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					The French Revolution and Napoleon            Section 4

   Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction
 Preview
 • Main Idea / Reading Focus
 • Disaster and Defeat
 • Map: Russian Campaign,1812
 • The Last Campaigns
 • The Congress of Vienna
 • Map: Europe after the Congress of Vienna
The French Revolution and Napoleon                   Section 4

   Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction
 Preview, continued
 • The Revolution’s Legacy
 • Faces of History: Prince Klemens von Metternich
 • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts
 • Video: The Impact of the French Revolution
The French Revolution and Napoleon                Section 4
       Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction
 Main Idea
 After defeating Napoleon, the European allies sent him into exile
 and held a meeting in Vienna to restore order and stability to
 Europe.

 Reading Focus
 • What events caused disaster and defeat for Napoleon?
 • What were Napoleon’s last campaigns?
 • What did the Congress of Vienna achieve?
 • What is the legacy of the French Revolution?
The French Revolution and Napoleon                       Section 4
                      Disaster and Defeat
 Portugal
 • Napoleon surprised by inability to control Portugal
 • Peninsular campaign was a failure

 Russia
 • Czar Nicholas I didn’t like French troops on western border
 • Russia hurt by Continental System; country needed imports

 Costly Mistake
 • Napoleon turned east in 1812
 • Hoped to teach Russia a lesson
The French Revolution and Napoleon   Section 4
The French Revolution and Napoleon                    Section 4
                   The Russian Campaign
           June 1812                          French Army
 • Napoleon and army of 600,000      • New recruits with no loyalty
   troops
                                     • Supplies lost or spoiled
 • Marched across Russian border
                                     • Disease, desertion, and hunger



        No One to Fight                   Retreat Homeward
 • Russian troops pulled east        • Ruined city, no winter supplies
 • French victory at Borodino, but
                                     • Starvation and freezing
   Russian army still strong
                                       temperatures decimated army
 • Pushed to Moscow but found
   city in flames                    • Only 94,000 men survived
The French Revolution and Napoleon             Section 4
                Defeat and Exile to Elba

 • Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain allied against
   France
 • Napoleon raised another army, but troops inexperienced
 • In October 1813 Napoleon defeated at Battle of the
   Nations near Leipzig
 • In March 1814, victorious allies entered Paris.
 • Terms of surrender—Napoleon gave up throne and went
   into exile on tiny island of Elba
The French Revolution and Napoleon    Section 4


           Identify Cause and Effect
           What factors contributed to
           Napoleon’s failure in Russia?

 Answer(s): soldiers lacked loyalty to Napoleon,
 extreme heat, supplies lost or spoiled, disease,
 desertion, hunger, Russian troops withdrew, harsh
 Russian winter
The French Revolution and Napoleon            Section 4
                  The Last Campaigns
                     The Hundred Days
 • French monarchy restored with King Louis XVIII
 • King unpopular; Napoleon returns after year in exile
 • Louis panicked and fled; Napoleon declared outlaw by
   allies
 • Paris cheered Napoleon’s return
 • Brief period of renewed glory-the Hundred Days
The French Revolution and Napoleon               Section 4
                   The Last Campaigns

      Battle of Waterloo            Napoleon’s Final Days

 • Duke of Wellington led final   • Tried to escape capture, sent
   confrontation                    to exile in Saint Helena
 • Battle of Waterloo             • Volcanic island in South
                                    Atlantic
 • British and Prussian armies
                                  • Remained imprisoned for six
 • Crushing defeat for
                                    years
   Napoleon
                                  • Died at 51; cause of death
 • End of the Napoleonic Wars
                                    never determined
The French Revolution and Napoleon    Section 4


               Draw Conclusions
       How was Napoleon able to escape
           exile in Elba and return to
          command the French army?

 Answer(s): hired a ship to return him to France
 and won the support of people and the army
The French Revolution and Napoleon                          Section 4
                    The Congress of Vienna
 Negotiators
 •   Lord Castlereagh of Great Britain
 •   Czar Alexander I of Russia
 •   Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria
 •   Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand of France
 Metternich
 • Distrusted democracy and political change
 • Dominated the congress, wanted to restore the balance of power
 Goals for Other Decision Makers
 • Make sure France could not rise again to such power
 • Put down revolution wherever it might appear
 • Remove traces of French Revolution and Napoleon’s rule
The French Revolution and Napoleon                     Section 4
                        Redrawing the Map
        National borders                      New Countries
 • Congress changed many borders      • Union of the Dutch Republic and
                                        the Austrian Netherlands as the
 • Wanted to strengthen nations
                                        Kingdom of the Netherlands
   surrounding France
                                      • Austria and 38 German states in
                                        German Confederation


              Process                          France’s loss
 • Countries that aided France lost   • Was not allowed to keep any
   territory                            conquered territory
 • Countries that fought France       • Boundaries back to 1792
   gained territory
                                      • Forced to pay indemnity, or
 • Talleyrand arranged trades           compensation for damages
The French Revolution and Napoleon                      Section 4

 Restoring Monarchies
 • Napoleon had eliminated royal control in many countries.
 • Members of the old Bourbon royal family were returned to the thrones
   of Spain and Sicily.
 • Monarchies were restored in Portugal and Sardinia.

 Metternich’s Influence
 • His reactionary attitudes influenced politics and society.
 • Wanting a return to absolute monarchy, he despised constitutions,
   voting rights, and freedom of religion and the press.
 • Liberal ideas were suppressed in Austria, the German states, and
   northern Italy.
The French Revolution and Napoleon      Section 4


                    Summarize
        What were the main goals of the
             Congress of Vienna?

 Answer(s): restore order, stability, and balance of
 power; ensure France could not rise again;
 suppress revolution
The French Revolution and Napoleon   Section 4
The French Revolution and Napoleon                    Section 4
                 The Revolution’s Legacy

 Was the French Revolution a failure?
 • After Congress of Vienna, monarchs ruled again
    – Citizens’ rights restricted
    – Nobles returned to their previous lifestyles
 • French Revolution changed Europe
    – Monarchies no longer secure
    – Common people learned they could change the world
    – Ideals of human dignity, personal liberty, and equality
    – Enlightenment crossed the Atlantic to Latin America, eventually
      inspired political movements in Asia and Africa
The French Revolution and Napoleon   Section 4
The French Revolution and Napoleon       Section 4


               Draw Conclusions
      Why could it be said that the French
        Revolution is still being fought
                     today?

 Answer(s): People still fight for the basic ideals of
 liberty and equality.
The French Revolution and Napoleon   Section 4
The French Revolution and Napoleon                          Section 4
                               Video

       The Impact of the French Revolution



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