Learning Technology Systems Architecture _LTSA_ -- Overview by fionan

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 160

									        Learning Technology Systems
          Architecture -- Overview
                          LTSA 4.00

                          Frank Farance
                         Farance/Edutool
                                1998-05-21
                    frank@farance.com, +1 212 486 4700
             Slides and Document: http://www.edutool.com/ltsa



1998-05-21            LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance         1
                         Overview

•   Review of goals
•   Abstraction-Implementation Layers
•   Review of each layer
•   Demonstration of perspectives
•   What does conformance mean?
•   Open issues




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   2
                      Review of goals

• Identify common components
• Identify critical interfaces
• Widespread applicability:
     – platform-neutral
     – content-neutral
     – pedagogically-neutral




1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   3
             Architecture Definition
                 And Purpose
• LTSA 4.0 specification:
  http://www.edutool.com/ltsa
• [Excerpt:] “In general, the purpose of developing systems
  architectures is to discover high-level frameworks for
  understanding certain kinds of systems, their subsystems,
  and their interactions with related systems. ...”




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance          4
             Architecture Definition
             And Purpose (cont’d)
• [Excerpt cont’d:] “… An architecture isn't a blue print for
  designing a single system, but a framework for designing a
  range of systems over time, and for the analysis and
  comparison of these systems. …”




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance       5
             Architecture Definition
             And Purpose (cont’d)
• [Excerpt cont’d:] “… By revealing the shared components
  of different systems at the right level of generality, an
  architecture promotes the design and implementation of
  components and subsystems that are reusable, cost-
  effective, and adaptable.”




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance          6
      Abstraction-Implementation Layers

•   The Groupings -- abstractions vs. implementations
•   The Priorities -- ordering
•   The Notations -- text, system, bus
•   The LTSA Layers -- five layers




1998-05-21           LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   7
     Abstraction-Implementation Layers:
               The Groupings
• Organize engineering details into several groupings from
  high-level (coarse granularity) to low-level (fine
  granularity)
• Groupings are called layers
• Layers above are called abstractions
• Layers below are called implementations




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance         8
                  Information Inclusion
        Organize raw details as: good, borderline, and bad examples



        Raw Details                                         Bad




                                                                  Good



                                                                         Borderline




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                      9
                       Information Exclusion
              Essential vs. Non-Essential Details: Depends on Context


   #1: Minimal Details, Only Data Flow                #2: More Details, Control Flow

                  Web Content                                       Web Content
     Browser                            Server          Browser                    Server
                                                                    User Request
                                                                       (“Pull”)


                  Web Content                                       Web Content
      Browser                           Server          Browser                    Server
                 Server Initiated
                    (“Push”)
                                                                          CGI       HTML

#3: (Again) More Details, Control Flow                #4: More Details, Related Subsystems

 1998-05-21                         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       10
     Architecture Abstraction Hierarchy
     Reference Model (Belz, Suthers, Wheeler)

       Application Model              LTSA Layer 1; IEEE 1484.1
                                                                    No category:
                                                                    IEEE 1484.3,
       Abstract System Model                                        1484.9
         - Interaction Model          LTSA Layer 2; IEEE 1484.1; AICC
         - Conceptual Model           LTSA Layer 3; IEEE 1484.1; IMS

      Abstract Implementation         LTSA Layer 4; IEEE 1484.1; IMS; AICC
               Model
                                      LTSA Layer 5; IEEE 1484.1, 1484.2,
         Resource Model               1484.4, 1484.6, 1484.7, 1484.10, 1484.11,
                                      1484.12, 1484.13; IMS; AICC, ARIADNE
1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                    11
     Abstraction-Implementation Layers:
               The Priorities
• High-level design issues have most pervasive effect on
  design: first priority
• Low-level design issues are localized: consider these issues
  later
• Example: building a house
     – High-level (higher design priority): layout and number of rooms
     – Low-level (leave till later): choosing wallpaper




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                12
               Iterative Abstraction
Design Priorities: Colors (high), Shapes (medium), Raw Details

                                      Abstraction of Shapes:
                                      Colored Polygons (Red,
                                      Green, Blue)


                                       Abstraction of Raw Details:
                                       Shapes (Arrow, Box, Star)




                                      Raw Details




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                13
             Iterative Implementation
Design Priorities: Colors (high), Shapes (medium), Raw Details

                                      Implementation of Colored
                                      Polygons with Constraints:
                                      Eight or fewer sides


                                       Implementation of Shapes with
                                       Constraints: Red, Green, Blue


                                                    Implementation of
                                                    Colored Shapes:
                                                    Constraints: Arrows
                                                    Connected to
                                                    Polygons




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                     14
     Abstraction-Implementation Layers:
               The Notations
• High-level: systems (Yourdon) diagrams
     – Process (oval), store (box), flow (arrow)
     – Static connections (flows) identify functional decomposition
• Low-level: bus diagrams
     – Bus (bar), connector (line), system (box)
     – Dynamic, point-to-point connections for on-demand, arbitrary
       component communication




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance             15
                     Systems Notation:
                         Processes, Stores, Flows

                               Two-Way Data Flow


               Data                  One-Way               Data
                                     Control Flow
              Process                                     Process


             One-Way              Control                          Two-Way
             Data Flow                                           Control Flow
                                  Process


             Data                                             Control
             Store                                             Store

1998-05-21                LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                     16
                     Bus Notation

•   Common naming
•   Common control flow (initiating transactions)
•   Non-homogeneous data flow (different transactions)
•   Dynamic, on-demand connections




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance    17
                 Bus Notation:
                   General Concepts


             P                          - Common naming
                                        - Common control flow
                                        - Non-homogeneous
 Each member           Q                  data flow
    of bus has
  unique name                           - Dynamic, on-demand
   and shares                             connections
                       R
   namespace


                       S

1998-05-21       LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance              18
                      Bus Notation:
                        General Concepts


               P                             - Common naming
                                             - Common control flow
                                             - Non-homogeneous
Each member uses            Q                  data flow
  same protocol to
request or respond                           - Dynamic, on-demand
    to transactions                            connections
                            R



                            S

  1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance              19
                           Bus Notation:
                             General Concepts


                 P                                - Common naming

           HTTP over      FTP over                - Common control flow
           TCP/IP bus     TCP/IP bus
                                                  - Non-homogeneous
                                 Q                  data flow
     Common control
protocol, but different                           - Dynamic, on-demand
       data protocols                               connections
                                 R

        Example:
PQ uses FTP, but
                                 S
 PR uses HTTP
    1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance              20
                         Bus Notation:
                           General Concepts


                 P                              - Common naming
                                                - Common control flow
No permanent
connections among                               - Non-homogeneous
members of bus;                Q                  data flow
each transaction is a
connection                                      - Dynamic, on-demand
                               R                  connections
Examples:
1. Q sends to P
2. P broadcasts to all
3. R sends to Q                S

    1998-05-21           LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance              21
             Systems vs. Bus Notation

• Systems notation useful for:
     – Small number of components
     – Dedicated functions for each component
     – Useful for LTSA layers 1, 3, and 4
• Bus notation useful for:
     – Large number of components
     – Dynamic, on-demand connections between components
     – Useful for LTSA layer 5




1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   22
     Abstraction-Implementation Layers:
             The LTSA Layers
• LTSA from high-level to low-level:
     –   Layer 1: Learner and environment interactions
     –   Layer 2: Human-centered features
     –   Layer 3: System components
     –   Layer 4: Stakeholder perspectives
     –   Layer 5: Operational components




1998-05-21               LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   23
               Layer 1: Learner And
              Environment Interactions
• Learner interacts with “environment” as part of a
  “learning experience”

    Internet/Web          Lab           Parent               Collaboration*
 Mentor              Teacher           Coach
                                                          SchoolComputers
Books        Television
                                                   Other Students*
       Employer                                           Multimedia
   Library                     Learner                          Newspaper
Other Employees*                                          * See later slide: collaboration
                                                            is internal to Learner
1998-05-21            LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                              24
      Layer 1: Learner and Environment:
      How Environment Effects Learner
• Primary Focus: the effect of environment on the learner,
  not the effect of learner on the environment
• Learner can have important effects on environment
  (research, teaching teachers, etc.), but is not primary
  technical focus of learning technology




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance         25
      Layer 1: Learner and Environment:
       Collaboration: Internal to Learner
• LTSA “learner” (abstraction) can represent one or more
  “students” (humans).
• Collaboration among students is internal to learner
• Thus, from an information technology perspective, all
  learner interaction is from the environment to the learner,
  i.e., inbound information




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance           26
         Layer 1: Learner and Environment
       Learning Interactions: Input to Learner
• Primary Focus: technology issues, i.e., the flow
  of information, not pedagogy

                                                     Learner
                                                                  Student

                           Learning
       Environment                                       Collaboration
                          Interactions        Student
                                                                    Student




1998-05-21           LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                        27
      Layer 2: Human-Centered Features
       Limitations => Effect on Design
• Humans receive the learning experience (human learning),
  not computers (machine learning)
• Human communication: fundamental limitations has
  pervasive effect on design


                                                           Learner is not a computer.
Environment    Learning              Learner               Human learners have
              Interactions                                 limitations -- complicates
                                                           receiving information from
                                                           learning interactions.


1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                        28
      Layer 2: Human-Centered Features
             Why humans aren’t computers
• Humans aren’t reliable receivers of information:
     – Humans mishear or don’t hear at all
     – Retransmission is necessary
• Humans aren’t predictable receivers of information:
     – Humans hear different than desired
     – Different strategies are necessary




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   29
      Layer 2: Human-Centered Features
         Why humans aren’t computers (cont’d)
• Humans learn differently (and over time):
     –   Humans differently from each other
     –   Same human may learn differently over time
     –   Need intelligent customization, configuration
     –   Need rich knowledge library for diverse humans
• Negotiate learner styles:
     – Learner alone or system coach alone cannot determine best
       learning style




1998-05-21               LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance         30
      Layer 2: Human-Centered Features
     Constructing LTSA System Components
• #1: Start with human sensory input: multimedia delivery to
  learner (similar to entertainment)
• #2: Add feedback loop for human unreliability
• #3: Add records database for varying teachers, infer
  intelligently about student capability
• #4: Add rich knowledge library, search, and lookup for
  diversity of humans
• #5: Add negotiated learning styles



1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance      31
                 Step #1: Transferring Information


             Multimedia               Learner



 Delivery




• Transfer information to Learner
• Sensory input/interactions for humans
• Delivery of Multimedia: same as entertainment



1998-05-21                LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   32
                Step #2: Feedback/Coaching Loop


             Multimedia               Learner                 Behavior


 Delivery                                                                Evaluation




                                      System
                                      Coach



• Feedback necessary, humans are unreliable receivers, e.g.,
  they don’t hear what you tell them
• Current state of feedback loop: Behavior, Evaluation,
  Assessment


1998-05-21                LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       33
        Step #2: Feedback/Coaching Loop (cont’d)


             Multimedia               Learner                 Behavior


 Delivery                                                                Evaluation




                                      System
                                      Coach



• System Coach: determines corrective actions
• Locator Index:
     – e.g., next lesson (Learning Content) towards objective
     – directs Delivery of Multimedia to Learner
• Loop recovers from errors, focuses on target

1998-05-21                LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       34
                      Step #3: Records Database


             Multimedia               Learner                 Behavior


 Delivery                                                                Evaluation


                                                                      Performance
                                                       Performance        (current)
                                                            (history)
                                      System
                                                                          Records
                                      Coach
                                                                         Database
                                                 Performance (new)

• Performance information
     – helps infer corrective action over long periods of time
     – nomadic students: allows student migration (handoff) to different
       teachers (e.g, grade promotion) and different institutions
• Records Database: Learner’s history, objectives

1998-05-21                LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           35
                     Step #4: Knowledge Library


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation


  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Humans are unpredictable and diverse
• Knowledge libraries necessary to match human diversity
• System Coach:
     – directs different learning styles and strategies
     – based on Learner’s history, objectives, and Assessment
     – supported via queries to Knowledge Library for appropriate
       Learning Content
1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           36
                 Step #5: Advice from the Learner


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Humans are self-aware: can give advice on learner styles
• Learning Styles:
     – interaction between Learner and system to negotiate different
       learning styles
     – negotiation might actually be assertion: Learner may assert (e.g.,
       experimentation), or system coach may assert (e.g., primary school
       might dictate learning style)
1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           37
                 Review: System Generated Solely
                  By Human-Centered Features

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

•  #1: Transferring Information
• #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners
• #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history
  allows Learner migration
• #4: Knowledge Library: varying/diverse student capabilities
• #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           38
                 Review: System Generated Solely
                  By Human-Centered Features

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• #1: Transferring Information
•  #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners
• #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history
  allows Learner migration
• #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities
• #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           39
                 Review: System Generated Solely
                  By Human-Centered Features

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• #1: Transferring Information
• #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners
•  #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences,
  history allows Learner migration
• #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities
• #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           40
                 Review: System Generated Solely
                  By Human-Centered Features

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• #1: Transferring Information
• #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners
• #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history
  allows Learner migration
•  #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities
• #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           41
                 Review: System Generated Solely
                  By Human-Centered Features

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• #1: Transferring Information
• #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners
• #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history
  allows Learner migration
• #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities
•  #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           42
                    Layer 3: System Components


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Processes: Learner, Evaluation, System Coach, Delivery
• Stores: Records Database, Knowledge Library
• Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Indexes
    (query, content, and locator), Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Style


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           43
                                 Learner
                             (process, human)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Abstraction of student
• Can represent more than one student
• Learner:
     – Receives Multimedia
     – Emits Behavior
     – Negotiates Learning Style

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           44
                                Learning Styles
                                  (data flow)

               Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                      Learning Content
    Delivery                                                                 Evaluation
                                   Learning
                                      Style
  Learning                                                                Performance
  Content Content Index                                    Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                           (history)
                                          System
 Knowledge                                                                    Records
                                          Coach
   Library                                                                   Database
             Query Index                             Performance (new)

•     Learner’s preference as input to system
•     System Coach can negotiate and/or restrict Learner’s preferences
•     Surrogates: e.g., parentlearner, teacher system
•     Other possible surrogates: e.g., parentsystem, student system,
      mentorlearner


1998-05-21                    LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           45
                                   Behavior
                                  (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Observable Behavior of the Learner, coded, and sent to the Evaluation
  process




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           46
                                  Evaluation
                                   (process)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Evaluation:
     –   Receives Behavior
     –   Receives Learning Content (context of Learner’s Behavior)
     –   Stores Performance info based on Evaluation of Behavior
     –   Produces Assessment given to System Coach



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           47
Performance Information Stored By Evaluation (data
                      flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Evaluation of Behavior: can emit Performance info
• Stored in Records Database




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           48
                             Records Database
                               (data store)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Stores Performance information as Learner history
• Retrieves and stores Learner history records for System Coach




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           49
             Performance Information Received By
                   System Coach (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• System Coach gets Learner history by retrieving Performance
  information from Learner’s Records Database
• Can select strategies based on history




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           50
               Performance Information Stored By
                    System Coach (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• System Coach can store Performance information, too:
     – “bookmarks” (incomplete sessions)
     – certifications (milestones, completion of module)
     – objectives (outlines for future sessions)




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           51
                          Assessment Information
                                (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Evaluation process can emit Assessments: “where there student is at”
• System Coach can use Assessment information, along with other
  information, to select appropriate learning experience




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           52
                                 System Coach
                                   (process)

               Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                      Learning Content
    Delivery                                                                 Evaluation
                                   Learning     1
                                      Style
  Learning                                                                Performance
  Content Content Index                                    Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                           (history)
                                          System
 Knowledge                                                                    Records
                                          Coach
   Library                                                                   Database
             Query Index                             Performance (new)

•      1   Sends, receives, and negotiates Learning Style with Learner




1998-05-21                    LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           53
                                 System Coach
                                   (process)

               Multimedia                 Learner                    Behavior

                      Learning Content
    Delivery                                                                    Evaluation
                                   Learning
                                      Style         2
     Learning                                                                Performance
     Content Content Index                                    Performance        (current)
              (metadata)                                   3       (history)
                                          System
    Knowledge                                                                    Records
                                          Coach
      Library                                                                   Database
                Query Index                             Performance (new)

•      2     Receives current Assessment information and Performance
             3
      information (history and objectives) for future learning experiences




1998-05-21                    LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                              54
                                 System Coach
                                   (process)

               Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                      Learning Content
    Delivery                                                                 Evaluation
                                   Learning
                                      Style
  Learning                                                                Performance
  Content Content Index                                    Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                           (history)
                                          System
 Knowledge                                                                    Records
                                          Coach
   Library                                                                   Database
             Query Index 4                           Performance (new)

•      4   Queries to the Knowledge Library:
       – Query Indexes sent to search for appropriate material
       – Content Indexes (metadata) returned as “found” Learning Content
       – Extracts the Locator Indexes (e.g., URLs) from the returned Content
         Indexes (metadata)



1998-05-21                    LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           55
                                  System Coach
                                    (process)

               Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                      Learning Content
    Delivery                                                                 Evaluation
                              5    Learning
                                      Style
  Learning                                                                Performance
  Content Content Index                                    Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                           (history)
                                          System
 Knowledge                                                                    Records
                                          Coach
   Library                                                                   Database
             Query Index                             Performance (new)

•     Locator Indexes (similar to web URLs) are sent to Delivery
       5
  process to identify (not transfer) Learning Content
• Note: Delivery is responsible for retrieving and Knowledge Library is
  responsible for transferring Learning Content



1998-05-21                    LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           56
                               Query Indexes
                                (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Query Index specifies “what to search for” in Knowledge Library
• System Coach sends Query Indexes to search the Knowledge Library
  for appropriate Learning Content, based on Assessment info and
  Performance info from Records Database



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           57
                           Knowledge Library
                              (data store)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Database searched via Query Index
• Returns Content Indexes (metadata) of Learning Content that matches
  the Query Index
• Emits Learning Content based on Locator Index from Delivery process



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           58
                      Content Index -- Metadata
                             (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Search of Knowledge Library returns Content Indexes (metadata) for
  Learning Content that matches Query Index
• Content Indexes (metadata) are similar to card catalog entries in a
  library
• Locator Indexes (e.g., URLs) can be extracted from Content Indexes
  (metadata)

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           59
                               Locator Index
                                (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• System Coach extracts Locator Index from the Content Index for
  appropriate learning experience
• Locator Index is similar to call number in a library, and similar to URL
  of the World Wide Web



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           60
                   Learning Content Received By
                        Delivery (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Delivery Process sends a Locator Index to the Knowledge Library
  pointing to Learning Content
• Knowledge Library returns Learning Content to Delivery process




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           61
                                   Delivery
                                   (process)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Receives Locator Index (e.g., URLs) that identify learning experiences
  desired by the System Coach
• Transforms Learning Content to Multimedia
• Sends Learning Content to Evaluation to give context of Learner’s
  Behavior
• Sends interactive Multimedia to the Learner

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           62
                      Learning Content Sent By
                        Delivery (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Delivery process sends Learning Content to Evaluation to give context
  of Learner’s Behavior




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           63
                                 Multimedia
                                 (data flow)

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Delivery process generates Multimedia learning experience based on
  Learning Content




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           64
             Functional vs. Actual Learning
                 Technology Systems
• LTSA components identify functional boundaries and
  critical interfaces
• Actual systems integrate several components into
  individual products
• Functionality exists in actual systems but may be
  embedded within larger system (several components
  combined) or single component spread across several
  systems



1998-05-21           LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   65
                Actual Implementation Example #1:
                       Web-Based Learning

              Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                     Learning Content
  Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                  Learning
                                     Style
   Learning                                                              Performance
   Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
            (metadata)                                         (history)
                                         System
  Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                         Coach
    Library                                                                 Database
              Query Index                           Performance (new)
Abstraction
Implementation                                                                Student
                                                                              Records
                          Human              Presentation                    (database)
                        Interface                Tool
    Human
                    (e.g., X Windows          (browser)
                          Win95)                                   Courseware
                                                                    Database
 1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance    (web servers)          66
                Actual Implementation Example #1:
                       Web-Based Learning

              Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                     Learning Content
  Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                  Learning
                                     Style
   Learning                                                              Performance
   Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
            (metadata)                                         (history)
                                         System
  Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                         Coach
    Library                                                                 Database
              Query Index                           Performance (new)
Abstraction
Implementation                                                                Student
                                                                              Records
                          Human              Presentation                    (database)
                        Interface                Tool
    Human
                    (e.g., X Windows          (browser)
                          Win95)                                   Courseware
                                                                    Database
 1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance    (web servers)          67
                Actual Implementation Example #2:
                 Flight Simulator, Flight Instructor

              Multimedia                  Learner                   Behavior

                     Learning Content
  Delivery                                                                     Evaluation
                                   Learning
                                      Style
   Learning                                                               Performance
   Content Content Index                                   Performance        (current)
            (metadata)                                          (history)
                                          System
  Knowledge                                                                   Records
                                          Coach
    Library                                                                  Database
              Query Index                            Performance (new)
Abstraction
Implementation                           Flight
                                                                                 Pilot’s
                                        Instructor
                                                                                Logbook
                    Flight
                  Simulator
                                                                  Pilot

 1998-05-21                   LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           68
               Actual Implementation Example #3:
              Non-Electronic, Traditional Classroom

              Multimedia                    Learner                   Behavior

                     Learning Content
  Delivery                                                                        Evaluation
                                     Learning
                                        Style
   Learning                                                                  Performance
   Content Content Index                                      Performance        (current)
            (metadata)                                             (history)
                                            System
  Knowledge                                                                      Records
                                            Coach
    Library                                                                     Database
              Query Index                               Performance (new)
Abstraction
Implementation
                                  Student
          Student Uses                                    Teacher        Grades
             Library                                                               Report
                           Teacher Points Student To
                                                                                   Cards,
                            Books (A Locator Index)
                                                                                  Transcript
                School
                                                Retrieves Teaching Materials
                Library
 1998-05-21                     LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                              69
                Actual Implementation Example #4:
                        Home Study Course

              Multimedia                 Learner                    Behavior

                     Learning Content
  Delivery                                                                     Evaluation
                                  Learning
                                     Style
   Learning                                                              Performance
   Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
            (metadata)                                         (history)
                                         System
  Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                         Coach
    Library                                                                 Database
              Query Index                           Performance (new)
Abstraction
Implementation
                                 Home
        School                   Study                           Student
                                 Course

 1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           70
        Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives

• Each stakeholder has a view, but not complete picture
• Show each stakeholder perspective within LTSA
• Stakeholder perspectives used to validate views and
  subsets of LTSA components
• “It’s in there!” (if not, let us know!)




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance      71
        Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives
                     (cont’d)
• Stakeholder perspectives analyzed by:
     – Primary design issues: LTSA components that greatly affect
       design and implementation for stake holder (shown as red/bold)
     – Secondary design issues: LTSA components that affect design
       and implementation of stake-holder, but not critical (shown as
       blue/dash ---)
     – Other LTSA components: insignificant design issue or not
       applicable (no highlight/green fill)




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance               72
        Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives
                     (cont’d)
• Stakeholders, typically, have different and/or incompatible
  priorities
• Differing priorities: obstacles to consensus
• Non-technical (political, business) issues just as important
  as technical issues
• Cataloging stakeholder perspectives is critical for building
  consensus




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance        73
                      Abstraction-Implementation:
          System Components ==> Stakeholder/Design Perspectives


              Multimedia                    Learner                    Behavior

                     Learning Content
   Delivery                                                                       Evaluation
                                     Learning
                                        Style
   Learning                                                                  Performance
   Content Content Index                                      Performance        (current)
            (metadata)                                             (history)
                                            System
  Knowledge                                                                      Records
                                            Coach
    Library                                                                     Database
              Query Index                               Performance (new)
Abstraction
Implementation
           Various Stakeholder/Design Perspectives
                 Learner, Assessment, Institution, Metadata, Intelligent Tutor,
                 Mentoring, Collaboration, Ontology, Task, etc.

 1998-05-21                     LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                            74
             “Isolated” LTSA Stakeholders

• Isolated LTSA subsets -- little interaction with neighboring
  LTSA components
• Little overlap with other “isolated” stakeholders
• Relatively “simple” integration
• Can make use of isolated component standards
• Best stakeholder examples: “Records”, “Metadata”,
  “Multimedia”




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance       75
                             Learner-Centered


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: learner keeps his/her records, learner has influence on
  negotiated learning style
• Secondary: assessment and performance info




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           76
                          Assessment-Centered


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: educational standards, behavior, evaluation, assessment
  records, records database reporting
• Secondary: learning style, learner, system control (adaptive
  administration)



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           77
                          Records, Certifications


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: records database, performance info
• Secondary: evaluation, assessment info, system coach




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           78
                    Task Model, School-To-Work


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: records database
• Secondary: performance info




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           79
                           Institution-Centered


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: system control, administration, records, reporting, negotiating
  (many times: asserting) learning style
• Secondary: learner collaboration, teachers, evaluation (grading),
  delivery infrastructure (including multimedia and behavior observation
  correlated by learning content)


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           80
                             Content-Centered


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: delivery, multimedia, invocation via locator index (e.g.,
  URLs), learning content format
• Secondary: assessment, content search (query index, content index),
  knowledge library, learner’s user interface



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           81
                                   Metadata


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index
  (e.g., URLs), and associating locator indexes with content indexes
• Secondary: knowledge organization, learning content (presentation)




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           82
                     Ontologies, Expert Systems


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: knowledge design and knowledge representation in
  knowledge library, learning content (presentation)
• Secondary: query index (search), content index (metadata), and locator
  index (e.g., URLs)



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           83
                             Learning Objects


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: knowledge library, query index (search), content index
  (metadata), learning content (presentation)
• Secondary: evaluation, performance info and database, assessment
  info, system coach, locator index (e.g., URLs)



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           84
                                 Multimedia


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: delivery, multimedia, query index (search), content index
  (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), hardware limitations
• Secondary: system coach, knowledge library, learning content format,
  behavior



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           85
             Collaboration, Asynchronous Learning


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: communication among students with same roles (collective
  learner), communication modes (multimedia), delivery tools, and
  differing “time zones”
• Secondary: system control by coordinator/moderator, learning style
  negotiated among participants and coordinator/moderator


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           86
                   Multiple Role, Team Learning


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: communication among students, but different roles
  (collective learner), communication modes (multimedia), delivery
  tools, and differing “time zones”
• Secondary: system control by coordinator/moderator, learning style
  negotiated among participants and coordinator/moderator


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           87
             “Overlapping” LTSA Stakeholders

• Concerns many, most, or all LTSA components
• Overlaps with other stakeholders
• Differing, conflicting designs priorities
• Relatively “complex” integration
• Potential non-technical, political, or business obstacles to
  consensus and interoperability
• Best stakeholder examples: “Experimentation”, “Intelligent
  Tutoring Tools”, “Distance Learning”



1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance       88
                          Mentoring, Coaching


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: learner and mentor/coach jointly perform evaluation and
  jointly choose direction
• Secondary: tools and delivery support mentoring, coaching,
  experimentation, recordkeeping



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           89
                          Interactive Environment


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: learner directs style, learner is observed, delivery is
  responsive to evaluation
• Secondary: assessment info, system coach, locator index (e.g., URLs)




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           90
                                  Simulation


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: delivery, multimedia, learning content to correlate
  multimedia and behavior, assessment info, system coach, locator index
• Secondary: behavior, performance info, records database




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           91
             Learning Tool-To-Tool Communication


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: system coach, evaluation, assessment info, query index
  (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs),
  delivery, invocation
• Secondary: multimedia, learning style, performance info, records
  database, knowledge library, learning content


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           92
        Sequencing, Pre-Requisites, Co-Requisites


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: system coach, evaluation, assessment info, query index
  (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs),
  delivery, invocation
• Secondary: multimedia, learning style, performance info, records
  database, knowledge library, learning content


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           93
                     Experimentation, Discovery


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: learner chooses direction, acquires knowledge during
  experimentation, learner, system coach, query index (search), content
  index (metadata)
• Secondary: learner does self evaluation, tools and delivery support
  experimentation, behavior, assessment info, locator index (e.g., URLs),
  delivery, multimedia

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           94
                          Intelligent Tutoring Tools


             Multimedia                  Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                   Evaluation
                                  Learning
                                     Style
  Learning                                                               Performance
  Content Content Index                                   Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                          (history)
                                         System
 Knowledge                                                                   Records
                                         Coach
   Library                                                                  Database
             Query Index                            Performance (new)

• Primary: learner chooses direction, acquires knowledge during use of
  tutoring tool, knowledge library may be implicit (not explicitly
  defined) in tutor
• Secondary: tutor does evaluation, tools and delivery support
  experimentation


1998-05-21                   LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           95
             Distance Learning, Distributed Learning


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: distributed and nomadic communication of all “flows”
  (behavior, performance, multimedia, etc.)
• Secondary: processes and stores components
• NOTE: Take note of primary design issues (red/bold)
     – How does this slide differ from all others?
     – Answer: All flows are primary, everything else is secondary

1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                           96
             “Parallel” LTSA Stakeholders

• Integration of multiple sessions, each with differing
  learning experiences and interactions
• Synchronization of multiple sessions: starting, stopping,
  coaching, learner interfacing
• Integration, collaboration, and synchronization of feedback
  and coaching strategies
• Best stakeholder example: “Student Teacher”




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance      97
              Parallel Sessions for Same Learner




•   Primary: multiple, simultaneous learning experiences; multiple flows of
    behavior, learning style, multimedia
•   Secondary: multiple evaluation, system coach, and delivery processes
•   Example: flight simulator -- simultaneous training of flying skills, navigation
    skills, communication skills, cockpit resource management
1998-05-21                 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                          98
                        Student Teacher
                                   Student




                                   Teacher




• Primary: student teacher as a teacher
• Secondary: student teacher as a student




1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   99
              Multi-Tiered Process Improvement
                                       Student




                                       Teacher




                                       Principal




•   Student is evaluated by teacher, teacher coaches student
•   Teacher is evaluated by principal, principal coaches teacher
•   Principal is evaluated by school board, school board coaches principal
•   Teacher is also evaluated by performance of his/her students
•   Principal is also evaluated by performance of his/her students
1998-05-21                 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                 100
             Standards and Specification
             Development Organizations
             IEEE, ANSI, ISO: Accredited Standards
        IEEE
       (LTSC)                      ANSI                                 ISO
        1484

                                                                  Specs From
             Specs                                                Consortia


         AICC            ADL                    IMS                ARIADNE
                                                             Liaising
               Requirements     Requirements

1998-05-21               LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                     101
             IEEE 1484 As A Stakeholder
                (IEEE 1484 Roadmap)
• IEEE 1484 working groups (WGs) and study groups (SGs)
  each involve certain areas of LTSA
• Some LTSA components should not be standardized,
  e.g., evaluation methods, delivery systems
• Some LTSA components should be standardized outside
  1484, e.g., multimedia, education standards, cultural
  adaptation
• More info: http://www.manta.ieee.org/p1484



1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   102
                          IEEE 1484.1:
             Architecture and Reference Model WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: all components
• Secondary: none




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       103
                             IEEE 1484.2:
                           Learner Model WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: learner, negotiated learning style, evaluation, performance
  info, assessment info, system coach
• Secondary: behavior




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       104
                                IEEE 1484.3:
                                Glossary WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: none
• Secondary: all components




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       105
                              IEEE 1484.4:
                             Task Model WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: records database
• Secondary: performance info




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       106
                              IEEE 1484.6:
                          Course Sequencing WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: system coach, performance info, assessment info, query index
  (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs),
  invocation of learning content
• Secondary: learning style, records database, knowledge library,
  delivery, learning content


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       107
                          IEEE 1484.7:
                  Tool/Agent Communication WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: system coach, behavior, evaluation, assessment info,
  performance info, records database, query index (search), content
  index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs)
• Secondary: query index (search), content index (metadata), knowledge
  library, delivery


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       108
                             IEEE 1484.9:
                           Task Ontology WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: knowledge library, learning content (presentation)
• Secondary: query index (search), content index (metadata), locator
  index (e.g., URLs)




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       109
                          IEEE 1484.10:
                      CBT Data Interchange WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: system coach, performance info, assessment info, query index
  (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs),
  invocation of learning content
• Secondary: learning style, behavior, records database, knowledge
  library, learning content, delivery


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       110
                        IEEE 1484.11:
               Computer Managed Instruction WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: performance info, assessment info, query index (search),
  content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of
  learning content
• Secondary: behavior, records database, system coach, knowledge
  library, learning content, delivery


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       111
                          IEEE 1484.12:
                  Learning Objects Metadata WG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index
  (e.g., URLs)
• Secondary: system coach, knowledge library, learning content,
  delivery



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       112
                             IEEE 1484.13:
                          Student Identifiers SG

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: performance info, records database
• Secondary: learner, system coach




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       113
        Other Specification Development
         Organizations As Stakeholders
• Educom’s Instructional Management Systems (IMS)
  Project
  http://www.imsproject.org
• Aviation Industry CBT Committee
  http://www.aicc.org
• DoD Advanced Distributed Learning
  http://www.adlnet.com
• European Union ARIADNE Project



1998-05-21        LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   114
    Educom’s Instructional Management
         Systems (IMS) Project
• Main areas of development:
     –   Metadata: learning technology metadata
     –   Content objects: learning content, course structure
     –   Management systems: collaboration, reporting
     –   Profiles: student records
     –   External services: interface to institution
• More info: http://www.imsproject.org




1998-05-21                LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance    115
                               IMS Metadata


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: content index (metadata) and associating locator indexes with
  content indexes
• Secondary: query index (search), locator index (e.g., URLs),
  knowledge organization in knowledge library



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       116
                          IMS Content Objects


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: knowledge library, content index (metadata), learning content
  (presentation)
• Secondary: evaluation, performance info, assessment info, system
  coach, locator index (e.g., URLs), delivery



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       117
                          IMS Management System


             Multimedia                  Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                   Evaluation
                                  Learning
                                     Style
  Learning                                                               Performance
  Content Content Index                                   Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                          (history)
                                         System
 Knowledge                                                                   Records
                                         Coach
   Library                                                                  Database
             Query Index                            Performance (new)

• Primary: learner, system coach, performance info, locator index (e.g.,
  URLs)
• Secondary: negotiated learning style, records database, content index
  (metadata), knowledge library, delivery



1998-05-21                   LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       118
                                IMS Profiles


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: records database, performance info
• Secondary: evaluation, assessment info, system coach




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       119
                          IMS External Services


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: records database, student registration, institution back office
• Secondary: performance info




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       120
       Aviation Industry CBT Committee
                    (AICC)
• Develops guidelines and recommendations for CBT in
  aviation applications
• Subject areas: Courseware Delivery Stations, Digital
  Audio, Operating Windowing System, CBT Peripheral
  Devices, Computer Managed Instruction (CMI),
  Courseware Interchange, Digital Video, Icon Standards
• More info: http://www.aicc.org




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance      121
                              AICC AGR003:
                               Digital Audio

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: multimedia
• Secondary: delivery




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       122
                            AICC AGR005:
                          CBT Peripheral Devices

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: behavior, delivery, multimedia
• Secondary: learner




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       123
                        AICC AGR006:
                   Computer Managed Instruction

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: performance info, assessment info, query index (search),
  content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of
  learning content
• Secondary: behavior, records database, system coach, knowledge
  library, learning content, delivery


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       124
                             AICC AGR007:
                          Courseware Interchange

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: system coach, performance info, assessment info, query index
  (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs),
  invocation of learning content
• Secondary: learning style, behavior, records database, knowledge
  library, learning content, delivery


1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       125
                              AICC AGR008:
                               Digital Video

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: multimedia
• Secondary: delivery




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       126
                              AICC AGR009:
                              Icon Standards

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: learner, learning content
• Secondary: delivery, multimedia




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       127
                         AICC CRS002:
                Glossary of Terms Related to CBT

             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: none
• Secondary: all components




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       128
              DoD Advanced Distributed
                  Learning (ADL)
• Research and development areas:
     –   Promote widespread collaboration.
     –   Exploit Internet technologies.
     –   Develop next generation learning technologies.
     –   Create reusable content, and lower costs, with object-based tools.
• Supplies requirements to IMS
• More info: http://www.adlnet.org




1998-05-21                LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance               129
                           ADL Collaboration


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: all components, ADL addresses collaboration of learning
  technologies and learning technology requirements
• Secondary: none




1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       130
             European Union - ARIADNE

•   Collaborative browsing
•   Learning technology metadata
•   Working with IMS
•   More info:
    http://tina.lancs.ac.uk/computing/
    research/cseg/projects/ariadne/




1998-05-21           LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   131
                          ARIADNE Metadata


             Multimedia                 Learner                 Behavior

                    Learning Content
 Delivery                                                                  Evaluation
                                 Learning
                                    Style
  Learning                                                              Performance
  Content Content Index                                  Performance        (current)
           (metadata)                                         (history)
                                        System
 Knowledge                                                                  Records
                                        Coach
   Library                                                                 Database
             Query Index                           Performance (new)

• Primary: content index (metadata) and associating locator indexes with
  content indexes
• Secondary: query index (search), locator index (e.g., URLs),
  knowledge organization in knowledge library



1998-05-21                  LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                       132
        Layer 5: Operational Components

• Common components that build the system
• Operational components may serve several functions
• Several system components may be implemented via the
  same operational components, e.g., performance info and
  learning content both coded as XML (an operational
  component)




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance    133
        Layer 5: Operational Components
                    (cont’d)
• Operational components are identified by:
     – Systems, e.g., clients and servers
     – Connectors (interface protocols), e.g., HTTP, PPP
     – Busses (namespaces), e.g., URLs, telephone numbers
• Components (systems) on a bus can “talk” to each other
  via interface protocols




1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance    134
                Abstraction-Implementation:
          Stakeholder/Design Perspective => Operational Components


                Various Stakeholder/Design Perspectives
                Learner, Assessment, Intelligent Tutor, Distance Learning,
                Mentoring, Collaboration, Ontology, Task, etc.


Abstraction
Implementation
                                                  Human
                  Protocols                       Interface
                                                                             Processes
                Data                    Interchange
               Storage
                                                    Control Flow
  1998-05-21                   LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                     135
                      Information Busses:
             Example: Internet Client-Server Bus, Client Perspective


             Client                               - Client connects to many
                                                    servers
                                                  - On-demand connections
                              Server              - Several servers may have
                                                    same purpose, but varied
                                                    resources; like libraries:
                              Server
                                                    same interface, but varied
                                                    collections of books
                              Server

1998-05-21                 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance               136
                      Information Busses:
             Example: Internet Client-Server Bus, Server Perspective


             Server                               - Server handles requests
                                                    from multiple clients
                                                  - On-demand connections
                              Client              - Clients may appear
                                                    homogenous, but have
                                                    different identities
                              Client



                              Client

1998-05-21                 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance               137
                        Information Busses:
                      Example: Combining/bridging two busses


                                                                     Web
               User                                                 Server 1
                              Web Browser: “sits” on two
                            busses: both window manager
                             application & web application
                                                                 World Wide Web
 Window Manager                  GUI                             “Bus” of Browsers
                                                       Web
 Application “Bus”              App 1                  Client    and Web Servers
       Examples:
                                 GUI                                Web
X Windows, Win95                App 2                              Server 2


                                 GUI                                Web
                                App 3                              Server 3

  1998-05-21                 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                 138
                 Information Busses:
              Example: Combining/bridging three busses

                 World Wide Web
                “Bus” of Browsers                            Web
 User                                                       Server 1
                 and Web Servers
                                                                        Chat “Bus”
                   Web Browser:                                         of Sessions
                                                         Web
                    GUI<->Web                           Server 2
                 GUI               Web
                App 1              Client
                                                                             Chat
  Window                                                                    Server
 Manager
                 GUI               Chat
Application     App 2             Client 1
      “Bus”
                   Chat Session:                              Chat
                    GUI<->Chat                               Client 2

 1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                    139
           Information Busses:
       Commonly Used Busses/Protocols
• Layer 5 is: collection of common bus protocols, no specific
  requirements
• Examples:
     – Transport, Network, Data Link: TCP, UDP, IP, Ethernet, telephone
     – Application, Presentation, Session: X11, HTTP, IRC, SMTP,
       NNTP, FTP, TELNET
     – Data, Control, Security: HTML, XML, RDF, RPC, CORBA,
       DCOM, HLA, Kerberos, HTTPS, SSL, HLA




1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance            140
    Summary of Five LTSA Abstraction-
         Implementation Layers
                                                           Learner
                  Learner
Layer 1      Environment     Environment
              Interactions
                                            Interactions

Layer 2                      Five Human-Centered Features
                                      M              L               B
                                            LC
                System         D                                         E
Layer 3      Components       LC
                                             LI      LS      A
                                                                          P
                                       CI                            P
                              KL                    SC                   RD
                                            QI
Layer 4                      40+ Stakeholder Perspectives
                 Protocol
Layer 5       & Interface
                  Busses



1998-05-21     LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                              141
             LTSA Layer Summary (cont’d)

• Layer 1:
     – Learning experience: learners interacting with the environment
     – A learner (abstract) may represent several students (humans)
     – From information technology perspective, flow is one-way:
       environment ==> learner
     – Collaboration is within the learner abstraction




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance               142
             LTSA Layer Summary (cont’d)

• Layer 2:
     – Because the learner abstraction is “implemented” with “humans”
       (human learner), rather “implemented” with “computers” (machine
       learning), the “nature of humans” has pervasive effect on system
       design
     – Fundamental limits of human communication




1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance            143
             LTSA Layer Summary (cont’d)

• Layer 2 (cont’d):
     – Humans aren’t reliable receivers of information: retransmission
     – Humans aren’t predictable receivers of information: different
       strategies
     – Humans learn differently (and over time): customizable,
       configurable




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                144
             LTSA Layer Summary (cont’d)

• Layer 3:
     – System notation: process, store, flow
     – Human-centered feedback loop: learner, behavior, evaluation,
       assessment, system coach, delivery, multimedia
     – More “intelligence” from learning content: need records database
       and performance records
     – Learner has different “teachers” during his/her lifetime: records
       database facilitates “hand-off”




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance              145
             LTSA Layer Summary (cont’d)

• Layer 3 (cont’d):
     – Humans each learn differently (and learn differently over time):
       rich knowledge library required; query indexes and content indexes
       (metadata) make best use of knowledge library
     – Learners and their surrogates (e.g, parent, mentor) negotiate
       learning styles with system coaches and their surrogates (e.g.,
       institution, teacher, courseware developer)




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance             146
             LTSA Layer Summary (cont’d)

• Layer 4:
     – Stakeholders each have own, incomplete perspectives
     – All stakeholders’ perspectives are incorporated in LTSA system
       components diagram
     – IEEE 1484: working groups specifying critical interfaces; some
       technical standards outside of 1484; “education standards” are
       necessary but outside scope of 1484 and “technical standards”




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance               147
             LTSA Layer Summary (cont’d)

• Layer 5:
     – Bus notation: bus, connector, system
     – Operational components: actual implementation
     – One operational component (e.g., HTTP) might be used by several
       system components (e.g., records database, knowledge library)
     – One system component (e.g., delivery) might use several
       operational components (e.g., HTTP, HTML, MPEG)




1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance            148
             LTSA Layer Summary (cont’d)

• Layer 5 (cont’d):
     – Bus may be used for several purposes
     – Systems on bus share common namespace, e.g., URLs, process
       IDs, object IDs
     – Systems may be connected, simultaneously, to several busses




1998-05-21             LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance             149
             LTSA Layer Summary (cont’d)

• Layer 5 (cont’d):
     – Systems dynamically connect, on-demand to other systems (e.g.,
       clients to servers)
     – System connectivity is not pre-arranged
     – Connections (protocols) may serve several purposes (e.g., XML
       used for performance records and learning content; MIDI used for
       behavior and multimedia)




1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance            150
                   LTSA Conformance

• LTSA conforming products/services
     – provide the critical interfaces (functionality) that conform to one or
       more components of LTSA: Learner (Collaboration), Behavior,
       Evaluation, Performance, Records Database, System Coach, Query
       Index (search), Content Index (metadata), Locator Index (e.g.,
       URLs), Knowledge Library, Delivery, Multimedia
     – identify the protocols that describe the bus interface
     – identify the interface point




1998-05-21               LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance                151
               LTSA Conformance

• LTSA conforming products/services
• Measuring conformance: the system under test is called the
  “implementation under test”
• A system that conforms to the LTSA specification is called
  a “conforming implementation”
• “A conforming implementation shall conform to all five
  layers.”




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance      152
             LTSA Layer 1 Conformance

• Validating Learner-Environment interactions
• “The implementation under test shall identify the
  boundaries of the Environment, the flows of Interactions,
  and the Learner.”
• “The implementation under test shall identify the Learner's
  relationship to human students.”
• Examples of Learner/Student relationship:
     – Is the Learner represented by more than one Student?
     – Is there collaboration among the Students?


1998-05-21              LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance     153
             LTSA Layer 2 Conformance

• Validating human-centered features
• “The implementation under test shall identify the methods
  for addressing the human-centered features:”
     –   unreliable learners
     –   unpredictable and diverse learners
     –   nomadic learners
     –   influence on learning style




1998-05-21                LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   154
             LTSA Layer 3 Conformance

• Validating decomposition into LTSA system components
• “The implementation under test shall identify the available
  LTSA system components: Learner, Learning Style,
  Behavior, Evaluation, Performance, Records Database,
  Assessment, System Coach, Query Index, Content Index,
  Locator Index, Knowledge Library, Learning Content,
  Delivery, Multimedia.”




1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance      155
             LTSA Layer 4 Conformance

• Identifying which LTSA subset (stakeholder) is applicable
  -- stakeholders can be any subset, not limited to the
  examples in the LTSA specification
• Mapping conceptual to actual system components
• “The implementation under test shall identify the subset of
  applicable LTSA system components.”
• “The implementation under test shall identify the
  boundaries and mapping of LTSA system components.”



1998-05-21          LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance      156
             LTSA Layer 5 Conformance

• Identifying the information busses -- bus protocols and
  topology not limited to examples in LTSA specification
• “The implementation under test shall identify the
  information busses in use, their namespace, control
  protocols, and mapping to LTSA system components.”




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance        157
                     Open Issues

• Verifying stakeholders perspectives
• Identifying and refining operating components: protocols,
  interfaces
• Public review in IEEE 1484.1 and other fora




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance      158
                              Summary

• Yourdon (systems notation): tried and true
• Bus notation used for larger number of component
• Five abstraction-implementation layers:
     –   Learner and environment interactions
     –   Human-centered features
     –   System components
     –   Stakeholder perspectives
     –   Operational components




1998-05-21               LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   159
                Summary (cont’d)

• Wide range of implementations supported
• All stakeholders’ perspectives identified
• Reflects commercial systems




1998-05-21         LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance   160

								
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