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									NRM TWG BULLETIN January 2009



1. The Politics of Hunger: How Illusion and Greed Fan the Food Crisis
By Paul Collier, Foreign Affairs, November/December 2008

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2. Collective Action and Property Rights in Ethiopia: Part 1: Institutional
Change in Pastoralism and Part 2: Rural Development and Natural Resource
Guest Editor: Martina A. Padmanabhan, Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture
Vol. 47, No 2 & 3.

Articles include:
- “Institutions, determinants and effects of collective action among (agro)pastoralists of
eastern Ethiopia”
- “Property rights changes among Afar pastoralists of Ethiopia: the role of the State”
- Livelihood transformation from pastoralism to agro-pastoralism as an adaptation
strategy among the Urrane of north-eastern Ethiopia”
- “Institutional foundations of agricultural development in Ethiopia: drawing lesions from
current practice for agricultural R&D”
- “Welfare loss for pastoralists due to wildlife protection areas: the case of Awash
National Park, Ethiopia”
- “Pastoral women as strategic and tactical agents in conflicts: negotiating access to
resources and gender relations in Afar, Ethiopia”

Available from ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:

3. Fuzzy Access Rights in Pastoral Economies: Case Studies from Southern
By Dejene Aredo, 2004.

Based on fieldwork the paper discusses the changes in and dynamic nature of rights to
resources for pastoralists in Borana, Ethiopia. These are considered in the context of
mobility and recent change to more sedentarised lifestyles. Conclusions and implications
for policy are given.

Available from ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:
4. Pastoral Land Tenure in Ethiopia
By Johan Helland, 2006

The paper examines contemporary land and resource tenure arrangements in the
pastoral areas of Ethiopia. Indigenous tenure arrangements are being articulated with
national legislation to create a new tenure situation. Communal resource management
regimes are being threatened by the constant marginalization of pastoralists and their
way of life. A disturbing trend is the on-going exclusion of pastoralists from critically
important key resources. Resource poverty is thus becoming a major aspect of poverty
in pastoral society.

Available from ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:

4A. Pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia: Dispossession, Access to Resources
and Dialogue with Policy Makers
By Eyasu Elias 2008

This report is based on a study carried out with the Borena and Karaayu pastoralists of
southern Ethiopia. It was found that 100% of Karaayu and 79% of Borena pastoralists
have lost their traditional grazing and watering resources for non-pastoral uses. The
impacts of land alienation and consequent curtailment of mobility on the pastoral
economy are dramatic. There has been a loss of 90% of household livestock assets
leading to impoverishments. Over 85% of Borena households and 93% of Karaayu
households face food insecurity for five months of the year. Internal responses to cope
with the changes are not enough. The following policy recommendations are made:
    - Recognition to group user rights
    - Legal backing for customary institutions
    - Ecological considerations.

Available from ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:


5. Livestock Biodiversity, Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property
Rights: Ethiopia’s Animal Biodiversity and ABS Law

A presentation by Kassahun Awgichew, from Institute of Biodiversity Conservation,
April 2006
Discusses current situation of Ethiopia‟s farm animal genetic resources, priority issues
and actions needed to conserve the biodiversity. It also talks about the “ownership‟
rights to the genetic resources and protection of community rights.

Available as soft copy from the NRM TWG:
6. Response to Draft Wildlife Conservation and Management Policy and Bill
2007 by Conservation Organisations, Kenya

A group of conservation organisations in Kenya have criticized the draft Wildlife
Conservation and Management Policy and Bill 2007.

Available as soft copy from the NRM TWG:

7. Emergent or illusory? Community Wildlife Management in Tanzania
By F. Nelson, Drylands Programme, IIED (2007)

This paper considers the outcomes and impacts of wildlife areas in Tanzania, and
considers the emergence of community wildlife management (CWM) strategies. The
author highlights that the outcomes of over a decade of CWM in Tanzania reflect
broader internal political struggles over land rights, resource governance, and
participation in policy formulation, as well as challenges facing efforts to devolve natural
resource management to local communities throughout the tropics. The paper
concludes with some suggestions for how practitioners in Tanzania and elsewhere might
foster more effective and adaptive CWM approaches in light of these outcomes and

      new institutional models are needed if CWM is to emerge in Tanzania in a more
       effective and robust manner
      efforts to support CWM need to take greater account of the institutional
       incentives that influence reform outcomes, and recognise that in most instances
       enabling CWM will require long-term negotiations between local and central
       interests over resource rights and uses
      long-term and adaptive strategies for moving the institutional balance of power
       towards the local level are fundamental to CWM
      development aid agencies and international conservation organisations need to
       find innovative ways of supporting institutional processes if they are to make
       more productive investments in CWM.

Available online at:

8. Invitation to contribute to CBD’s strategic plan for beyond 2010

The consultation takes place online (in English, Spanish, and French), and the deadline is
31 March 2009. At their tenth meeting to be held in Nagoya in October 2010,
the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will discuss and
adopt the Strategic Plan (SP) for the Convention for the period beyond 2010.
The SP is an essential tool that should guide any activity planned or to be
carried out that will affect biodiversity directly or indirectly. In Nagoya, in October
2010, the Parties to the Convention will assess progress towards the biodiversity
target and update the Convention‟s SP for the period beyond 2010. Because biodiversity
is important to each one of us, and because our activities affect biodiversity in many
ways, everyone has been invited to submit views concerning the revision and updating of
the SP. On the basis of views submitted, the Secretariat will prepare a first draft of the
revised and updated SP for peer-review. You are invited to access the electronic
forum at http://www.cbd. int/sp/post2010f orum/ and submit your views on what
should be in the revised and updated SP of the CBD for the period beyond


9. Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started. A primer
By S. Waage, C. Bracer, M. Inbar, The Katoomba Group's Ecosystem Marketplace

Designed to provide the reader with a solid understanding of what Payments for
Ecosystem Service (PES) are and how they work, this primer is intended for an audience
interested in exploring the potential of PES - either as prospective PES sellers
themselves or as staff of organisations that work directly with communities or
landowners who may be interested in PES. It is emphasised that Ecosystems provide
society with a wide range of services - from reliable flows of clean water to productive
soil and carbon sequestration. People, companies, and societies rely on these services
for raw material inputs, production processes, and climate stability. At present,
however, many of these ecosystem services are either undervalued or have no financial
value at all. In response to growing concerns, markets are emerging for ecosystem
services in countries around the world. Formal markets now exist related to carbon
emissions, water, and biodiversity.

PES deals can offer the rural poor an opportunity to augment their income as stewards
of the land by implementing practices to restore and maintain ecosystem services. Some
of the key benefits of PES for the rural poor in the short term are that they can lead to
increased cash income and increased knowledge of sustainable resource use practices
through training and technical assistance. In the longer term, PES can benefit the poor
through improved resilience of local ecosystems and flow of ecosystem services.

The paper concludes by outlining a four step approach to developing PES deals:

      the first step is identify ecosystem service prospects and potential buyers. This
       would include defining, measuring, and assessing the ecosystem services in a
       particular area, identifying prospective buyers, and considering whether to sell as
       individuals or as a group
      the second step is to assess institutional and technical capacity which includes
       assessing legal, policy, and land ownership context, examining existing rules for
       PES markets and deals, and surveying available PES-support services and
      third comes structuring the agreements involving designing management and
       business plans, reducing transactions costs, reviewing options for payment types,
       and establishing the equity and fairness criteria for evaluating
      the fourth and final step is to implementing the PES Agreements. This should
       include finalising the PES management plan, verifying PES service delivery and
       benefits, and monitoring and evaluating the deal.

Available online at:

10. Eldis key issues page: Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES)

Produced by: Eldis Environment Resource Guide (2008)

The concept of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) - also called Payments for
Environmental Services - has received substantial interest in recent years as a way of
creating positive economic incentives to change human behaviour in ways that increase
or maintain environmental services, such as watershed protection, the sequestration of
carbon and the provision of habitat for endangered species. This key issues page
provides an overview of PES schemes, their potential and possible pitfalls, and links to
further reading from a range of sources.

Available online at:

11. Making Sense of the Voluntary Carbon Market: A Comparison of Carbon
Offset Standards
By A. Kollmuss, H. Zinc, C. Polycarp, Stockholm Environment Institute (2008)

Carbon offsetting is an increasingly popular means of taking action to reduce carbon
emmission, and works through both voluntary and compliance mechanisms. The report
discusses the role of the voluntary carbon offset market, and provides an overview and
guide to the most important currently available standards, using the Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) as a benchmark. The report compares the standards side-by-side and
outlines the most pertinent aspects of each. It also includes a one page reference table
for a quick comparison of the standards.

The evaluated standards are:

      Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
      Gold Standard (GS)
      Voluntary Carbon Standard 2007 (VCS 2007)
      VER+
      Voluntary Offset Standard (VOS)
      Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)
      Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards (CCBS)
      Plan Vivo System
      ISO 14064-2
      GHG Protocol for Project Accounting

Available online at: http://w ww. eldis. org/cf/rdr/?doc=35935
12. Carbon Sequestration in Africa : The Land Tenure Problem
By Jon Unruh, Global Environmental Change : Human and Policy Dimensions 18 (4,
2008) : 700-707

The prospect of using tropical forest projects to sequester significant amounts of
atmospheric carbon as one mitigation approach to climate change has received
considerable attention. In the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism
(CDM) aspires to make such projects viable. This article examines the prospect of these
projects in Africa, and argues that land tenure is much more than just a set of variables
to be changed, and that instead it exists as a prohibitive obstacle to the implementation
of afforestation and reforestation sequestration approaches. Five primary tenure
problems are examined: (1) the disconnect between customary and statutory land
rights, (2) legal pluralism, (3) tree planting as land claim, (4) expansion of treed areas in
smallholder land use systems, and (5) the difficulty of using the 'abandoned land'

13. Survival of the Fittest: Pastoralism and Climate Change in East Africa.
Oxfam Briefing Paper No. 116. Oxfam International.

Pastoralists in East Africa have been adapting to climate variability for millennia and their
adaptability ought to enable them to cope with this growing challenge. This paper
explains the policies required to enable sustainable and productive pastoralist
communities to cope with the impact of climate change and generate sustainable
Available as soft copy from ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:

14. Herding becomes a tall order as drought occurs more often
By Abdullahi Jamaa, Daily Nation, December 2008

Available online:

15. Proceedings of 2nd Conference on Adaptation to Climate Change

Presentations and short reports of the "2nd Conference on adaptation to climate
change in developing countries" that took place in the Museum for Communication in
The Hague, The Netherlands on November 25 2008 are available online: During the Conference there was a workshop on:
Livestock and Climate Change - threat or opportunity? Ways to support integrated
agricultural systems towards climate change adaptation and sustainable development.
Two papers of particular interest might be those by: Christopher Kyeswa, from Send a
Cow, Uganda and Katrien van't Hooft, ETC-adviesgroep, Netherlands.

16. Gender Perspectives: Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction into Climate
Change Adaptation Good Practices and Lessons Learned
By UN/ISDR, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2008)

It is a well-known prediction that women in the developing world will suffer the most
from the effects of climate change. What needs equal emphasis is the fact that women
also represent an immense source of potential and power to combat the increased
disaster risks that climate change will bring. This publication seeks to highlight initiatives
that have successfully used disaster risk reduction as a tool to adapt to climate change
and reduce risk and vulnerabilities in various parts of the world.

The good practices selected show how disaster risk reduction can be integrated into
climate change adaptation initiatives to reduce people's vulnerabilities to the impact of
climate change and weather-related disasters, paying attention in particular to women's
needs and priorities:

      the first section emphasises women's knowledge and capacity as environmental
       and natural resource managers. It also highlights the importance of land use and
       management, and alternative livelihood options in the context of climate change
      the second section highlights women's participation in community decision
       making processes, showing the importance of building women's and girls'
       capacity in disaster risk reduction, and demonstrating their potential for
      the third section briefly showcases some specific tools used to mainstream
       gender into planning and policy development, to assess vulnerability, and to
       design adaptive strategies.

Despite the clear connection between climate change, disaster risk reduction, and
gender-focused approaches to development, it is asserted that there still needs to be an
increased awareness of this important nexus. The authors hope that this publication will
help to increase political interest and generate more financial resources to support
gender mainstreaming in disaster risk reduction. It is also hoped that this collection of
good practices will inspire the replication of initiatives addressing gender issues and
climate change adaptation, building resilience to disasters among the world's most
vulnerable communities.

Available online at: http://w ww. eldis. org/cf/rdr/?doc=39355&em=301008⊂=gender

17. Climate Change and the International Carbon Market Summary
By Warren Bell and John Drexhage, August 2005. Geneva:IISD.

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18. Humanitarian Implications of Climate Change: Mapping Emerging
Trends and Risk Hotspot
By CARE Inc, US.

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Further information on CARE’s Carbon, Community and Conservation
Programme can be downloaded from:

18A. Economic Focus: Climate Change

The December 2008 issue of Economic Focus (vol. 11 No. 1) published by the Ethiopian
Economic Association is dedicated to Climate Change. Ato Abebe Tadege of NMA
addressed a range of issues in a paper entitled “Climate Change and Development
Adaptation Measures in Ethiopia ”. Conceptually Ato Abebe distinguishes between
„climate variability‟ and „climate change‟. The former refers to “a fluctuation of climatic
parameters from the normal or base line values whereas climate change is a change in
the long term mean values of a particular climatic parameter. It is a persistent long term
change.” The paper also describes climate change related activities in Ethiopia one of
which is the preparation of National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA). According
to Ato Abebe, climate change mitigation Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) has also
been carried out. The bulletin is available from the Ethiopian Economics Association in
CMC area and most bookshops, Addis Ababa.

18B. ESAP Newsletter: Effect of Climate Change on Livestock Production

The 4th quarter issue of the ESAP (Ethiopian Society of Animal Production) newsletter

Further the next annual conference (in October, 2009) to be held in Addis Ababa will
be on the theme of “Climate change and livestock production.”

Copies of the newsletter can be obtained from: Newsletter_ 21.pdf


19. Land Tenure and Violent Conflict in Kenya
By C. Huggins, J. Wakhungu, E. Nyukuri (2008)

This paper focuses on the land issue in regards to Kenya, asserting that land is a primary
cause of conflict in the country as it has been the crux of economic, cultural and socio-
economic change. Factors driving the disputes include history; difficult nature of
interaction between customary and state-run systems; structural factors including
population growth, environmental degradation and slow economic development. The
paper offers a number of findings/recommendations for change.
Available online at:⊂=conf

20. Land Conflicts: A Practical Guide to Dealing with Land Disputes
by B. Wehrmann. Deutsche Gessellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (2008)

Land conflicts often have extensive negative effects on economic, social, spatial and
ecological development. This guide aims to broaden the understanding of the complexity
of causes that lead to land conflicts in order to provide for better-targeted ways of
addressing such conflicts. It is intended for all those working in the land sector, in
natural resource management and in urban and rural development. A variety of options
for settling ongoing land conflicts and for preventing new ones are discussed and a
number of tools with which to analyse land conflicts are provided. In addition, the guide
provides useful training material for educators and lecturers in courses in land
administration and land management.

Available online at:⊂=enviro

21. Environmental Peacebuilding Theory and Practice: A Case Study of the
Good Water Neighbours Project and In Depth Analysis of the Wadi
Fukin/Tzur Hadassah Communities
By N. Harari and J. Roseman, EcoPeace Friends of the Earth Middle East (2008)

Whilst the Israeli-Palestinian conflict does not stem from an ecological cause, issues such
as water supply and water scarcity, pollution of groundwater and solid waste
management are important regional issues and a shared burden on all sides of the
border. The 'Good Water Neighbours' (GWN) project was established by EcoPeace /
Friends of the Earth Middle East in 2001 to raise awareness of the shared water
problems of Palestinians, Jordanians and Israelis. The GWN methodology is an original
idea based on identifying cross border communities and uses their mutual dependence
on shared water resources as a basis for developing dialogue and cooperation on
sustainable water.

This report reviews different theories surrounding environmental peacebuilding and
aims to connect these to the practical example of the GWN project. it goes on to
provide detailed background, description and analysis of how the GWN project was
applied and implemented in two communities; one Palestinian, one Israeli.

The report concludes that:

      bottom-up community work needs to be combined with top-down advocacy in
       order for environmental cooperation to develop into political cooperation and
       to generate social and political dialogue
      the GWN project can be showcased as a six-year old successful implementation
       of the concept of environmental peacebuilding and serve as an example for
       environmental security, reconciliation and peace in other regions of protracted

Available online at:⊂=conf

22. Responses to Pastoral Wars
By C. Mc Evoy, Small Arms Survey (2007)

This Issue Brief reviews the causes and consequences of, as well as the responses to,
conflicts in pastoralist areas in the Sudan-Uganda-Kenya region.

Pastoral violence has been transformed in recent years by a number of factors including:

      economic and political marginalisation
      active resistance by pastoralist communities to assimilation
      resource depletion and demographic changes
      the growing availability of small arms and light weapons.

These conditions have transformed low level periodic violence into chronic, sometimes
intensive, conflicts between pastoral communities.

The report finds that despite growing tension, governments in the region do not invest
sufficiently in programmes that redress the structural causes of violence in pastoral
regions - reactive, intrusive, and coercive disarmament campaigns are the norm. These
approaches are not very effective as they target specific groups, leaving disarmed
communities vulnerable to predation by neighbouring tribes. The report recommends
instead that Governments should concentrate on:

      focused development interventions
      reciprocal security guarantees between conflicting parties
      support for customary conflict resolution mechanisms

The brief concludes that recent peace-building activities of CSOs in the region have
indeed eased tensions and provided workable security arrangements by establishing
locally-accountable 'peace committees' - with the aim of anticipating, preventing, and
resolving disputes before they flare into full-blown violence.

Available online at: http://w ww. eldis. org/cf/rdr/?doc=35683


23. Fragmentation of Rangelands: Implications for Humans, Animals and
Landscapes.By T. Hobbs, K. Galvin, C. Stokes, J. Lackett, A. Ash, R. Boone, R. Reid
and P. Thornton

Fragmentation of the ecosystems of the earth into spatially isolated units has emerged as
a primary component of global change. Three categories of processes causing
fragmentation of rangelands worldwide are described: dissection, decoupling and
compression. Access to heterogeneity of landscapes is an important attribute of grazing
ecosystems and fragmentation can limit this. The consequences of fragmentation are
discussed and potential adaptations that can mitigate harmful outcomes. Policy options
the promote re-aggregation of landscapes and adaptation to fragmentation are

Available from ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:

24. The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods
and Tools
By P. Moriarty, C. Batchelor, F. T. Abd-Alhadi, EMPOWERS Partnership Programme

Water is an increasingly scarce and contested resource around the world, particularly in
the Middle East. There is general agreement about the need to improve water
governance - the process of making and implementing decisions about water. These
guidelines describe a practical and logical framework of activities based on the
involvement of those who use and manage water, which leads to improved local water
governance, and to the development of integrated water development plans for towns,
villages, districts and governorates.

The guidelines advocate a process of collaboration through dialogue, to bring about a
change in the way water sector professionals and water users work with each other.
They are intended for all those concerned with practical approaches for tackling the
complex themes of water governance and Water Resource Management (IWRM). They
are particularly relevant for those who want to initiate and facilitate change processes to
improve local water governance.

Background information is provided followed by numerous tools for the implementation
of the EMPOWERS approach.Topics covered include:

      Looking at improved water governance
      Stakeholder dialogue and concerted action
      Facilitation and capacity development and the management cycle
      Methods and tools for the EMPOWERS approach:
       Tools for visioning; scenario building; strategy development and planning; Tools
       for participatory learning and action; Tools for assessing; Tools for working with
       stakeholders; Tools for monitoring

The focus of the guidelines is on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region
however can be applied in other contexts.

Available online at:
25. The Advocacy Sourcebook
By Wateraid (2007)

Over 1.1 billion people around the world do not have access to safe water and over 2.6
billion do not have access to safe sanitation. This sourcebook provides guidance for
users in drawing up advocacy action plans that aim to improve the water supply and
sanitation situation of the poorest people in the countries where they work. It is aimed
at Wateraid staff and partner organisations but can be used by anyone interested in

An introduction is given to advocacy followed by step by step guidance on how to
produce a water and sanitation advocacy project.

Sections include:

      Water Aid and advocacy
      Rooted advocacy
      Planning for advocacy
      Making advocacy happen
      Advocacy actions
      Monitoring and evaluation.

Examples of WaterAid and its partners' advocacy work in practice are provided
throughout the sourcebook to inform and demonstrate what effective advocacy looks
like. An advocacy toolkit is provided including tools, pro-formas, tables and diagrams

Available online at:

26. Water and the Rural Poor: Interventions for Improving Livelihoods in
Sub-Saharan Africa
By Land and Water Development Division, FAO (2008)

Insecure access to water for consumption and productive uses is a major constraint on
poverty reduction in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. This publication addresses the
linkage between water and rural poverty in the region, in order to help decision-makers
make informed choices on where and how to invest. Drawing on past experiences, it
demonstrates that there are many opportunities to invest in water in support of rural
livelihoods. It discusses conditions for success and proposes water-based, context-
specific, and livelihood-centred approaches to poverty reduction in rural areas.

The report argues that the likelihood of implementing successful interventions in the
water sector varies according to the main sources of livelihood of rural populations,
dictated in large part by the predominant farming systems, themselves closely related to
agro-ecological conditions. Understanding the geographical distribution of the rural poor
and their relation to livelihood zones therefore helps in designing intervention strategies
to improve water management and increase both the resilience and productivity of
agriculture, as well as agricultural incomes.

To this end, the report proposes a method for identifying the locations where water
constraints are a major factor in determining poverty and where interventions can be
made that would take large numbers of poor farmers out of poverty. It identifies and
maps 13 major "livelihood zones" in SSA, each of which offers distinct opportunities for
livelihood sustenance and development, has different agro-ecological conditions, and
shows different angles for water-related investments for poverty reduction.

The report also identifies four main categories of rural people and analyses their specific
water-related requirements. The four groups are: (i) the extremely vulnerable; (ii)
traditional smallholders, livestock keepers and nomads; (iii) emerging market-oriented
smallholders; and (iv) large commercial farmers. It is emphasised throughout that the
choice of interventions at different scales should be taken from a non-prescriptive menu
of appropriate options and based on an understanding of the particular context and
target group.

The report concludes by discussing a set of typical water intervention options, and
analyses their range of application and potential for poverty reduction according to the
various livelihood zones. Six categories of possible interventions are discussed in view of
their poverty-reduction potential:

      better management of soil moisture in rainfed areas
      investment in water harvesting and small storage
      small-scale community-based irrigation schemes
      improved water access and control for peri-urban agriculture
      development of water supply to meet multiple water uses
      an environmentally-aware system of improved water access for livestock in arid
       and semi-arid areas.

Available online at:

27. Land Use Constraints in Somalia: A Necessity for LUP?
By Simon mumuli Ouori, FAO SWALIM

A powerpoint presentation of land use constraints and possible solutions in Somalia.
Available online:

28. Climate of Somalia. Project Report N W-01
October 2007. Nairobi: FAO SWALIM.
Available online:

29. Rural Water Supply Assessement. Somalia. Project Report N W-08
October 2007. Nairobi: FAO SWALIM
Available online:
30. Allometric Scaling Predicts Preferences for Burned Patches in a Guild of
East African Grazers
By R. Sensenig, M. Demment and E. Laca (undated)

The high herbivore diversity in savanna systems has been attributed to the inherent
spatial and temporal heterogeneity related to the quantity and quality of food resources.
Allometric scaling predicts that smaller bodied grazers rely on higher quality forage than
larger bodied grazers. Burns at varying scales in an East African savanna were replicated
and measured visitation by an entire guild of larger grazers ranging in size from hare to
elephant. It was found a strong negative relationship between burn preference and
body mass with foregut fermenters preferring burns to a greater degree than hindgut
fermenters. Burns with higher quality forage were preferred more than lower quality
burns by small bodied grazers, while the opposite was true for large bodied grazers.
Results represent some of the first experimental evidence suggesting that variation in
grazer body size is major method in promoting herbivore coexistence mediated by fire-
induced heterogeneity of food resources.

31. Moringa Tree and its Benefits

Cordaid are working with the pastoralists in Kenya and Ethiopia in programmes to
reinforce the resilience of the communities. They are looking at the Moringa tree and its
benefits. The tree is native to Kenya and Ethiopia and grows in many other countries as
well. The leaves are used as food to combat malnutrition; they contain vitamins,
proteins and minerals. The seeds can be used to purify water and the leaves, flowers,
seeds and roots are used as medicine as well. The tree has been seen between Arba
Minch and Konso and used intensively as a food supplement. Also in Omorate people
have been seen using the root to purify water. The tree grows at altitude 400-2100m,
needs a mean annual temperature of 24-30 degrees Centigrade and mean annual rainfall
of 500-1400 mm. It is easy to plant, grows fast and benefits are many. Recommendations
include planting the tree around school, clinics, homesteads, etc. More experiences are
being looked for.

31A. Documents on Prosopis Management and Utilisation

In December 2008 the ELMT/ELSE TWG held a workshop on prosopis management and
utilization in Nairobi, Kenya. The presentations given at this workshop are documented
on a CD available from SC-US, Ethiopia or CARE Somalia, Kenya. If you would like a
copy of the CD, please contact the NRM TWG:

Further documents available from the ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:

Marais, C. and A. Wannenburgh (undated) Restoration of water resources (natural capital)
through the clearing of invasive alien plants from riparian areas in South Africa – costs and
water benefits. Unpublished document.
Steenkamp, H. and S. Chown (1996) “Influence of Dense Stands on an Exotic Tree,
Prosopis glandulosa Benson, on a Savanna Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scrabaeinae)
Assemblage in Southern Africa” Biological Conservation Vol 78: 305-311.

Geesing, D. (2000-2a, b, c) Rapport de Mission. Assistance Pour L’Exploitation et la Mise en
Valeur du Prosopis de la Region du Lac Tchad (TCP/NER/0068). FAO Niger. [3 Reports
from 3 visits]

Le Maitre, D. (1999) Prosopis and Groundwater: A Literature Review and Bibliography.
Prepared for Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South Africa by the Working
for Water Programme.

Dean, W., M. Anderson, S. Milton and T. Anderson (2002) “Avian assemblages in native
Acacia and alien Prosopis drainage line woodland in Kalahari, South Africa” Journal of Arid
Environments Vol 51: 1-19.


32. Re-framing Resilience: A Symposium Report
By M. Leach, STEPS Centre, Institute of Development Studies (2009)

The concept of resilience is becoming more important in academic, policy and popular
debate. Resilience thinking is valuable in highlighting the complex dynamics of social-
economic-environmental systems. This is increasingly important in a world where
threats such as climate change, epidemic disease and fluctuating markets are present.
Resilience thinking offers prospects for more integrated and effective policy making
towards sustainability.

This paper reports on a STEPS centre symposium which set out to explore five
questions in relation to resilience:

      what are the potentials and tensions in linking resilience thinking with an
       emphasis on social justice and reducing vulnerability - as emphasised for instance
       in debates on adaptation and vulnerability in development studies
      can resilience thinking be reconciled with constructivist perspectives and the
       politics of knowledge, as emphasised for instance in science and technology study
       (STS) debates
      how helpful are resilience debates where long term structural change and radical
       transformations are at stake
      how can we integrate insights from the fields of reflexive governance and
       technological transitions
      what are the broader implications of resilience discourses and their growing
       popularity - and what dangers might they bring ?

Available online at:⊂=enviro
33. Tackling Somaliland Pastoralists Poverty and Environmental
Degradation: What is the Future of the Young Somaliland” 2001-2004

An evaluation of PENHA‟s Somaliland programme.

Available from ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:

34. Carrying Capacity: Outdated Concept or Useful Livestock Management
By J. Dijkman, ODI PDN Network Paper. Undated.

The carrying capacity concept has provided a management tool which has formed the
basis of many proposed development interventions in dryland rangeland ecosystems.
Pastoral systems in other regions such as intensive dairy or beef production in Western
Europe are highly dependent and can produce economically on outside feed resources.
It is hence, hypothesized that the carrying capacity concept has not been applied to any
great extent in these systems, as potential livestock production is not restricted by the
available land and its primary productivity.

Available online:

35. Savory Insights: Is Rangeland Science Due For a Paradigm Shift?
By Richard Flyn Grassroots: Newsletter of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa,
September 2008: Vol 8. No 3.

A response from Allan Savory is also available.

Available from ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:


36. Monitoring Manual for Grassland, Shrubland and Savanna Ecosystems.
Volumes 1 and 2.

By J. Herrick, J. Zee, K. Havstad, L. Burkett and W. Whitford. US: USDA. 2005

Soft copies available from ELMT/ELSE NRM TWG:

37. Participatory Impact Assessment: a Guide for Practitioners
By Feinstein International Center

The Feinstein International Center has been developing and adapting participatory
approaches to measure the impact of livelihoods based interventions since the early
nineties. Drawing upon this experience, the guide aims to provide practitioners with a
broad framework for carrying out project level Participatory Impact Assessments (PIA)
of livelihoods interventions in the humanitarian sector. Other than in some health,
nutrition, and water interventions in which indicators of project performance should
relate to international standards, for many interventions there are no „gold standards‟
for measuring project impact. This guide aims to bridge this gap by outlining a tried and
tested approach to measuring the impact of livelihoods projects. The tools in the guide
have been field tested over the past two years in a major research effort, funded by the
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and involving five major humanitarian NGOs working
across Africa.

Available online:

38. Poverty and Environment Indicators.
Prepared for UNDP-UNEP Poverty and Environment Initiative, Cambridge UK. 2008.
Available online:

39. Community-Based Ecological Monitoring: Manual for Practitioners
By A. Frőde and C. Masara, August 2007. Harare: SAFIRE.

Available online:


40. Terra Viva Grants
Terra Viva Grants is a new website that will help identify where to look for grants in the
“green sectors” of international development. Grants are available for technical
assistance (development projects), education and capacity building, research, prizes and



41. VIPP (Visualisation in Participatory Planning) Courses

2009 training opportunities in VIPP (Visualisation in Participatory Planning) -
international courses for facilitators ands trainers, to be held in the
Black Forest of Germany and in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

See attached.

42. PhD Programme in Dryland Resource Management, Nairobi

The PhD Programme in Dryland Resource Management hosted at the University of
Nairobi has opened its doors to the first intake, with 38 applicants from the region.
With limited resources, and carrying capacity, only 16 of these could be accommodated,
including those who joined the programme on self-sponsorship and sponsorship
by employer.

This is a regional programme, and thus must be run on a regional platform. In this
respect, the host institution i.e. University of Nairobi has asked RUFORUM secretariat
to request for expression of interest to participate in the programme. This will mainly
be through teaching of prescribed courses, but could also involve seminar presentations.
The plan for the First Semester as developed by the University is attached. On behalf of
the Host institution, RUFORUM is proud to circulate the attached brief document.
Kindly circulate widely.

Express your interest by sending an email with your CV attached, to the Head of
Department, Dr. Kinuthia Ngugi ( with a copy to


43. ANNOUNCEMENT: 2009 International Year of Natural Fibres

The United Nations General Assembly has declared the year 2009 to be the
International Year of Natural Fibres. The aim is to raise consumer awareness of and
knowledge on natural fibres and to strengthen the demand for end products, in order to
improve the livelihood of the producers and at the same time enhance the environment.
Events around the world will focus on the use of natural fibres over the year.

44. Consultancy Announcement – WISP

WISP in partnership with the Rockefeller Foundation is seeking 3 experienced
consultants with detailed knowledge of African livestock systems and climate change
Read more For the TOR kindly write to

45. 4-7 May 2009, Kathmandu, Nepal Innovation Asia-Pacific Symposium

46. Call For Papers: 34th WEDC International Conference: Water,
Sanitation & Hygiene: Sustainable Development & Multisectoral
Approaches, Ethiopia

The WEDC International Conference now in its 34th year is a week long, practitioner
and research focused conference, exchanging knowledge and experiences in the water
and sanitation sector. The Conference will be held at the United Nations Conference
Centre, Addis Ababa from 18 to 22 May 2009, by invitation of the Ministry of Water
Resources, Ethiopia and WEDC, UK.
Papers are invited for review or for refereeing by the International Scientific
Committee, and there will also be poster presentations, discussion sessions and side

For full details, paper templates and author guidelines please see the full details link.

Available online at:⊂=enviro

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