               Pestov glass coating
                                                                                                                   10
                              0.7                                                                      bulk =10        cm
                                              Source: 5.4 KeV Cr X-rays                                            11
                                                                                                       bulk =10        cm
                                              Ne-DME (50/50)

                                                                                                                                       I NFN - Pis a
                              0.6
                                    6   7   8 9                    2     3    4   5   6   7   8 9                        2        3         4          5
                                                0.1                                                    1
                                                                                               2
                                                                             Rate (MHz/mm          )

                                                      Rate capability > 1 MHz/mm2


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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 MSGC
          Efield on insulating substrate
                                                        Uncoated MSGC




      Efield on thin conducting layer
      (coating) over insulating substrate
                                                         Coated MSGC




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                      Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                  MSGC

At high gain on exposure to heavily
ionizing particles possible discharges




Solution! Cathode edge passivation



                                                   A. Bressan et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A424 (1998) 321


                                                               Advanced passivation


                                                        Standard passivation


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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 MSGC
      Telescope of 32 MSGCs tested at PSI in Nov99 (Milestone)




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                       Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                       MSGC

               350-400 MeV/c p+/p beam.
               MIP spectrum with non-negligible HIP rate.
              32 days exposure @LHC rate! (Max rate ~6 KHz/mm2 )

Spark rate 1/day/detector
in the whole telescope




4 channels (out of 16000)
   lost in ~400 hrs run
                                               R. Bellazzini et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A457 (2001) 22

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 MSGC




                        Measured spark probability  4 10-13

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 MSGC



    Strip loss history
    during the whole
  PSI Test Beam period
      (5 weeks H.I.)




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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                     MSGC
                                       Detection efficiency vs S/N




                                                 ~ 98% at S/N = 13

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 MSGC




                                                        3 weeks run




                                                        3 weeks run


                      Example of gain stability at low and high intensity

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 MSGC

          Exploited
  2D-Reconstruction capability
       with Pion beam




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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 MSGC

Summary of PSI-Milestone for CMS Barrel MSGCs
• 32 barrel modules exposed for 5 weeks of HI at PSI;
• no single access, no single short, no cathode trips;
• lost 40% of 1 strip and 2 electronic channels (3 including margin
  phase);
• margins explored up to a factor 2.4 without any significant increase
  of spark rate and strip loss;
• lifetime = 20 times the expected one;
• system brought back in perfect integrity ( < 1.4 % dead channels)
• measured discharge probability = 4 10-13


From the Addendum to the CMS tracker TDR by the CMS collaboration:
“ In the fall of 1999, the large scale PSI Milestone (~40 k strips exposed for
5 weeks) resulted in an unambiguous demonstration of the viability of the CMS
MSGC‟s for tracking at the LHC.”


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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM



                        Conversion and drift
    Multiplication


                                                                                                      70 mm



                                                                                                     140 mm




                       Transfer


                                                   F. Sauli, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A386 (1997) 531




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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MSGC




                            Applications: HERA-B, CMS Forward Tracker


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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                  GEM + MSGC
                                                 HERA-B Detector




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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MSGC

           HERA-B:
           High rate experiment




                                         M. Holhmann, 8th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors, Elba 2000

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                      Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                  GEM + MSGC
       HERA-B Inner Tracker: the world‟s largest Micro Pattern Detector


MSGC-GEM detectors
Rmin ~ 6 cm
    106 particles/cm2•sec
300 mm pitch
184 chambers: max 25x25 cm2
~ 10 m2
140.000 channels




                                              M. Holhmann, 8th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors, Elba 2000


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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MSGC

                            HERA-B : Spark rate and exposure time




        Gem+MSGC appear to be adequate solution even if they need long
                    and careful HV training in the beam

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MSGC




   HERA-B GEM+MSGC




Hit efficiency ~ 90÷96 %
(after individual VGEM adjustment)                            Courtesy F. Eisele (Desy)

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MSGC

                            HERA-B : tracks in the Inner Tracker




                                                              Courtesy F. Eisele (Desy)

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MSGC



      CMS Forward Tracker

    PSI Test Beam Set-up
    18 MSGC+GEM modules




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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MSGC
                                High intensity event reconstruction




                                                                                     CMS Forward
                                                                                   MSGC+GEM modules




                          M. Ageron et al., Preprint sub. Nucl. Instr. Meth., 21 June 2000

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MSGC

                                     Detection efficiency vs S/N




 PSI low intensity run

 ~ 98% at S/N = 17




                                       M. Ageron et al., Preprint sub. Nucl. Instr. Meth., 21 June 2000


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                       Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                   GEM + MSGC


Strip loss history during the 3 weeks
     of PSI-Milestone Test Beam
    (HI runs @ S/Npremux ~ 37)




                                                   M. Ageron et al., Preprint sub. Nucl. Instr. Meth., 21 June 2000

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MGD

                                 Two-stages Micro Pattern detector:
                                    GEM + MicroGroove Detector




                                                     PSI99 pM1 TB - Low Intensity S/N

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                                 GEM + MGD
    PSI99- pM1 Test beam




                              1 week high intensity run: NO sparks,
                              NO loss of strips or electronic channels
                              at low transfer field (4 kV/cm)

VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001                      R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa   30
                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                      Double - Triple GEM

                                                      Discharge probability vs gain
                                                            for a-particles




            Double-GEM detector
                                                       S. Bachmann, CERN-EP/2001-151
        Fast read-out (electrons)
              2D capability                      Single GEM (uniform field) more prone to
                                                     sparking than MSGC (sharp field)

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                      Double - Triple GEM



                                                                                      p-beam


                                    a-particles




                                   The PSI pM1 beam @ 300 MeV/c
                                   reproduces very well LHC spectra

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                      Double - Triple GEM


  COMPASS
  Double GEM




                       PSI installation: large area (31 x 31 cm2) segmented GEMs

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                      Double - Triple GEM


     COMPASS
    Double GEM
      prototype




                           ... even though the detectors experienced several
                           thousands of discharges in the course of the
                           discussed test beam experiments, damages were not
                           observed neither to the GEM foils nor to the
                           readout electronics.
                           (S. Bachmann et al., CERN-EP/2000-116)



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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                      Double - Triple GEM

         COMPASS
         B. Ketzer
         IEEE NSS and MI Conference
         19 October 2000




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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                      Double - Triple GEM


          Triple GEM detector for                Detection efficiency vs GEM Voltage
             LHCb inner tracker


                                                                                                        375V




                                                        M. Ziegler et al., hep-ex/0007007, 6 July 2000


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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                      Double - Triple GEM

    Gain and Discharge probability vs GEM Voltage




                                                               @ 375V (beginning of plateau)
                                                                  Discharge probability
                                                                       ≈ 8.3x10-12
                                                             (45 sparks in 2 det. in 12.5 hrs)




            M. Ziegler et al., hep-ex/0007007, 6 July 2000

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                 Applications: MSGC

                                                 The JEM-X Project on INTEGRAL
                                                   ( a g-ray observatory satellite)
                                                    Danish Space Research Institute




                                                   To be launched this year by ESA




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                      Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                          Applications: MSGC

The JEM-X Detector consists of 2 identical, high pressure, 2D-MSGCs.
         The gas filling is a mixture Xenon-Methane (Gain ~ 1500).
The diameter is 250 mm, corresponding to a collecting area of 500cm2




           2D-MSGC plate                                  Qualification model
 VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001                  R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa   39
                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                        Applications: MSGC




                                                             Spectral sensitivity of the
                                                             JEM-X qualification model




                                                  Courtesy C. Budtz-Jorgensen (DSRI)

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                        Applications: MSGC
                          Response of JEM-X to a full area illumination




                                                         Courtesy C. Budtz-Jorgensen (DSRI)

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                    GEM + Pixel Read-Out


                    The    complete    separation     between    the
                    amplification structure and the pick-up
                    electrodes allows full flexibility on the choice
                    of read-out pattern
                     GEM+Micro Pixel electrode


                     Recent applications:
                     X-ray Polarimeter
                     Time resolved plasma diagnostic




VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001               R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa   42
                       Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                GEM + Micro Pixel Read-Out

   X-ray Polarimeter




                                                        8-layer read-out board
                                                        Pixel size 0.2 mm
          Z 5 mc 2  4 2                             Area 2.4 x 2.4 mm2
                             sin 2 cos2  
                        7
  
                            2

               
                                                        (128 pixels)
        2
     r
                            1   cos 
             4                             4
   o 137  h 
Heitler W.,The Quantum Theory of Radiation



  VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001             R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa   43
                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                           GEM + Micro Pixel Read-Out
                                                 Reconstructed emission angles of the photoelectron
                                                                         Unpolarized photons




                                                                                               Polarized
                                                                                               photons

          Interaction point
            and Auger e-




    Photoelectron tracks reconstruction
  (larger boxes == larger energy losses)
                                                             E. Costa et al.

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                           GEM + Micro Pixel Read-Out

                     Extra-galactic sources
                                                      Degree of polarization




              Observing time to measure at 99% confidence level the
              degree of polarization of galactic and extra-galactic
              sources with traditional and MP polarimeters




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                       Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                             GEM + Micro Pixel Read-Out

New implementation:
512 independent chans
out of 30 mm2 area




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                      Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                             GEM + Macro Pixel Read-Out
             Ultra-fast system for X ray imaging based on GEM
New diagnostic device in soft X range (315 KeV) for magnetic fusion plasmas




                                           Parallel read-out




    Printed circuit board
 128 pixels (2.5 x 2.5 cm2)

 VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001                R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa   47
                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                            GEM + Macro Pixel Read-Out
     Bt = 8 T, Ip = 1.6 MA
     R = 0.93 m  a = 0.3 m




                                                  The inner toroid

    The Frascati TOKAMAK (FTU)

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                            GEM + Macro Pixel Read-Out

             Linearity of GEM current at very high counting rates.
             Counting rate linear up to 2 MHz/pixel
             (limited by electronics dead-time)




                       D. Pacella et al., Review of Scientific Instrument, Vol.72 No.2 (2001)

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                            GEM + Macro Pixel Read-Out


                     Time response from 4 pixels for ohmic plasma




                                                 Multiple injections of D2 pellets
   Counts / ms




                                                 Time (ms)


                          1 KHz sampling - 3 MHz/pixel counting rate


VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001                         R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa   50
                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                            GEM + Macro Pixel Read-Out
                   X-ray time response for two different injection runs

                                                   Normal




                                                   Aborted




                          20 KHz sampling, 3 MHz/pixel counting rate
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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                            GEM + Macro Pixel Read-Out

      Imaging capabilities at high rates (2MHz/pixel)




                                                    Image of a wrench placed
                                                    close to the detector
                                                    Exposure time = 50 ms




VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001            R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa   52
                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                   Double GEM + Macro Pixel Read-Out

                                                                             Double GEM Gain = 20000
                                                        8000




                                                        7000
                                                                                                      Spectra of B (183 eV)
                                                        6000                                         and O (523 eV) in vacuum
                                                        5000
                                                                       B         183 eV


                                                        4000                                                                                                                         V=1900


                                                                                                                                                                                     V=2050


                                                        3000                                                   O         523 eV

                                                                                                B
                                                        2000


                                                                                                                                                                         O
                                                        1000




                                                          0
                                                               1   8   15   22   29   36   43   50   57   64   71   78   85   92   99 106 113 120 127 134 141 148 155 162 169 176 183 190 197 204




                                                                                                                                                              D. Pacella et al.
C. Buttner et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth., A409 (1998) 79




VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001                                                                                         R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa                                     53
                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                            GEM + Macro Pixel Read-Out
                    Spectral map and composition of fusion plasma

                         Thresh.> 0.1 KeV
                                                                   Thresh.> 0.6 KeV




                Courtesy of D. Stutman, Johns Hopkins University

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                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                           New Micro-Pattern Structures

                                                                         MICROCAT
         Compteur a Trou (CAT)




F. Bartol et al., J. Phys III France 6 (1996) 337   A. Sarvestani et al., Nucl. Instr. And Meth. A410 (1998) 238


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                       Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                               New Micro-Pattern Structures

                 MICROMEGAS                                   Large MICROMEGAS (40x40cm2)
                                                                      for COMPASS

     Low field: conversion and drift




       Very high field: multiplication




Y. Giomataris et al., Nucl. Instr. And Meth. A376 (1996) 29   Y. Giomataris, F.Kunne, F. Jeanneau, P. mangeot


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                        Micro Pattern Gas Detectors
                                New Micro-Pattern Structures

              MICRO-WIRE chamber                          MICRO-PIN ARRAY Detector (MIPA)




B. Adeva et al., Nucl. Instr. And Meth. A435 (1999) 402



                                                          P. Rehak et al., IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symposium seattle 1999


   VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001                                    R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa   57
                     Micro Pattern Gas Detectors

                                                 Conclusions
    • The field of Micro Pattern Gas Detector is STILL showing
      great vitality and propulsion.
    • Single stage and Multistage Devices showed suitable for
      tracking at high luminosity.
    • Competition of solid state devices is becoming HARD,
      especially at hadron machines.
    • Great potential as X-ray detectors.
    • Coupling of distributed amplification structures (GEM,…)
      to separate, pixel read-out structures seems the most
      exciting perspective.




VCI- Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2001                 R.Bellazzini - INFN Pisa   58

								
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