The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Disaster and Defeat • Map: Russian Campaign,1812 • The Last Campaigns • The Congress of Vienna • Map: Europe after the Congress of Vienna The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction Preview, continued • The Revolution’s Legacy • Faces of History: Prince Klemens von Metternich • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of the French Revolution The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction Main Idea After defeating Napoleon, the European allies sent him into exile and held a meeting in Vienna to restore order and stability to Europe. Reading Focus • What events caused disaster and defeat for Napoleon? • What were Napoleon’s last campaigns? • What did the Congress of Vienna achieve? • What is the legacy of the French Revolution? The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Disaster and Defeat Portugal • Napoleon surprised by inability to control Portugal • Peninsular campaign was a failure Russia • Czar Nicholas I didn’t like French troops on western border • Russia hurt by Continental System; country needed imports Costly Mistake • Napoleon turned east in 1812 • Hoped to teach Russia a lesson The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The Russian Campaign June 1812 French Army • Napoleon and army of 600,000 • New recruits with no loyalty troops • Supplies lost or spoiled • Marched across Russian border • Disease, desertion, and hunger No One to Fight Retreat Homeward • Russian troops pulled east • Ruined city, no winter supplies • French victory at Borodino, but • Starvation and freezing Russian army still strong temperatures decimated army • Pushed to Moscow but found city in flames • Only 94,000 men survived The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Defeat and Exile to Elba • Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain allied against France • Napoleon raised another army, but troops inexperienced • In October 1813 Napoleon defeated at Battle of the Nations near Leipzig • In March 1814, victorious allies entered Paris. • Terms of surrender—Napoleon gave up throne and went into exile on tiny island of Elba The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Identify Cause and Effect What factors contributed to Napoleon’s failure in Russia? Answer(s): soldiers lacked loyalty to Napoleon, extreme heat, supplies lost or spoiled, disease, desertion, hunger, Russian troops withdrew, harsh Russian winter The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The Last Campaigns The Hundred Days • French monarchy restored with King Louis XVIII • King unpopular; Napoleon returns after year in exile • Louis panicked and fled; Napoleon declared outlaw by allies • Paris cheered Napoleon’s return • Brief period of renewed glory-the Hundred Days The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The Last Campaigns Battle of Waterloo Napoleon’s Final Days • Duke of Wellington led final • Tried to escape capture, sent confrontation to exile in Saint Helena • Battle of Waterloo • Volcanic island in South Atlantic • British and Prussian armies • Remained imprisoned for six • Crushing defeat for years Napoleon • Died at 51; cause of death • End of the Napoleonic Wars never determined The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Draw Conclusions How was Napoleon able to escape exile in Elba and return to command the French army? Answer(s): hired a ship to return him to France and won the support of people and the army The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The Congress of Vienna Negotiators • Lord Castlereagh of Great Britain • Czar Alexander I of Russia • Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria • Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand of France Metternich • Distrusted democracy and political change • Dominated the congress, wanted to restore the balance of power Goals for Other Decision Makers • Make sure France could not rise again to such power • Put down revolution wherever it might appear • Remove traces of French Revolution and Napoleon’s rule The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Redrawing the Map National borders New Countries • Congress changed many borders • Union of the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands as the • Wanted to strengthen nations Kingdom of the Netherlands surrounding France • Austria and 38 German states in German Confederation Process France’s loss • Countries that aided France lost • Was not allowed to keep any territory conquered territory • Countries that fought France • Boundaries back to 1792 gained territory • Forced to pay indemnity, or • Talleyrand arranged trades compensation for damages The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Restoring Monarchies • Napoleon had eliminated royal control in many countries. • Members of the old Bourbon royal family were returned to the thrones of Spain and Sicily. • Monarchies were restored in Portugal and Sardinia. Metternich’s Influence • His reactionary attitudes influenced politics and society. • Wanting a return to absolute monarchy, he despised constitutions, voting rights, and freedom of religion and the press. • Liberal ideas were suppressed in Austria, the German states, and northern Italy. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Summarize What were the main goals of the Congress of Vienna? Answer(s): restore order, stability, and balance of power; ensure France could not rise again; suppress revolution The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The Revolution’s Legacy Was the French Revolution a failure? • After Congress of Vienna, monarchs ruled again – Citizens’ rights restricted – Nobles returned to their previous lifestyles • French Revolution changed Europe – Monarchies no longer secure – Common people learned they could change the world – Ideals of human dignity, personal liberty, and equality – Enlightenment crossed the Atlantic to Latin America, eventually inspired political movements in Asia and Africa The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Draw Conclusions Why could it be said that the French Revolution is still being fought today? Answer(s): People still fight for the basic ideals of liberty and equality. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Video The Impact of the French Revolution QuickTime™ an d a Sorenson Video 3 decompre ssor are need ed to see this p icture . Click above to play the video.