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					Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)




              Oslo Workshop on Ecological Footprints
                                   August, 24th – 26th 2001



                           The Ecological Footprint
                             of the City of Vienna
                           Daxbeck H., Kisliakova A., Obernosterer R.

Argentinierstr. 48/2
1040 Vienna
Phone +43 1 913 22 52
Fax +43 1 913 22 52
Email: rm.agentur@eudoramail.com

Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                         1
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)                              Goals (1)




     The aims of this project
     are:
       • to calculate the Ecological Footprint of the City of
          Vienna
        •   to evaluate this value in terms of its sustainability
        •   to compare this value with those of other large cities
            and with that of the whole of Austria




Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                             2
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)                              Goals (2)




       In addition, a theoretical contribution is made to the
       further development of the method :

          •   the energy accounting
          •   the incorporation of voluminous resources
          •   waste management




Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                             3
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)                   Approach (1)



The selection of the good categories is based on the original list
given by Wackernagel which has been used in estimating
  - footprints for nations,
  - cities and urban regions (London, The Hague, Santiago de
    Chile, Malmö, Kuplo and Toronto).


By applying the corresponding yield coefficients to the region, its
consumption of goods is converted into a land area.




Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                       4
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)                    Approach (2)




Sources:

- Statistical yearbook for Austria (1996) – ÖSTAT (Statistic Austria)
- Statistical yearbook for Vienna (1997) – Municipal Department 66
- Footprint for Nations




Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                         5
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)                     Ecological Footprint of Vienna


                      Ecological Footprint of the City of Vienna with a
                              breakdown of area categories




                                       Forest     Sea area
                                        6,0%        1,8%
                        Pastures
                         21,4%




                                                                    Energy area
                         Arable land                                  55,6%
                           14,3%
                                                Build-up area
                                                     0,9%


           EF: 3.9 ha/cap.a

Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                                         6
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)         Comparison EF Vienna – other regions


        [ha/cap]

                                                                                               7,7
        8.00                                                         7,3

        7.00

        6.00                                4,9

        5.00       3,9                                                            3,7

        4.00                     2,9                   2,9

        3.00

        2.00

        1.00

        0.00
                Vienna       London    The Hague Santiago de   Malmö       Kuoplo          Toronto
                                                   Chile


               Arable land     Pastures    Forest    Built-up area     Sea area         Energy area

Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                                                       7
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)           Comparison EF Vienna – World Limit

           Ecological Footprint comparisons between Vienna and the average
                                      world limit

        [ha/cap]
                                 3.9

        4,00
        3,50
                                                          2.1
        3,00                                                                       1.7
        2,50
        2,00
        1,50
        1,00
        0,50
        0,00
                    current situation       necessary reduktion       average world limit

                   Arable land   Pastures   Forest   Built-up area   Sea area    Energy area



Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                                                8
 Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)           Comparison EF Vienna – Austria




        Component                   Vienna            Austria   Vienna – Austria
                                   [ha/cap]          [ha/cap]        in %
Arable land                           0.55              0.9         -38 %
Pastures                              0.83              0.9          -8 %
Forest                                0.23              0.5         -54 %
Built-up area                         0.03              0.4         -92 %
Sea area                              0.07              0.1           0%
Energy area                           2.15              1.4         +54 %
Total                                 3.9               4.1          -6 %




 Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                                   9
    Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)                       Conclusions

•      The Ecological Footprint of Vienna, however, exceeds the defined
       World Sustainability Limit and thus measures should be taken to
       ensure its reduction.
•      Despite the fact that the Ecological Footprint is a very practical
       and clear sustainability indicator, it does not suffice as planning
       instrument for developing optimal and environmentally
       compatible resource management strategies.
•      The estimation of the Ecological Footprint of a city, as was the
       case of Vienna, is highly dependent on the availability and quality
       of complete data sets.
•      Critical methodological problems relate to: the calculation and
       conversion of the energy area; the energy rucksacks of the net
       imported goods; and the lack of consideration of both voluminous
       resources and key environmental impacts of waste management.

Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                              10
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)                                          Sensitivity Analysis

                                        Value of the Ecological Footprint
     [ha/E]

        16
        12
         8          3,9          3,5          3,8           3,6         4,4              3,1
         4
         0
        -4                                  -2,9                           +13,9
        -8                    -8,6                       -8,2
       -12
       -16
       -20                                                                            -20,0
       -24
                   current    -20%          -20%        -20 %         -20 %              -20 %
                  situation      area       embodied       energy      absorption-    equivalency-
    [%]                       consumption    energie                   coefficients   coefficients

              Sensitivity of the Ecological Footprint value in % after variation of parameters


Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                                                      11
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)              Strength of the method



                The Ecological Footprint


                •   is a clear and understandable indicator
                •   can be used with Local Agenda 21 processes
                •   can be used as a Benchmarking tool
                •   Can be used for public relations, information,
                    motivation or for forming of public opinion




Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                          12
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)     Weakness of the method (1)


•   Data coverage of considered goods
    For many of the goods in question practically no specific data
    exists.
•   Use of national average yield coefficients on a city
    As most of the yield coefficients are based on a nation wide
    average, the coefficients specific for the city area can only be
    estimated after a considerable data collection.
•   Embodied energy concept
    Accounting for the energy rucksacks of the consumed goods
    represents a controversial methodological question. Either
    should all stocks be considered as part of building stocks,
    landfill stocks etc., or they should be included as part of the
    energy rucksacks of goods.


Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                        13
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)    Weakness of the method (2)

•   Consideration of voluminous resources
    Theoretically, all resources consumed should be considered.
    However, the original method does not take into account
    voluminous resources, e.g. such as gravel.
•   Consideration of the waste management
    The last stage of a product life cycle, namely waste, should be
    considered. Issues such as emissions and their behaviour and
    additional resource consumption (e.g. landfill volume for non-
    treated wastes, incineration slag and sewerage sludge) are not
    considered.
•   Energy accounting
    Conversion of energy into carbon dioxide units and their
    absolute absorption through green biomass. An alternative
    solution could be that the consumed energy is converted to a
    photovoltaic area.
Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                       14
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)            Comparison original – modified EF
           Component             Original      Area type               Modified           Area type
                                 method                                method
        forestry and          area value    arable land,         modified goods      arable land,
        agricultural goods                  pasture, forest,     list,               pasture, forest, sea,
                                            sea, built-up area   area value          built-up area
        energy                CO2-units,    energy area: CO2,    energy units        energy area:
                              embodied      absorbed by          (solar energy)      equivalent
                              energy        biomass                                  photovoltaic area
        waste
        management:
        solid waste           fossil fuel   energy area: CO2,    footprint depth,    earth volume
                              (CO2)         absorbed      by     fossil fuel (CO2)   (landfill volume),
                                            biomass                                  GWP, forest

        wastewater, private
        household:
        climate-neutral               -             -            area value,         forest,
        CO2-emissions,                                           footprint depth     earth volume
        wastewater sludge             -             -

        waste gas:
        climate-relevant              -             -            climate factor,     contribution to
        CO2, CH4-                                                                    GWP,
        emissions,
        climate-neutral               -             -            area value          forest
        CO2-emissions
        voluminous                    -             -            footprint depth     volume of resource
        resources                                                (construction
                                                                 material, oil)

Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                                                              15
 Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)                          Modified EF

                     Category                  EF Original    EF Modified
                                                [ha/cap]       [ha/cap]
Fossil energy                                     2.15           0.03
Built-up area                                     0.03           0.03
Arable land                                       0.55           1.70
Pastures                                          0.83           0.86
Forest                                            0.23           0.45
Sea                                               0.07           0.01
Per-capita area [ha/cap]                          3.9             3.1
Total EF area [ha]                             6,236,447       4,980,476
                                                             Footprint depth
                                                                 [m/haEF.a]
Landfill volume                                                 0.00001
Resource volume (construction material, oil)                    0.00027
Total footprint depth                                          0.00028
                                                              [t CO2/cap.a]
Waste management                                                 2.14
Transport sector                                                 1.47
Contribution to GWP                                             3.61


 Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                               16
Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)                          Modified EF (2)



Definition
The depth of the Ecological Footprint DEF is defined by

                        voluminous resources  urban deposition s (landfills )
                  DEF =
                                   Ecological Footprint * 10.000

and has the dimension [m/haEF].




Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                                  17
                  0,8
          Project: Footprint (Oslo Workshop)
                  0,6
                                                                                                     Modified EF (1)
                                                                                                      0,45


                  0,4
                                  0,03             0,03                                                                   0,01
                  0,2

                  0,0
                          Energiefläche   Bebaute Fläche       Ackerland              Weiden   Wald (ohne THG)   Meeresfläche




                     Contribution
                                                                                                         3,61 t CO2/E.a
                     to GWP
                  Beitrag zum Global-
                  e rwärmungspotential


                        Depth of the
                  Fussabdrucktie fe
                                                           0,0003 m/ha.a
                        EF
                    Area of the
                  Fussabdruckfläche                                                              3,09 ha/E.a
                        EF


                                                                               [m/ha.a]
                                                                                                                            0,00027

                                                                    0,000300


                                                                    0,000250
      Daxbeck Hans, Kisliakova Albena                                                                                                 18
O2/E.a]

				
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