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					The Age of Reason
1687 - 1789

 The Enlightenment
 The Neoclassic Age
 Augustan Age
The Age of Reason
1687 - 1789

   Galileo
   Bacon
   Descartes
   Hobbes
 The Age of Reason is dated from 1687, when
  Issac Newton published his work on
  gravity, Principia Mathematica
The Age of Reason—1687 - 1789
 The Age of Reason -- The
 Enlightenment     1687 - 1789
Immanuel Kant: “Enlightenment is man’s leaving his
  self-caused immaturity. Immaturity is the incapacity
  to use one’s intelligence without the guidance of
  another. Such immaturity is self-caused if it is not
  caused by lack of intelligence, but by lack of
  determination and courage to use one’s intelligence
  without being guided by another. Sapere Aude!
  [Dare to know!] Have the courage to use your own
  intelligence! is therefore the motto of the
The Age of Reason -- 1687 - 1789

“Through laziness and cowardice a large part of
mankind, even after nature has freed them from alien
guidance, gladly remain immature. . . . It is so
comfortable to be a minor! If I have a book which
provides meaning for me, a pastor who has conscience
for me, a doctor who will judge my diet for me and so on,
then I do not need to exert myself. . . .Therefore there are
only a few who have pursued a firm path and have
succeeded in escaping from immaturity by their own
cultivation of the mind.” (Immanuel Kant)
The Age of Reason:
Identifying Characteristics
 Art & Literature -- Order and Harmony
 Autonomy of Reason, Progress, Perfectibility
 Assaults on Authority
 Religion -- Deism
 Humankind -- The rejection of the doctrine of
  original sin. We should act with politeness,
  decency, and decorum.
 Political theory -- governments derive from
  people in a social contract
 Nature reformed and organized is best
Baroque Art and Architecture
 C. 1600-c. 1770
 Characteristics
   Highly ornamental
   Curved lines
   Dramatic lighting and color
   Chiaroscuro—dramatic contrasts of light and dark
   Exaggerated gestures
   Theatricality
Baroque -- Rubens

Self Portrait
Baroque -- Rembrandt

    Baroque -- Vermeer



The Ecstacy
of St.

of Baroque

The Sacrifice
of Issac

Baglione: Sacred Love Versus Profane
Love: Chiaroscuro and Theatricality
Baroque Church--Vienna
Prague: Hussite
Baroque in
Baroque in
Baroque in Vienna:
Baroque in
Paris Opera—
The Age of Reason: Order and Harmony
David’s Oath of the Horatii
The Age of Reason in Literature:              Order
and Harmony
      The Heroic Couplet
“Vice is a monster of so frightful mien,
As to be hated, needs but to be seen;
Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face,
We first endure, then pity, then embrace.”
                     Alexander Pope

Dictionary of the English Language, by Samuel Johnson
(1755).—brought order to spelling and definitions, the
standard for 150 years.

Samuel Richardson: Pamela (1740) First novel. The novel
aims at moral instruction. Literature is often pedantic.
The Age of Reason:          PROGRESS

For the first time, we see an optimistic
view that humans can use reason to
create a new and better world than had
existed before. In the field of science in
particular, there was a clear break from
the past traditions and a belief that the
best was yet to come, that scientific
progress was possible.
Diderot’s Encyclopedie (28 volumes)

                     More ideas and
                     information from
                      secular sources
 A New Religious Perspective: Deism
Deism was a “natural”
religion. Its adherents were
convinced that Nature gave
evidence that there must be
a Creator-God. However,
they were skeptical that it
could be proved that Christ
was the Son of God or that
our spirits would continue
beyond the grave. Deists
tried to “humanize” religion.   God with a compass
                                creating the world.
                                (William Blake)
“I believe in one God, and no more; and I hope for
happiness beyond this life. I believe in the equality of man;
and I believe that religious duties consist in doing justice,
loving mercy, and endeavoring to make our fellow-
creatures happy. . . . I do not believe in the creed professed
by the Jewish Chuch, by the Roman Church, . . .by the
Protestant Church, nor by any church that I know of. My
own mind is my own church. . . .Thomas [one of Jesus’
disciples] did not believe the resurrection, and as they say,
would not believe without having ocular and manual
demonstration himself. So neither will I, and the reason is
equally as good for me, and for every other person, as for
Thomas.” (Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason, 1794-5)
Deism -- Thomas Jefferson

 “The day will come when the
 mystical generation of Jesus, by
 the Supreme Being as his father,
 in the womb of a virgin will be
 classed with the fable of the
 generation of Minerva in the
 brain of Jupiter.”
Deism—Thomas Jefferson
“I have recently been examining all the known
superstitions of the world, and do not find in our
particular superstition [Christianity] one
redeeming feature. They are all alike, founded
upon fables and mythologies. Millions of innocent
men, women and children, since the introduction
of Christianity, have been burnt, tortured, fined
and imprisoned. What has been the effect of this
coercion? To make one half the world fools and
the other half hypocrites; to support roguery and
error all over the earth.”
 Deism—Thomas Jefferson
“The establishment of the innocent and genuine
character of this benevolent moralist [Jesus], and
the rescuing it from the imputation of imposture,
which has resulted from artificial systems,* invented
by ultra-Christian sects, unauthorized by a single
word ever uttered by him, is a most d desirable
object --* e. g. The immaculate conception of Jesus,
his deification, the creation of the world by him, his
miraculous powers, his resurrection and visible
ascension, his corporeal presence in the Eucharist,
the Trinity; original sin, atonement, regeneration,
election, orders of Hierarchy, &c.” (Jefferson, Thomas. Letter
to William Short, 31 Oct. 1819)
Jefferson, the “Infidel”
During Jefferson’s campaign for the
presidency, the Gazette of the United
States published the following: “. . . the
only question to be asked by every
American, laying his hand on his heart, is
‘shall I continue in allegiance to GOD-AND
or impiously declare for JEFFERSON--AND
NO GOD!!!’”
 DEISM      --    JOHN ADAMS

 “The doctrine of the divinity of Jesus is
  made a cover for absurdity.”
 “The Government of the United States
  is not in any sense founded upon the
  Christian religion.”
 DEISM --         JOHN ADAMS
“The United States of America marks the first
example of governments erected on the simple
principles of nature.” The architects of American
government never “had interviews with the gods
or were in any degree under the inspiration of
Heaven more than those at work upon ships or
houses. [Government] is contrived merely by the
use of reason and the senses. . . . [The
government] was founded on the natural
authority of the people alone, without a pretense
of miracle or mystery.”
Madison: Religion and Government

“What influence, in fact, have ecclesiastical
establishments had on society? In some instances
they have been seen to erect a spiritual tyranny on
the ruins of the civil authority; on many instances
they have been seen upholding the thrones of
political tyranny; in no instance have they been the
guardians of the liberties of the people. Rulers who
wish to subvert the public liberty may have found
an established* clergy convenient auxiliaries. A just
government, instituted to secure and perpetuate it,
needs them not.” (*used in the same sense as the 1st
amendment, i.e., “official,” government-recognized—and
perhaps supported—religion)
DEISM--Benjamin Franklin
“I was scarce fifteen, when, . . . I began to doubt
of Revelation itself. Some books against Deism
fell into my hand; . . . They wrought an effect on
me quite contrary to what was intended by
them; for the arguments of the Deists, which
were quoted to be refuted, appeared to me
stronger than the refutations; in short, I soon
became a thorough Deist.” (Franklin,
Autobiography, 65)
United States Prized Religious
"They all attributed the peaceful
dominion of religion in their country
mainly to the separation of church
and state. I do not hesitate to affirm
that during my stay in America I did
not meet a single individual, of the
clergy or the laity, who was not of the
same opinion on this point"
      . -Alexis de       Tocqueville, Democracy in
         America, 1835
Deism ---           Voltaire
“Is Jesus the Word? If He be the Word, did He emanate
from God, is He co-eternal and consubstantial with
Him, or is He of a similar substance. . . .Is the Holy Ghost
made? or begotten? or produced?. . .Assuredly, I
understand nothing of this; no one has ever understood
any of it, and that is why we have slaughtered one
another. The Christians tricked, caviled, hated, and
excommunicated one another, for some of these
dogmas inaccessible to human intellect. . . .The most
detestable example of fanaticism is that exhibited on the
night of St. Bartholomew[1572], when the people of
Paris rushed from house to house to
stab, slaughter, throw out of the window and tear in
pieces their fellow citizens who did not go to
mass[Protestants]. (Voltaire, Treatise on
Tolerance, 1763)
Human Worth: The Rejection of the
Doctrine of Original Sin

  Christianity had long held that from
   Adam, humans had inherited a fallen state of
   corruptibility and an inclination to do evil.
   Catholicism and early Reformers both held
   this doctrine.
  During the Age of Reason, this doctrine was
   being challenged and rejected by many. The
   view of human possibility became more
   optimistic (and a little snobbish).
Medieval View of God’s Power
on Earth
With the Catholic Church holding pervasive power,
the church authorities had all religious and secular
power. Dr Johnson describes Cardinal Bellarmine’s
position: “the Pope is invested with all the
authority on heaven and earth. That all princes
are his vassals, and that he may annul their laws at
his pleasure. That he may depose kings if the
good of the Church requires it. . . .That the Pope is
God upon earth.”
            (Georgio de Santillana)
Renaissance view of the Divine Right of
[Renaissance view] “Because there are none
on earth, after God, greater than sovereign
princes, whom God establishes as His
lieutenants to command the rest of mankind,
. . . we [must] respect and revere their majesty
in all due obedience, speak and think of them
with all due honour. He who contemns his
sovereign prince, contemns God whose image
he is. . . . If the prince can only make law with
the consent . . . of an inferior, whether it be a
council of magnates or the people, it is not he
who is sovereign” (Bodin, 1576)
New View: Rational, Educated People
hold the Power: Social Contract
(New ideas) “all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator
with certain unalienable Rights, that
among these are Life, Liberty, and the
pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these
rights, Governments are instituted
among Men, deriving their just powers
from the consent of the Governed.”
(Decl. of Ind., 1776)

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